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Systems of employment.—The public-account and State-use systems apply to the labor of State convicts, and the public-account and public-works-and-ways systems to the employment of county convicts.

Regulations.- No mechanical trade may be taught to convicts in the State prison except the manufacture of those articles of which the chief supply for home consumption comes from outside the State. Boards of control are required to select diversified lines of industry such as will interfere as little as possible with free labor.

The manufacture of articles for use in State institutions, farming, and coal mining are mentioned.

Labor must be carried on for ten hours daily except Sundays.

Punishments are regulated by the boards, but showering with cold water and whipping on the bare body are forbidden.

County convicts sentenced to hard labor must be employed daily except Sundays. Those working on streets and highways must be well chained and secured.

Goods.—The wardens have charge of the sale of goods made on public account. Supplies furnished to State institutions are rated at the regular market price for such goods.

Sources: Constitution; Compiled Laws of 1897, sections 2081 to 2141, 2650 to 2660.

MINNESOTA.

Control.—A board of managers appointed by the governor has charge of the State prison, provides for the government and employment of the convicts, and inspects the prison monthly

County commissioners maintain jails in their respective counties and are authorized to employ at hard labor the prisoners therein confined.

Systems of employment.—The contract system is prohibited. The piece-price, public-account, and State-use systems are adopted for State convicts, and the publicworks-and-ways system for county convicts.

Regulations. -The board determines the industries to be pursued. All prisoners must be taught some trade or craft, but the number employed in any single industry may not exceed 10 per cent of the total number engaged in such industry in the State. This limitation does not apply to the manufacture of binding twine or of goods for State use.

Convicts receiving sentence must be examined as to any trade skill they may possess, and the facts disclosed communicated to the warden of the prison.

Punishment by solitary confinement on bread and water is permitted.
Discharged convicts each receive a suit of clothing and $15 in money.
The hours of labor of county convicts may not exceed ten per day:
Prisoners held for nonpayment of fines are allowed $1.50 for each day's labor.

Goods. The price of binding twine is fixed annually by the warden and board of managers, and sales are made to consumers only up to May 1. After May 1 and up to July 1, sales may be made to dealers also, the State retaining control of prices; after July 1, sales are absolute to the first applicant. Sales of other goods are to be made by the warden in any market.

Sources: Statutes of 1894, sections 7417, 7426, 7450, 7452, 7475; Acts of 1895, chapter 154; Acts of 1897, chapter 127; Acts of 1899, chapter 183.

MISSISSIPPI.

Control.—The governor, the attorney-general, and the three members of the railroad commission (all elective officers) form a board of control which has a general oversight of the penitentiary, its shops, farms, etc., and of the conduct and employment of the convicts. Inspections are made monthly.

The sheriff of each county, subject to the control of the board of supervisors, has charge of its jail and of the inmates thereof.

Systems of employment. -The leasing and hiring of State convicts are prohibited. They may be employed under the State-use and the public-works-and-ways systems, and apparently also on public account. County convicts may be leased or employed as above.

Regulations.-Farming and the manufacture of drain tile and brick, wagons, harness and implements for use on the State farm or farms, and of shoes, clothing, and other articles for the use of the convicts are authorized.

The board of control may make contracts for specific work on public roads and levees, the work to be done by convicts whose care and maintenance must be wholly

in charge of the board by its officers and employees. Other employments may be provided, but not so as to remove convicts from the care and control of the board.

The sexes must be kept separate, and, as far as possible, the races as well.

County convicts may be leased by separate agreements or under a general contract to persons or corporations within the county of conviction, for employment at any legitimate labor. Or they may be employed on public works and ways or on a county farm.

They are to be classed according to ability and a range of wages fixed for each class; and whether worked by the county or hired out, they must be credited on fines and costs with at least the minimum wage allowance of their class.

County boards may take contracts for ditching, farm work, railroad construction, clearing land, etc., the labor to be performed by convicts under the care and control of the board. Road contractors may be required to give employment to county convicts.

Sources: Constitution; Annotated Code of 1892, sections 310, 3167 to 3202, 4132; Acts of 1894, chapter 75, 76; Acts of 1896, chapter 133; Acts of 1900, chapter 119.

MISSOURI.

Control.-The State treasurer, auditor, and attorney-general are ex-officio inspectors of the penitentiary, which they must visit monthly. With a warden appointed by the governor, they have control of the discipline and employment of State convicts.

The sheriff of each county has charge of the jail and its inmates, but their employment is to be provided for by the county court.

Systems of employment. —The contract, public-account, and State-use systems are authorized. The lease system may also be used for county convicts, or they may be employed on public works and ways.

Regulations.- No contract may be made for a longer term than ten years. Contractors must not employ convicts outside the prison walls except as teamsters between the penitentiary and the freight depots.

Farming, quarrying, brickmaking, the erection of public buildings, and the manufacture of binding twine and of articles for State use are mentioned.

Convicts may be tasked and allowed pay for overtime work.

Eight hours constitute a day's labor from October 15 to April 15, and ten hours from April 15 to October 15. No labor, excepting necessary labor for the State, may be performed on Sunday.

Discharged convicts receive their earnings, a suit of clothing, and transportation to the county of sentence. Those discharged on three-fourths time for good conduct also receive $5 in money.

County convicts may be employed in preparing macadam to be sold on public account. Municipal offenders, held for nonpayment of fines and costs, are credited with $1 for each day's work.

Goods.-The sale of goods is in general left to the warden. Binding twine is to be delivered f. o. b. at Jefferson City for consumers at a price only sufficient to pay cost of manufacture. Or it may be sold in bulk for resale to consumers only at a price equal to cost to buyer, including transportation charges, plus one cent per pound. The price of macadam prepared by county convicts is fixed by the county court; or it may be supplied without charge for use on the public

roads. Sources: Revised Statutes of 1899, sections 1791, 1793, 2385, 6167, 8106, 8870 to 8901, 8920; Acts of 1903, page 24.

MONTANA.

Control.The governor, secretary of state, and attorney-general constitute a board of prison commissioners which has charge of the State prison and of the discipline and employment of convicts.

County jails are under the care of the sheriffs, but the employment of prisoners is in charge of the board of county commissioners.

Systems of employment.—The contract system is prohibited. Convicts may be employed under the public-account or public-works-and-ways systems.

Regulations.—Employment may be in such mechanical pursuits as will best subserve the interests of the State and the welfare of the prisoners, and may be either within or without the prison premises.

Whipping and showering are forbidden punishments; nor may rations be reduced
without also reducing the amount of labor required.
Discharged convicts receive each a suit of clothing and $5 in money.
Sources: Constitution; Penal Code of 1895, sections 2950 to 2971, 3038.

NEBRASKA.

Control.—The commissioner of public lands and buildings, secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney-general form a State board of public lands and buildings which has in its care the management of the penitentiary and provides for the discipline and employment of prisoners.

County jails and the prisoners therein are in the custody of the sheriffs, but the employment of the prisoners is to be arranged for by the county commissioners.

Systems of employment. The contract, public-account, and State-use systems are authorized. County convicts may also be employed on public works and ways.

Regulations.- No restriction is put upon the industries pursued by contractors, but contracts may not exceed three years in length. Goods for State use may be manufactured either under the superintendence of the warden or by the contract system.

Discharged convicts receive each a suit of clothing and a sum of money not exceeding $10.

County commissioners may designate any stone quarry, road, or other place of employment, in or on which the labor of county convicts may be let on contract.

City convicts held for nonpayment of fines and costs are allowed $1.50 per day for labor.

Source: Compiled Statutes of 1901, sections 12848., 2219, 5153, 5154, 5164, 5176, 7260, 7261.

NEVADA. Control -The governor, secretary of state, and attorney-general constitute a board of commissioners which has full charge of the prison and of prison labor.

Sheriffs have charge of the jails, and the employment of county convicts rests with them.

Systems of employment. The contract, public-account, State-use, and public-worksand-ways systems are authorized, and perhaps the lease system also.

Regulations.-Work at any approved employment may be done either within or without the prison inclosures, but that done without the prison must be within a reasonable distance therefrom.

Boots and shoes required for use in State institutions must be furnished by prison labor.

Whipping and showering are forbidden punishments; also reduction of rations without also reducing the amount of labor required.

County convicts refusing to labor may be confined in dark and solitary cells.

Goods.-Boots and shoes produced in excess of the requirements may be sold in full case lots at prices fixed by the warden, such price to be not less than the cost of materials.

Sources: Constitution; Compiled Laws of 1899, sections 1420 to 1438, 2261 to 2274; Acts of 1887, chapter 91.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Control.-A warden appointed by the governor has the management and general superintendence of the State prison, subject to regulations as to discipline and employment adopted by the governor and his council, who also inspect the prison annually.

The sheriff of each county has charge of its jail and may employ the prisoners in a manner approved by the county commissioners.

Systems of employment. The contract system is authorized, and apparently the public-account system as well.

Regulations. —Discharged convicts are to receive suitable clothing and a sum of money not exceeding $3. County convicts not held for fines and costs receive 25 per cent of the net proceeds of their labor when discharged.

Goods.—The sale of goods is to be regulated by the governor and council.
Source: Public Statutes of 1891, chapters 282, 285.

NEW JERSEY.

Control.The governor appoints a board of six inspectors which makes rules for the government of the prison and the employment of convicts. Two of its members must inspect the prison weekly.

A supervisor named by the governor designates and regulates the employments to be pursued.

Sheriffs have charge of county jails and the inmates thereof, but the boards of chosen freeholders may, of their own motion, assume such charge and control.

Systems of employment. The piece-price, public-account, and State-use systems are authorized. The contract system was prohibited by an act of 1884, but later statutes provide for its use in the employment of the inmates of the State reformatory.

County convicts may be employed on public works and ways.

Regulations.—The manufacture of goods required for use in the State institutions is directed.

In the State reformatory, the labor of not more than one hundred convicts may be hired for the prosecution of any special branch of industry.

Convicts are required to labor daily except Sundays.

Corporal punishment is forbidden, but shackling or close confinement on a breadand-water diet are permitted.

Discharged convicts receive a suit of clothing and a sum not exceeding $5; if from the reformatory, not exceeding $10.

County convicts may be employed at any reasonable labor, as gardening, cooking, and mechanical or other service in or about the county property.

Goods.-All convict-made goods must be so marked when offered for sale.

Sources: General Statutes of 1895, pp. 1831, 2865, 3147, 3149, 3152 to 3161; Acts of 1898, chapter 237; Acts of 1901, chapter 104.

NEW MEXICO. Control.—A board of five commissioners and a superintendent, appointed by the governor, have charge of the penitentiary and the discipline and employment of its inmates. Monthly inspections are made by the board.

The sheriff of each county has charge of its jail and of the employment of all able-bodied persons sentenced thereto. The county commissioners must make inspections at least twice each year.

Systems of employment.-The lease, contract, public-account, and public-works-andways systems are authorized; also temporarily the State-use system.

Regulations.—Convicts whose labor is not hired out may be employed on roads and bridges, at quarrying and hauling stone, and securing the banks of the Santa Fe River.

Discharged convicts receive $5 in money and, if necessary, a suit of clothing.

County convicts may be secured during their employment by a ball and chain or by other means not cruel and inhuman.

Goods.-All products of convict labor are to be sold to the highest bidder for cash after twenty days' notice by advertisement.

Source: Compiled Laws of 1897, sections 821, 823, 841, 1052, 3491 to 3548, 3649.

NEW YORK Control.-A commission of three persons appointed by the governor has general superintendence of all penal institutions for adults, with the duty of inspection and of ascertaining and recommending the best system of employnient of prisoners not in conflict with the constitution. A State superintendent of prisons, appointed by the governor, provides rules for the discipline of convicts and directs their employment.

The employment of county convicts is directed by the sheriff under the provisions or by the consent of the board of county supervisors.

Systems of employment.—The farming out or contracting of convict labor is forbidden. The State-use and public-works-and-ways systems are prescribed.

Regulations.--Goods and supplies, including building supplies, for use in the institations of the State or of its political subdivisions, are to be produced.

Not to exceed three hundred convicts in each State prison may be employed on the highways in the vicinity, but outside of incorporated towns and villages.

No printing or photo-engraving may be done, except such priņting as may be required for use in the penal and charitable institutions of the State, including the supplies for the prison commission and the superintendent.

Prisoners are required to be classified and their labor graded accordingly.
Labor is to be performed for eight hours daily, except on Sundays and holidays.

The use of the shower-bath, crucifix, yoke and buck, and the infliction of blows are forbidden.

Discharged convicts receive a suit of clothing suitable for the season, $10 in money, and transportation to a point not more distant than the place of conviction.

County convicts may be employed either within or without the jail, in their own or an adjoining county: Labor on the jails or highways, and in the preparation of road material are mentioned.

New York City convicts may be employed in quarrying or cutting stone, in cultivating land, in preparing and building sea-walls, or in the manufacture of articles for use in the institutions in which they are confined.

Goods. - Dealers in convict-made goods must procure license, the annual fee being $500. Goods made by convicts must be so marked in plain letters.

Sources: Constitution; Revised Statutes, etc., of 1901, pp. 810, 840, 2096, 2722, 2727, 2732, 2740 to 2743, 2748; Acts of 1901, chapter 466, subchapter 14.

NORTH CAROLINA.

· Control.-A board of nine directors, appointed by the governor, is charged with the supervision of the penitentiary, the employment of convicts, and the semiannual inspection of the penitentiary and its farms and camps.

The boards of county commissioners and mayors and intendants of cities and towns provide for the employment of persons sentenced within their respective jurisdictions.

Systems of employment. The lease, public-account, State-use, and public-works-andways systems are authorized.

Regulations.—Hiring may be to railroad companies or to any corporation or individual for a consideration not less than board and clothing. Not less than twenty convicts may be leased to one individual, and the term may be not less than six months; if such hirings can not be made, however, contracts for a smaller number or a shorter term are permitted.

Employment on public works is directed; also employment in farms and shops under the control of the prison authorities.

Counties and cities may contract for the labor of not more than twenty-five convicts for employment on streets and high ways.

County convicts and convicts sentenced to terms in the penitentiary of ten years or less may be kept in the county of their conviction and be employed on highways, in the drainage of swamps, etc. Female convicts must not be worked on highways or in chaingangs.

Goods.- Goods not necessary for the use of the convicts themselves are to be sold by the superintendent of the prison at the highest market price.

Sources: Constitution; Code of 1883, sections 3433, 3448, 3449; Acts of 1885, chapter 195; Acts of 1887, chapter 355; Acts of 1891, chapter 483; Acts of 1897, chapters 219, 270.

NORTH DAKOTA.

Control.—The governor appoints a board of five trustees who are charged with the general oversight and inspection of the penitentiary. A warden by them appointed makes rules for the government of the convicts and provides for their employment.

Sheriffs have charge of county jails and must employ their inmates at hard labor. The county commissioners are jail inspectors.

Systems of employment. -The lease and contract systems are forbidden. Convicts may be employed in producing articles on public account or for State use; also on the public works and ways.

Regulations.-Farming, the manufacture of brick and of twine and cordage, and employment on roads and public buildings are mentioned.

Discharged convicts receive a suit of clothing, transportation to the place of sentence, and not to exceed $5 in money.

County convicts held for the nonpayment of fines are credited with $2 for each day's labor. They may be secured by ball and chain or otherwise during the time of their employment.

Goods.—The price of twine is fixed annually by the board of trustees, which may change the price, however, if it be found to be such as will prevent sales or will not secure a fair return in comparison with the value of like outside products.

The sale of brick is in charge of a board consisting of the governor, State auditor, and secretary of state. Source: Revised Codes of 1899, sections 8518 to 8626.

OHIO. . Control.—The board of managers, five in number, is appointed by the governor to have control of the penitentiary, and makes rules for the government of the convicts and provides for their classification and employment.

. The government and employment of county convicts are regulated by the court of common pleas or by the county commissioners.

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