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card mentioned in section 10 of this act properly displayed, or failing to comply with such sanitary rules as the board in conjunction with the State board of health prescribes, or for the violation of any of the provisions of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and

the board shall proceed against all such persons, and upon conviction Penalty

thereof they shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than ten days or more than ninety days. Prosecutions under this act shall be begun and carried on in the same manner as other prosecutions for misdemeanors in this State.

CHAPTER 222.- Protection of employees as members of labor organizations. Preventing SECTION 1. It shall be unlawful for any individual or member of any joining unions." firm, or any agent, officer or employee of any company or corporation,

to coerce, require, demand or influence any person or persons to enter into any agreement, either written or verbal, not to join or become or remain a member of any labor organization or association, as a condition of such person or persons securing employment, or continuing in

the employment of such individual, firm, or corporation. Penalty. Sec. 2. Any individual or member of any firm or any agent, officer

or employee of any company or corporation violating the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not less than fifty dollars or imprisoned in the county jail not less than thirty days.

CHAPTER 310.- Inspection of factories, etc.— Fire escapes. Fire escapes re- Section 1. Every building now or hereafter used, in whole or in quired, when. part, as a public buildling,

three or more stories in height, shall, within six months after the passage of this act, be provided with one or more metallic ladders or stair fire escapes attached to the outer walls thereof, and extending from or suitably near the ground to the uppermost story thereof, with platforms of such forms and dimensions, and in such proximity to one or more windows of each story above the first as to render access to such ladders or stairs from each such story easy and safe; the number, location, material and construction of such escapes to be subject to the approval of the fire marshal, chief of the fire department, city or town marshal, or such other authority

as may have the control of fire regulations in any city or town where Factories.

such buildings are located: Provided, howerer, That all buildings more
than two stories in height, used for manufacturing purposes,
shall have at least one such fire escape for every thirty persons for
which working, * accommodations are provided above the
second stories of said buildings;
CHAPTER 356. -- Inspection of fuctories, etc. - Fire escapes--Safety appli-

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ances.

Elevatorshafts. SECTION 1. Every person owning or operating any manufacturing

establishment which may contain any elevator, hoisting shaft or wellhole shall cause the same to be properly and substantially enclosed or secured, in order to protect the lives or limbs of those employed in

such establishment. Stairways. SEC. 2. Proper and substantial hand rails shall be provided in all

stairways in manufacturing establishments. The stairs shall be properly secured at the sides and ends, and all doors leading into such establishments shall be so constructed as to open outwardly, and shall

be neither locked, bolted nor fastened during working hours. Fire escapes.

SEC. 3. In all manufacturing establishments three or more stories high, at least one fire escape, and as many more as may be reasonably necessary, shall be provided on the outside of said establishment, connecting with each floor above the first, well fastened and secured, and of sufficient strength. Each of said fire escapes shall have landings or balconies not less than six feet in length and three feet in width, guarded by iron railings not less than three feet in height, and embracing at least two windows at each story, and connecting with the interior by easily accessible and unobstructed openings, and the balconies or landings shall be connected by iron stairs not less than eighteen inches wide, the steps not to be less than six inches tread, placed at a proper slant, and protected by a well-secured hand rail on each-side, with twelve-inch drop ladder from the lower platform reaching to the ground.

Sec. 4. Every person owning or operating any manufacturing estab- Belt shisters, lishment in which machinery is used shall furnish and supply for use

guards, etc. therein belt shifters, or other safe mechanical contrivance, for the purpose of throwing on or off belts or pulleys; and wherever it is practicable machinery shall be operated with loose pulleys. All vats, pans, saws, planers, cog gearing, belting, shafting, set screws and machinery of every description used in a manufacturing establishment shall, where practicable, be properly and safely guarded, for the purpose of preventing oravoiding the death of or injury to the persons employed or laboring in any such establishment; and it is hereby made the duty of all persons owning or operating manufacturing establishments to provide and keep the same furnished with safeguards as herein specified.

Sec. 5. If any person employed or laboring in any manufacturing, Action for inestablishment shall be killed or injured in any case wherein the juries. absence of any of the safeguards or precautions required by the act shall directly contribute to such death or injury, the personal representatives of the person so killed, or the person himself, in case of injury only, may maintain an action against the person owning or operating such manufacturing establishment for the recovery of all proper damages. In cases where the action is brought by the personal representative of the deceased, said action shall be governed in all respects not herein provided for by the provisions of the statutes now in force which authorize and regulate the bringing of actions to recover damages in cases where the death of one is caused by the wrongful act or omission of another: Provided, Action shall be commenced in the county where the accident occurred.

Sec. 6. In all actions brought under and by virtue of the provisions Failure to proof this act, it shall be sufficient for the plaintiff to prove in the first vide appliances. instance, in order to establish the liability of the defendant, that the death or injury complained of resulted in consequence of the failure of the person owning or operating the manufacturing establishment where such death or injury occurred to provide said establishment with safeguards as required by this act, or that the failure to provide such safeguard directly contributed to such death or injury.

Sec. 7. Manufacturing establishments, as those words are used in Definition this act, shall mean and include all smelters, oil refineries, cement works, mills of every kind, machine and repair shops, and, in addition to the foregoing, any other kind or character of manufacturing establishment, of any nature or description whatsoever, wherein any natural products or other articles or materials of any kind, in a raw or unfinished or incomplete state or condition, are converted into a new or improved or different form.

SEC. 8. Wherever the expression occurs in this act in substantially Person defined. the following words: “Every person owning or operating any manufacturing establishment,” or where language similar to that is used, the word “person” in that connection shall be held and construed to mean any person or persons, partnership, corporation, receiver, trust, trustee, or any other person or combination of persons, either natural or artificial, by whatever name he or they may be called.

CHAPTER 377.Examination and licensing of plumbers. Section 1. Any person now or hereafter engaging or working at the License rebusiness of plumbing in cities of seven thousand population or more

quired in this State, either as master plumber or employing plumber or as a journeyman plumber, shall first receive a certificate thereof in accordance with the provisions of this act.

SEC. 2. Any person desiring to engage in or work at the business of plumbing, either as a master plumber or employing plumber or as a journeyman plumber, in cities having a population of seven thousand

a

Examination.

Boards of examiners.

or more and a system of water supply or sewerage, shall make application to a board of examiners hereinafter provided for, and shall at such times and place as said board may designate be compelled to pass such examination as to his qualifications as said board may direct, Said examination may be made in whole or in part in writing and shall be of a practical and elementary character, but sufficiently strict to test the qualifications of the applicant.

Sec. 3. There shall be in every city of seven thousand inhabitants or more a board of examiners of plumbers consisting of three members, one of which shall be chairmain of the board of health, who shall be ex officio chairman of said board of examiners; a second member, who shall be a master plumber; and a third member, who shall be a journeyman plumber. Said second and third members shall be appointed by the mayor and approved by the council of said city within three months after the passage of this act, for the term of one year from the 1st day of May in the year of appointment, thereafter annually before the 1st day of May, and shall be paid from the treasury of said city the same as other officers, in such sum as the author

ities may desigiate. of SEC. 4. Said board of examiners shall, as soon as may be after their

appointment, meet, and shall then designate the times and places for examination of all applicants desiring to engage in or work at the business of plumbing within their respective jurisdiction, Said board shall examine said applicants as to the practical knowledge of plumbing, house drainage, and plumbing ventilation, and, if satisfied of the competency of such applicants, shall thereupon issue a certificate to such applicant authorizing him to engage in or work at the business of plumbing, either as master plumber or employing plumber or as a journeyman plumber. The fee for a certificate for a master plumber or employing plumber shall be five dollars; for a journeyman plumber, it shall be two dollars. Said certificate shall be valid and have force throughout the State, and all fees received for said certificates shall be

paid into the treasury of the city where such certificates are issued. Place of exam- Sec. 6. All persons who are required by this act to take examinaination.

tions and procure a certificate as required by this act shall apply to the board in the city where they reside, or to the board nearest their

place of residence. Violations.

Sec. 7. Any person violating any provision of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and be subject to a fine of not less than five dollars nor exceeding fifty dollars for each and every violation thereof.

Duties boards.

KENTUCKY.

CONSTITUTION.

Local or special laws regulating labor, etc., not to be passed.

Certain laws Section 59. The general assembly shall not pass local or special forbidden.

acts concerning any of the following subjects, or for any of the following purposes, namely:

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etc.

Commissioner of agriculture, labor and statistics. Commissioner SECTION 91. A

commissioner of agriculture, labor and of agriculture, statistics,

shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State at the same time the governor is elected, for the term of four years, * (who] shall be at least thirty years of age at the time of his election, and shall have been a resident citizen of the State at least two years next before his election. The duties of * [this officer) shall be such as may be prescribed by law,

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Time to vote to be allowed employees. SECTION 148. * The general assembly shall provide by four hours to

be allowed. law that all employers shall allow employees, under reasonable regulations, at least four hours on election days, in which to cast their votes.

Right of action for injuries causing death.
SECTION 241. Whenever the death of a person shall result from an

Death caused injury inflicted by negligence or wrongful act, then, in every such by negligence. case, damages may be recovered for such death, from the corporations and persons so causing same. Until otherwise provided by law, the action to recover such damages shall in all cases be prosecuted by the personal representative of the deceased person. The Who may sue. general assembly may provide how the recovery shall go and to whom belong; and until such provision is made the same shall form part of the personal estate of the deceased person.

This does not give a right of action against an employer for the death of an employee caused by the negligence of a fellow-servant of equal grade in the same department. A conductor temporarily acting as brakeman is still of equal rank with a locomotive engineer so that he can not recover of the company for injuries received from the engineer's negligence. 54 S. W. Rep. 184.

Employment of children. SECTION 243. The general assembly shall, by law, fix the minimum Employment ages at which children may be employed in places dangerous to life or of children to be

regulated. health, or injurious to morals; and shall provide adequate penalties for violations of such law.

Payment of wages. SECTION 244. All wage-earners in this State employed in factories, Wages to be

paid in lawful mines, workshops, or by corporations shall be paid for their labor in

money. lawful money. The general assembly shall prescribe adequate penalties for violations of this section.

(See section 1350, Statutes of 1894, below.)

STATUTES OF 1894.

CHAPTER 1.-Right of action for injuries causing death. SECTION 6. Whenever the death of a person shall result from an in- Death caused jury inflicted by negligence or wrongful act, then in every such case,

by negligence. damages may be recovered for such death from the person or persons, company or companies, corporation or corporations, their agents or servants, causing the same, and when the act is willful or the negligence is gross, punitive damages may be recovered, and the action to Punitive damrecover such damages shall be prosecuted by the personal representa

Ages, when.

Who may sue. tive of the deceased. The amount recovered, less funeral expenses Damages exand the cost of administration, and such costs about the recovery, in- empt. cluding attorney fees as are not included in the recovery from the defendant, shall be for the benefit of and go to the kindred of the deceased. *

The common law action for suffering of the deceased, death not being immediate, will bar an action under this statute to recover for loss of life. 12 Bush 144.

In the absence of gross, wanton, or willful negligence, damages should be compensatory only, and not punitive. 4 Bush 593.

If defendant was guilty of gross neglect, both compensatory and punitive damages may be awarded. 15 R. 199.

Proof of ages and number of children of deceased is admissible. 7 Bush 235.

Where neglect is not willful and death results instantly, the damages are confineu to the value of the decedent's power to earn money. 9 Bush 728.

(See also section 241 of the Constitution, and note.)

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Bureau estab

CHAPTER 4.- Bureau of agriculture, labor, and statistics. SECTION 31. A bureau of agriculture, labor and statisties is established, and shall be under the management of an officer, who shall be lished.

H. Doc. 733, 58-2-27

bureau.

Commissioner. known as the commissioner of agriculture, labor and statistics. In

one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two there shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, a commissioner, who shall hold his office until the first Monday in January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, and until his successor has qualified, unless sooner removed by the governor, who shall also have power to fill a vacancy in the office occurring from any cause. At the general election held in November, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, and every four years thereafter, there shall be elected a commissioner, who shall enter upon the discharge of his duties on the first Monday in January after his election, and hold his

office for four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. Duties of com- Sec. 32. The commissioner shall keep his office at the seat of govmissioner.

ernment, and devote his entire time and attention to the duties of his office. Before entering upon his duties he shall take the oath of office and execute bond to the Commonwealth, with good sureties, worth at the time, jointly or severally, twenty-five thousand dollars, to be approved by the governor, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office; and shall receive an annual salary of twenty-five hundred

dollars, payable at the same time the salary of the governor is paid. Purpose of SEC: 33. The efforts of the bureau shall be directed to the promotion

of agriculture, horticulture, manufactures, and to matters relating to labor and statistics; and the commissioner shall promote and encourage, as far as practicable, the organization of agricultural and horticultural societies and other associations in the several counties, and ascertain the agricultural, horticultural, mechanical, commercial and educational condition of every county, giving, in detail, the quantity and quality of land under cultivation; the kinds, amounts and value of the annual field crops; the annual production of orchards, gardens, dairies and mines; the quantity and value of domestic manufactures; the kinds, value and increase of live stock; the annual products of mechanical industry and skill; the character of labor employed in mines, factories and the cultivation of the soil, and the prices paid therefor; the value of exports and imports; the number of miles of railroads, turnpikes, navigable streams and post-offices, and names of same, in each county; how and by whom turnpikes and other public roads are operated and kept in repair; the name, location and population of cities, towns and villages; the number and value of schoolhouses and churches; the names, capital and purposes of charitable institutions, together with such other vital, social, physical and political statistics as he may deem

proper and expedient. Information to

SEC. 34. The auditor of public accounts, assessors of the several be furnished.

counties, and all other officers of the State and counties, shall furnish the commissioner with such information within their power as he may require in regard to the matters connected with the bureau; and as a further means of procuring information, the commissioner shall put himself in communication with the different agricultural, horticultural and labor societies, manufacturing and mining companies, and such other organizations or persons, in or out of the State, as he may deem

proper. Monthly re- SEC. 35. The commissioner shall furnish to the publishers of newsports.

papers of the State, who will publish the same free of charge, a condensed monthly report of the breadth of planting and condition of the growing crops, and such other information as he may deem expedient and proper, and shall also issue monthly statements of the crop prospects throughout the State; and also all other obtainable information as to the general crop prospects throughout the United States and all foreign countries, whose products come in competition with the

products of this state. Reports to leg- SEC. 36. He shall, before the assembling of each regular session of

the general assembly, compile a report giving a general review of the agricultural, horticultural, mineral and industrial resources of the State, with brief notices of each county, and the character of the public roads in the several counties, and how and by whom operated and kept in repair; the character of labor generally employed in the mines, factories and the cultivation of the soil, and the prices paid therefor, and such other information as he is required to gather, and shall have a

islature,

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