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2. In the Boroughs as a whole they have gained upon 1885.

3. Without Birmingham, they would be practically even. The actual majority against them is 3,493.

The following observations on this result will, I think, be allowed to be relevant and fair :

1. In the first period on the total of twelve elections the party of the Government gained 6,496 votes. In the second period, had they still held the same relative position, they would have gained, on forty-one elections, 22,500 votes. Instead of which the figures only show an improvement of 3,854 votes.

2. The whole of this gain may be said to be due to the election for Birmingham, which showed a change in their favour of no less than 3,833 votes. It is known that in that election, held almost on the morrow of Mr. Bright's funeral, Liberals voted in large numbers for his son Mr. Albert Bright, and other Liberals in large numbers abstained from voting. If Birmingham be not counted, on the rest of the polls since the 1st of July, 1887, and the Coercion Act, the Liberals may fairly be said to be abreast of the polls of 1885. But let the Birmingham election stand without deduction or further comment: and let us proceed in the light of the facts now ascertained to estimate the general situation as it is illustrated by the comparison of 1887-9 with 1885.

3. In 1885 the Tories obtained 249 seats, the Liberals 335, and the Nationalists 86. Were the Liberals at the next election to reach the standard of 1885, the House of Commons would be divided for the purposes of the Irish question, as follows:

, Liberals

335 Nationalists

86

421 Anti-Irish

249 Majority

172 or, exactly twice the commanding majority now available for the triumphant support of the existing Government; and by far larger than any majority known to our history since the Parliament of 1832.

4. This is unquestionably a majority which will bear some deduction. Let us see what deduction it is likely to suffer if we apply to it exactly the same method of computation as has already been taken in comparing the recent polls with 1886. The data before us are as follows. A gain of say 3,850 votes has accrued to the adversary in a period which has embraced fifty-eight elections: and we take fifty-eight as something over one-tenth of 560, the number of elections to be held in Great Britain, without counting Universities, upon a dissolution of Parliament. Their gain on the 560 elections would be something under ten times 3,850, or about 37,300 voters. This majority at the polls, on the same basis of computation as before, would return a

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majority in Parliament of about fifty-six. Let us add seven University members, making sixty-three. But this number has to be deducted from the majority of 172 yielded by the polls of 1885: so that there remains a majority of 109 available for furthering Home Rule, and conducting a great Imperial controversy to its issue.

Such are the results of the appeal to 1885: even when aided by the unusual circumstances of the last Birmingham election. Was such an appeal, all things considered, worth making ?

To conclude. This comparison of course throws an interesting light upon the electoral weakness of the Dissentient Liberals, who were allied with us in 1885, and with the Tories since that year. In Birmingham, and perhaps in Birmingham alone, they bare some real hold upon the population at large. In places like Brighton or West Edinburgh, where the upper classes form a considerable residential element, they form a sensible force at the poll. Their chief numerical strength, however, lies in the service franchise and in the votes of dependents, given not necessarily under coercion, but in trust, and without strong individual conviction. Even with the aid of mansions and acres, of tenants, servants, and workmen, their numerical force is limited; for the facts are before us which show that we have done hardly less since July 1887 against the combined forces of Tories and Dissentients, than we did in 1885 with a Liberal party in which no open and general schism had come about.

What is perhaps most interesting, in a retrospect now reaching over nearly three and a half years, is the evidence it affords of a steady acceleration in the rate at which the Liberal party has been and is regaining the confidence of the constituencies. Its momentum increases with every stage it covers on its journey. In this view it may be best that the Dissolution should not arrive too early. There is already in view force enough and to spare for carrying the next House of Commons; but, the longer it is allowed to continue its growth, the more able it will be to deal also with the House of Lords, or the more likely it will be, let us rather hope, to beget within that House itself the sagacious temper which eschews a hopeless and a disastrous conflict.

W. E. GLADSTONE.

The Editor of THE NINETEENTH CENTURY cannot undertake

to return unaccepted MSS.

INDEX TO VOL. XXVI.

The titles of articles are printed in italics.

ABE

CAN

a

6

A
BERCROMBY (Sir Ralph) on the Beckmann, his story of a charmed ring
state of Ireland, 10

at Dessau, 669
Ady (Mrs. Henry), Rome in 1889, 584- Behrend (Dr. Henry), Diseases caught
601

from Butcher's Meat, 409-422
Aïdé (Hamilton), Noticeable Book : Bernhardt (Sarah), 84

Craddock's 'Despot of Broomsedge Betting, past and present, 841-847
Cove,' 994-997

Bible, criticism of the, 484-486
Air, on Change of, 194-207

reading of the, by Roman Catholics,
Alfieri di Sostegno (Marchese), Italy 814–815
Drifting, 385-408

Bimetallists, Mr. Giffen's Attack on,
Alligator, difference between the croco- 1014-1023
dile and the, 236

Birrell (Augustine), Noticeable Book :
America, Roman Catholicism in, 801- Courthope’s • Life of Alexander Pope,'
824

987-991
America, the critical period in the bis- Blaze de Bury (Mlle.), The Théâtre
tory of, 324-327

Français and its Sociétaires, 72-65
Animals, the Comparative Insensibility Blennerhassett (Lady), her · Frau von
of, to Pain, 622-627

Staël,' noticed, 327-330
Anspach (Margravine of) and Mlle. Blind (Karl), Giordano Bruno and New
Clairon, 72–73

Italy, 106-119
Army, unserviceable condition of the, Boar, wild, of India, 234–235
533-540

Bodley (J. E. C.), Roman Catholicism
Arnold-Forster (H. O.), Parliamentary in America, 801-824

Misrule of our War Services, 523- Books, Noticeable, 324-346, 984-1000
514

Boulangism in France, 183–184
Artillery in the British army, 533-535 Brabourne (Lord), Mr. Gladstone's
Atherley-Jones (L. A.), "The New * Plain Speaking,' 257-272
Liberalism, 186–193

Bramwell (Sir Frederick), Noticeable
- A Response, see Russell (George

Book: The Scientific Papers of
W. E.)

C. W. Siemens, Kt.,' 333-337
Australia Fifty Years Ago, 754-775 Breakfast-party, a, in Paris, 173-185
Australia, Western, proposed constitu- Brohan (Suzanne), 82-83
tion for, 908

Bruno, Giordano, and New Italy, 106–

119
DAKER (Benjamin),

Buffalo, the Indian, 234

Fowler
(Sir John)

Butcher's Meat, Diseases caught from,

409-422
Barry (Father), Wanted-a Gospel for

Century
Bashkirtoeff, Marie, Journal

de, 602-607 CA Beaconsfield 'with, 70

VAIRNS (Lord), friendship of Lord
Beaconsfield, Lord, the Last íllness of,
65-71

Canary Islands as a health resort, 120,
Bears, Indian, 231-235

203

6

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CAV

Collins (J. Cburton), The Universities FAQ

GIB
Cavalry without horses, 535-536 Dust as a cause of disease, 197
Cavour (Count), policy of, 386–394 Dziewicki (M. H.), In Praise of London
Champion (H. II.), An Eight-Hour Fog, 1047-1055

Law, 509-522
Children, Mental and Physical Training

of,
Church, the English
, under Henry the EP agency, 561 583

TDUCATION, popular, by University
Eighth, 882–896

,
Church, the English, subscription to the

Education of children, 664-667
Articles of, 345

Egypt, What next in 462-475
Church (Rev. Alfred J.), Criticism as a

Eight-Hour Law, an, 509-522
Trade: a Reply, 833-839

Eight Hours Question, the, 21-34
Clairon (Mlle.), 72-73

Eiffel Tower, the, 182
Claretie (Jules), 85

Electoral Facts of To-day, 1056-1000
Classical literature as a subject in the

Elephant, the Indiar, 233-234
University extension scheme, 579-580

Elliot (Sir Henry), Australia Finty
Climate as an agent in the cure of

Years ago, 754-775
disease, 135

Europe, political state of, 208
Clough (Arthur Hugh), 344

Exhibition, the, at Paris, 173-185
Collier (Dr. W.), The Comparative In-
sensibility of Animals to Pain, 622-

LIACTORY and Workshop Act, the

31-32
in Contact with the People, 561-583 Fawcett (Mrs.), The Appeal agasse
Colonies, is it open to the, to secede ?

Female Suffrage : a Reply, 86-95
897-911

Fayrer (Sir Joseph), The Deadly w
Contat (Mlle.), 76

Beasts of India, 218–240
Conversation, the Art of, 273-279

The Venomous Snakes of India, 453
Convocation, enlargement of, 506, 831 983
Cornwallis (Lord), on the state of Federation League, Imperial, 897–899
Ireland, 9, 263-264

Female Suffrage, the Appeal against: 1
Country Houses, Old, 651-658

Reply, 86-105
Courthope (W. J.), his · Life of Alex-

a Rejoinder, see Creighton (Mrs.

)
ander Pope,' noticed, 997-991

Signatures to the Protest agains,
Cox (Harold), The Eight Hours

355-384
Question, 21-34
Crackanthorpe (Montague), The New

Fiske (John), his Critical Period of

American History,' noticed, 324–327
National Party, 746-753

Fitzgerald, Judkin, the flogging Sherif','
Craddock (Charles Egbert), bis • Despot 18-20

of Broomsedge Cove,' noticed, 994–997 Fitzwilliam (Earl), mission of, to Ire
Creighton (Mrs.), The Appeal against

land, 8
Female Suffrage: a Rejoinder, 347– Fog, London, 195-196

354
Criticism as a Trade, 423-430

Fog, London, in Praise of, 1047–1055

Fowler (Sir John) and Baker (Benja.
a Reply, 833-839

min), The Forth Bridge, 35–42
Crocodile, the Indian, 235-237

Franchises, Parliamentary, Past and

Present, 942–962
DANDELOW, Mr., a Story half told,

Franklin (Benjamin) on English govern-
136-159

ment in Ireland, quoted, 7
Das 1. Garde Dragoner-Regiment, 431–

French, the, in Germany, 294-311
434

Furnace, the regenerative, 334-335
Democracy, Tory, 733-734
Dicey (Edward), What next in Egypt?

462-775
Diderot (M.), 74

GAMBLING, Modern, and Gambling

Laws, 840-860
Dilke (Mrs. Ashton), The Appeal against Gaming house, the, 847-849

Female Suffrage : a Repły, 97-103 Garat (M.), his description of Diderot,
Disease, influence of dust in producing, 74
197

Gaskell (Lady Catherine Milnes), W-
Diseases caught from Butcher's Meat, men of To-day, 776–784
409-422

Geffcken (Professor), The French in
Dogs, wild, of India, 231

Germany, 294-311
Doyle (A. Conan), his Micah Clarke, Gibbons (Cardinal), 810-815, 818-820,
noticed, 330-33

823

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Giffen (Robert), A Problem in Money, | IBSEN, Henrik, the Works of, 241-

256
Giffen': (Mr.) Attack on Bimetallists, India, the Deadly Wild Beasts of, 218-
1014-1023

240
Gladstone (William Ewart), Plain - the Attack on the Native States of,

Speaking on the Irish Union, 1-20 545–560
Phænician Affinities of Ithaca, 280– the Venomous Snakes of, 963-983
293

India, Christian missions in, 478
Journal de Marie Bashkirtseff, 602- Inquisition, barbarities of the, 118
607

Ireland, popular feeling about, 189-190
The English Church under Henry the Irish Land Problem, a Resumé of the,
Eighth, 882–896

608-621
Noticeable Book : Mrs. Smedes' Me-

Reply to, see Land Programme
morials of a Southern Planter,' 984- Irish Malady, the, and its Physicians,
986

1024-1042
Electoral Facts of To-day, 1056–1066 Irish Union, Plain Speaking on the,
Gladstone's (Mr.). Plain Speaking,' 257– 1-20
272

A Reply, see Brabourne (Lord)
Gordon (the late General), ' Memo' on Italy Drifting, 385–408

Classes in the Soudan (communicated Italy, New, Giordano Bruno and, 106-
by Mr. Clifford Lloyd), 861-862

119
Gordon (Rev. James), his ' History of Ithaca, Phoenician Affinities of, 280-
the Rebellion in Ireland,' 12-17

293
Gospel for the Century, a, Wanted,
208-217

ACKAL, the Indian, 231
),
Parliament, 20
Greenwood (Frederick), Wool-gather- Jessopp (Rev. Dr.), Mr. Dandelow, a

Grattan (Henry), his retirement from JA Canet (Pierrey,hin. L'Automatisme

Psychologique,' noticed, 341-343
ings, 312–323
Grievances of High Churchmen, the,

Story half told, 136-159

Are they Grievances ? 825-832
508-509

Jews, superior vitality of, due to their
are they? 825-832
Griffin (Sir Lepel), his charges against

alimentary hygiene, 416-421

Jones (Henry A.), The First-Night
the native States of India, 545-560

Judgment of Plays, 43–59
Journal de Marie Bashkirtseff, 602-607
Judicial Committee of the Privy

Council, discontent of Churchmen
CALE (Colonel Lonsdale), Das I. with the, 503–506

434
Harrison (Frederic), A Breakfast-party
4 KA

ARUN river, opening of the, 170
in Paris, 173-185

The New Trades-Unionism, 721-732 Kidd (Dr. Joseph), The Last Illness of
Health-seeking in Tenerife and Madeira,

Lord Beaconsfield, 65–71
120-135; see also Air, on Change of Knight (Professor), Criticism as a Trade,
Henry the Eighth, the English Church 423-430
under, 882-896

a Reply, see Church (Rev. Alfred
Hewlett (Henry G.), Noticeable Book :

J.)
Morris's Tale of the House of the Koch's investigations of the tubercle-
Wolfings,' 337–341

bacillus, 409
Churchmen, the Grievances of,
500-508
Reply to, see Grievances

LADY Toad, 668-680
Hill (Frank H.), The Irish Malady and Laguna, 121-122
its Physicians, 1024–1042

Lama, the Grand, 688-690
Hill (Miss Octavia), A few Words to Lambert (Sir John), Parliamentary
Fresh Workers, 452-461

Franchises, Past and Present, 942–962
Home Rule and the desertion of Land Problem, Irish, a Résumé of the,

Liberalism by the upper and middle 608-621
classes, 186

Land Programme, Notes on the Ladest,
- attitude of the masses towards, 189– 1043-1046
190

Las Palmas, 126, 203-205
Hyæna, the Indian, 229-230

Law (E. F. G.), The Awakening of
Hyderabad, condition of, 546-560

Persia, 1001-1013

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