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of Congress, or to the Comptroller General, unless a statute forbids such disclosure.
(2) If the request is for business information claimed as confidential or determined to be confidential, the EPA office processing the request shall provide notice to each affected business of the type of information disclosed and to whom it is disclosed. Notice shall be given at least ten days prior to disclosure, except where it is not possible to provide notice ten days in advance of any date established by the requesting body for responding to the request. Where ten days advance notice cannot be given, as much advance notice as possible shall be provided. Where notice cannot be given before the date established by the requesting body for responding to the request, notice shall be given as promptly after disclosure as possible. Such notice may be given by notice published in the FEDERAL REGISTER or by letter sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or telegram. However, if the requesting body asks in writing that no notice under this subsection be given, EPA will give no notice.
(3) At the time EPA discloses the business information, EPA will inform the requesting body of any unresolved business confidentiality claim known to cover the information and of any determination under this subpart that the information is entitled to confidential treatment.
(c) Disclosure to other Federal agencies. EPA may disclose business information to another Federal agency if
(1) EPA receives a written request for disclosures of the information from a duly authorized officer or employee of the other agency or on the initiative of EPA when such disclosure is necessary to enable the other agency to carry out a function on behalf of EPA;
(2) The request, if any, sets forth the official purpose for which the information is needed;
(3) When the information has been claimed as confidential or has been determined to be confidential, the responsible EPA office provides notice to each affected business of the type of information to be disclosed and to whom it is to be disclosed. At the dis
cretion of the office, such notice may be given by notice published in the FEDERAL REGISTER at least 10 days prior to disclosure, or by letter sent by certified mail return receipt requested or telegram either of which must be received by the affected business at least 10 days prior to disclosure. However, no notice shall be required when EPA furnishes business information to another Federal agency to perform a function on behalf of EPA, including but not limited to
(i) Disclosure to the Department of Justice for purposes of investigation or prosecution of civil or criminal violations of Federal law related to EPA activities;
(ii) Disclosure to the Department of Justice for purposes of representing EPA in any matter; or
(iii) Disclosure to any Federal agency for purposes of performing an EPA statutory function under interagency agreement.
(4) EPA notifies the other agency of any unresolved business confidential. ity claim covering the information and of any determination under this subpart that the information is entitled to confidential treatment, and that further disclosure of the information may be a violation of 18 U.S.C. 1905; and
(5) The other agency agrees in writing not to disclose further any information designated confidential unless
(i) The other agency has statutory authority both to compel production of the information and to make the proposed disclosure, and the other agency has, prior to disclosure of the information to anyone other than its officers and employees, furnished to each affected business at least the same notice to which the affected business would be entitled under this subpart;
(ii) The other agency has obtained the consent of each affected business to the proposed disclosure; or
(iii) The other agency has obtained a written statement from the EPA Gen. eral Counsel or an EPA Regional Counsel that disclosure of the information would be proper under this subpart.
(d) Court-ordered disclosure. EPA may disclose any business information
EPA determines (under Subpart A of this part) that, for reasons other than reasons of business confidentiality, the information is exempt from mandatory disclosure and cannot or should not be made available to the public. Any such determination under subpart A shall be coordinated with actions taken under this subpart for the purpose of avoiding delay in responding to requests under 5 U.S.C. 552.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, if any statute not cited in this subpart appears to require EPA to give confidential treatment to any business information for reasons of business confidentiality, the matter shall be referred promptly to an EPA legal office for resolution. Pending resolution, such information shall be treated as if it were entitled to confidential treatment.
in any manner and to the extent ordered by a Federal court. Where possible, and when not in violation of a specific directive from the court, the EPA office disclosing information claimed as confidential or determined to be confidential shall provide as much advance notice as possible to each affected business of the type of information to be disclosed and to whom it is to be disclosed, unless the affected business has actual notice of the court order. At the discretion of the office, subject to any restrictions by the court, such notice may be given by notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER, letter sent by certified mail return receipt requested, or telegram.
(e) Disclosure within EPA. An EPA office, officer, or employee may disclose any business information to another EPA office, officer, or employee with an official need for the information.
(f) Disclosure with consent of business. EPA may disclose any business information to any person if EPA has obtained the prior consent of each affected business to such disclosure.
(g) Record of disclosures to be maintained. Each EPA office which discloses information to Congress, a committee or subcommittee of Congress, the Comptroller General, or another Federal agency under the authority of paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, shall maintain a record of the fact of such disclosure for a period of not less than 36 months after such disclosure. Such a record, which may be in the form of a log, shall show the name of the affected businesses, the date of disclosure, the person or body to whom disclosure was made, and a description of the information disclosed. (41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 40000, Sept. 8, 1978; 50 FR 51661, Dec. 18, 1985)
8 2.211 Safeguarding of business informa
tion; penalty for wrongful disclosure. (a) No EPA officer or employee may disclose, or use for his or her private gain or advantage, any business information which came into his or her possession, or to which he or she gained access, by virtue of his or her official position or employment, except as authorized by this subpart.
(b) Each EPA officer or employee who has custody or possession of business information shall take appropriate measures to properly safeguard such information and to protect against its improper disclosure.
(c) Violation of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section shall constitute grounds for dismissal, suspension, fine, or other adverse personnel action. Willful violation of paragraph (a) of this section may result in criminal prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 1905 or other applicable statute.
(d) Each contractor or subcontractor with EPA, and each employee of such contractor or subcontractor, who is furnished business information by EPA under $82.301(h), $ 2.302(h), 2.304(h), 2.305(h), 2.306(j), 2.307(h), 2.308(i), or 2.310(i) shall use or disclose that information only as permitted by the contract or subcontract under which the information was furnished. Contractors or subcontractors shall
8 2.210 Nondisclosure for reasons other
than business confidentiality or where disclosure is prohibited by other stat
ute. (a) Information which is not entitled to confidential treatment under this subpart shall be made available to the public (using the procedures set forth in 88 2.204 and 2.205) if its release is requested under 5 U.S.C. 552, unless
(6) Related information concerning business confidentiality.
take steps to properly safeguard business information including following any security procedures for handling and safeguarding business information which are contained in any manuals, procedures, regulations, or guidelines provided by EPA. Any violation of this paragraph shall constitute grounds for suspension or debarment of the contractor or subcontractor in question. A willful violation of this paragraph may result in criminal prosecution. (41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 50 FR 51662, Dec. 18, 1985)
8 2.212 Establishment of control offices
for categories of business information. (a) The Administrator, by order, may establish one or more mutually exclusive categories of business information, and may designate for each such category an EPA office (hereinafter referred to as a control office) which shall have responsibility for taking actions (other than actions required to be taken by an EPA legal office) with respect to all information within such category.
(b) If a control office has been assigned responsibility for a category of business information, no other EPA office, officer, or employee may make available to the public (or otherwise disclose to persons other than EPA officers and employees) any information in that category without first obtaining the concurrence of the control office. Requests under 5 U.S.C. 552 for release of such information shall be referred to the control office.
(c) A control office shall take the actions and make the determinations required by $ 2.204 with respect to all information in any category for which the control office has been assigned responsibility.
(d) A control office shall maintain a record of the following, with respect to items of business information in categories for which it has been assigned responsibility:
(1) Business confidentiality claims;
(2) Comments submitted in support of claims;
(3) Waivers and withdrawals of claims;
(4) Actions and determinations by EPA under this subpart;
(5) Actions by Federal courts; and
8 2.213 Designation by business of ad
dressee for notices and inquiries. (a) A business which wishes to designate a person or office as the proper addressee of communications from EPA to the business under this subpart may do so by furnishing in writing to the Freedom of Information Officer (A-101), Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M St. SW., Washington, DC 20460, the following information: The name and address of the business making the designation; the name, address, and telephone number of the designated person or office; and a request that EPA inquiries and communications (oral and written) under this subpart, including inquiries and notices which require reply within deadlines if the business is to avoid waiver of its rights under this subpart, be furnished to the designee pursuant to this section. Only one person or office may serve at any one time as a business's designee under this subpart.
(b) If a business has named a designee under this section, the following EPA inquiries and notices to the business shall be addressed to the designee:
(1) Inquiries concerning a business's desire to assert a business confidentiality claim, under $ 2.204(c)(2)(i)(A);
(2) Notices affording opportunity to substantiate confidentiality claims, under $ 2.204(d)(1) and § 2.204(e);
(3) Inquires concerning comments, under $ 2.205(b)(4);
(4) Notices of denial of confidential treatment and proposed disclosure of information, under $ 2.205(f);
(5) Notices concerning shortened comment and/or waiting periods under $ 2.205(g);
(6) Notices concerning modifications or overrulings of prior determinations, under $ 2.205(h);
(7) Notices to affected businesses under $82.301(g) and 2.301(h) and analogous provisions in $ $ 2.302, 2.303, 2.304, 2.305, 2.306, 2.307, and 2.308; and
(8) Notices to affected businesses under $ 2.209.
(c) The Freedom of Information Of. ficer shall, as quickly as possible, notify all EPA offices that may possess information submitted by the business to EPA, the Regional Freedom of Information Offices, the Office of General Counsel, and the offices of Regional Counsel of any designation received under this section. Businesses making designations under this section should bear in mind that several working days may be required for dissemination of this information within EPA and that some EPA offices may not receive notice of such designations. (41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978)
8 2.214 Defense of Freedom of Informa
tion Act suits; participation by affected
business. (a) In making final confidentiality determinations under this subpart, the EPA legal office relies to a large extent upon the information furnished by the affected business to substantiate its claim of confidentiality. The EPA legal office may be unable to verify the accuracy of much of the information submitted by the affected business.
(b) If the EPA legal office makes a final confidentiality determination under this subpart that certain business information is entitled to confidential treatment, and EPA is sued by a requester under the Freedom of Information Act for disclosure of that information, EPA will:
(1) Notify each affected business of the suit within 10 days after service of the complaint upon EPA;
(2) Where necessary to preparation of EPA's defense, call upon each affected business to furnish assistance; and
(3) Not oppose a motion by any affected business to intervene as a party to the suit under rule 24(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(c) EPA will defend its final confidentiality determination, but EPA expects the affected business to cooperate to the fullest extent possible in this defense.
into any agreement with any affected business to keep business information confidential unless such agreement is consistent with this subpart. No EPA officer, employee, contractor, or subcontractor shall promise any affected business that business information will be kept confidential unless the promise is consistent with this subpart.
(b) If an EPA office has requested information from a State, local, or Federal agency and the agency refuses to furnish the information to EPA because the information is or may constitute confidential business information, the EPA office may enter into an agreement with the agency to keep the information confidential, notwithstanding the provisions of this subpart. However, no such agreement shall be made unless the General Counsel determines that the agreement is necessary and proper.
(c) To determine that an agreement proposed under paragraph (b) of this section is necessary, the General Counsel must find:
(1) The EPA office requesting the information needs the information to perform its functions;
(2) The agency will not furnish the information to EPA without an agreement by EPA to keep the information confidential; and
(i) EPA has no statutory power to compel submission of the information directly from the affected business, or
(ii) While EPA has statutory power to compel submission of the information directly from the affected business, compelling submission of the information directly from the business would
(A) Require time in excess of that available to the EPA office to perform its necessary work with the information,
(B) Duplicate information already collected by the other agency and overly burden the affected business, or
(C) Overly burden the resources of EPA.
(d) To determine that an agreement proposed under paragraph (b) of this section is proper, the General Counsel must find that the agreement states
(1) The purpose for which the information is required by EPA;
(43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978)
8 2.215 Confidentiality agreements.
(a) No EPA officer, employee, contractor, or subcontractor shall enter
(2) The conditions under which the agency will furnish the information to EPA;
(3) The information subject to the agreement;
(4) That the agreement does not cover information acquired by EPA from another source;
(5) The manner in which EPA will treat the information; and
(6) That EPA will treat the information in accordance with the agreement subject to an order of a Federal court to disclose the information.
(e) EPA will treat any information acquired pursuant to an agreement under paragraph (b) of this section in accordance with the procedures of this subpart except where the agreement specifies otherwise. (43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978)
88 2.216–2.300 (Reserved)
8 2.301 Special rules governing certain in
formation obtained under the Clean
Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section:
(1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.
(2)(i) Emission data means, with reference to any source of emission of any substance into the air
(A) Information necessary to determine the identity, amount, frequency, concentration, or other characteristics (to the extent related to air quality) of any emission which has been emitted by the source (or of any pollutant resulting from any emission by the source), or any combination of the foregoing;
(B) Information necessary to determine the identity, amount, frequency, concentration, or other characteristics (to the extent related to air quality) of the emissions which, under an applicable standard or limitation, the source was authorized to emit (including, to the extent necessary for such purposes, a description of the manner or rate of operation of the source); and
(C) A general description of the location and/or nature of the source to the extent necessary to identify the source and to distinguish it from other sources (including, to the extent necessary for such purposes, a description
of the device, installation, or operation constituting the source).
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, the following information shall be considered to be emission data only to the extent necessary to allow EPA to disclose publicly that a source is (or is not) in compliance with an applicable standard or limitation, or to allow EPA to demonstrate the feasibility, practicability, or attainability (or lack thereof) of an existing or proposed standard or limitation:
(A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on any project, method, device or installation (or any component thereof) which was produced, developed, installed, and used only for research purposes; and
(B) Information concerning any product, method, device, or installation (or any component thereof) designed and intended to be marketed or used commercially but not yet so marketed or used.
(3) Standard of limitation means any emission standard or limitation established or publicly proposed pursuant to the Act or pursuant to any regulation under the Act.
(4) Proceeding means any rulemaking, adjudication, or licensing conducted by EPA under the Act or under regulations which implement the Act, except for determinations under this subpart.
(5) Manufacturer has the meaning given it in section 216(1) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7550(1).
(b) Applicability. (1) This section applies to business information which was
(i) Provided or obtained under section 114 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7414, by the owner or operator of any stationary source, for the purpose (A) of developing or assisting in the development of any implementation plan under section 110 or 111(d) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7410, 7411(d), any standard of performance under section 111 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7411, or any emission standard under section 112 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7412, (B) of determining whether any person is in violation of any such standard or any requirement of such a plan, or (C) of carrying out