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VII. He who, without openly infringing the laws, eludes them by craft or by address, hurts the interests of all: he renders himself unworthy of their benevolence and of their esteem.
VIII. Upon the maintenance of property rest the cultivation of the earth, all produce, all means of labour, and all social order.
IX. Every citizen owes his service to his country, and to the maintenance of liberty, of equality, and of property, as often as the law calls upon him to defend them.
CONSTITUTION. 1. The French Republic is one and indivisible. 2. The universality of French citizens is the sovereign.
HEAD I. 3. France is divided into departments. These departments are - L'Ain, L'Aisne, L'Allier, Les Basses-Alpes, Les Hautes-Alpes, Les Alpes-Maritimes, L'Ardéche, Les Ardennes, L'Arriege, L'Aube, L'Aude, L'Aveyron. Les Bouches du Rhöne. Le Calvados, Le Cantal, La Charente, La Charante-Inférieuré, Le Cher, La Correze, La Cote-d'Or, Les Cotes-du-Nord, La Creuse. La Dordogne, Le Doubs, La Dröme. L'Eure, L'Eureet-Loire. Le Finisterre. Le Gard, La Haut-Garonne, Le Gers, La Gironde, Le Golo. L'Herault. L'Ille-et-Villaine, L'Indre, Indre-et-Loire, L'Isére, Le Jura. Les Landes, Le Liamone, Loir-et-Cher, La Loire, La Haute-Loire, La Loire-Inférieure, Le Loiret, Le Lot, Le Lot-et-Garonne, La Lozère. La Maineet-Loire, La Manche, La Marne, La Haute-Marne, La Mayenne, La Meurthe, La Meuse, Le Mont-Blanc, Le Mont-Terrible, Le Morbihan, La Moselle. La Niévre, Le Nord. L'Oise, L'Orne. Le Pas-de-Calais, Le Puy-de-Döme, Les Basses-Pyrénées, Les Hautes-Pyrénées, Les Pyrénées-Orientales. Le BasRhin, Le Haut-Rhin, Le Rhöne. Le Haut-Saone, Saöne-etLoire, La Sarthe, La Seine, La Seine-Inférieure, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-et-Oise, Les Deux Sèvres, La Somme. Le Tarn. Le Var, La Vaucluse, La Vendée, La Vienne, La Haute-Vienne, Les Vofges. L'Yonne. , ..
4. The limits of departments may be changed or rectified by the legislative body; but, in this case, the surface of a depart. ment cannot exceed one hundred square myriameters, (four hundred square leagues, of two thoufand five hundred and fixty-fix toises each.)
5. Each department is distributed into cantons, each canton into communes. The cantons retain their present limits.—Their limits may, nevertheless, be changed or rectified by the legislative body ; but, in this case, there cannot be more than one myriameter (two leagues, of two thousand five hundred and fixty-fix b 2
toises each) from the most diftant commune to the chief place of
6. The French colonies are integral parts of the Republic, and fubje&t to the fame conftitutional law.
7. They are divided into departments as follow : The island of St. Domingo, the legislative body of which shall settle the division into four departments at least, or fix at most. Guadaloupe, Marie-Galante, Défiada, Les Saintes, and the French part of St. Martin; Martinico; French Guiana and Cayenne; St. Lucia and Tobago; the Isle of France, Les Seychelles, Roderigue, and the establishments of Madagascar. The ifle of Re-union ; the East Indies, Pondicherry, Chandernagor, Mahé, Karical, and other establithinents.
Political State of Citizens. 8. Every man born and resident in France, who, being twentyone years of age, has inscribed his name on the civic register of his canton, and who has lived afterward one year on the territory of the Republic, and who pays a direct contribution, real or personal, is a French citizen.
9. Frenchmen who have made one or more campaigns for the establishment of the Republic, are citizens without any condition of contribution.
10. A foreigner becomes a French citizen when, after having attained the age of twenty-one years, and having declared his intention of settling in France, he has resided there for seven years following, provided he pays a direct contribution, and moreover possesses a real property, or an establishment in agriculture or commerce, or has married a French woman.
11. French citizens alone can vote in the primary assemblies, and be called to the functions established by the constitution.
12. The exercise of the rights of a citizen is lost, ist, by naturalization in a foreign country; 2d, by affiliation with any foreign corporation, which supposes distinctions of birth, or requires religious vows; 3d, by the acceptance of functions, or of pensions offered by a foreign government; 4th, by condemnation to corporal or infamous punishment, until recapacitation.
13. The exercise of the rights of citizens is suspended, ift, by a judicial interdict on account of insanity, idiotism, or imbecility ; 2d, by a state of bankruptcy, or being an immediate heir, and detaining gratuitously, the whole or part of the succession of a bankrupt; 3d, by being a domestic on wages, attending on the person, or serving in the house ; 4th, by being under accusation; 5th, by a sentence of contumacy, until that sentence fhall be annulled,
14. The exercise of the rights of citizens is neither loft nor suspended in the two preceding articles, but in cases pronounced upon.
15. Every citizen who has resided seven years following out of the territory of the Republic, without mission or authorization given in the name of the nation, is reputed a foreigner. He becomes not a French citizen until he has conformed to the condia tions prescribed by article 10.
16. Young men cannot be inscribed on the civic register, unless they prove that they can read and write, and exercise a mechanical profession. The manual operations of agriculture belong to mechanic professions.—This article not to operate till the twelfth year of the Republic.
Primary Assemblies. 17. The primary assemblies are composed of citizens domiciliated in the same canton.-The domiciliation requisite for voting in these assemblies is acquired by simple residence during a year, and is lost by a year's absence.
18. No man can vote by deputy in the primary assemblies, or yote, for the same object, in more than one of these assemblies.
19. There is one primary affembly at least for every canton. When there are several, each is composed of four hundred and fifty citizens at least, or nine hundred at most. These numbers are understood of citizens present or absent, having a right to yote in them.
20. The primary assemblies are constituted provisionally, under the presidency of the oldest man ; the youngest fills provisionally the office of secretary.
21. They are definitively constituted in nominating, by ballot, a president, a secretary, and three serutineers.
22. If difficulties arise on the right of voting, the assembly decides provisionally, saying recourse to the civil tribunal of de. partments.
every other case, the legislative body alone pronounces on the validity of the operations of the primary affeinblies.
24. No man can appear in arms in the primary assemblies. 25. Their police belongs to themselves.
26. The primary assemblies meet-1. To accept or reject the constitution proposed by the assemblies of revision. 2. To make the elections which belong to them according to the constitution.
27. They assemble in full right on the ist Germinal (March 21) of each year, and proceed, according as there may be occasion, to the election---I. Of the members of the electoral assemblies. 2. Of the justice of peace and his affeffors. 3. Of the president
of the municipal administration of the canton, or of the municipal officers in communes of more than five thousand inhabitants.
28. Immediately after these elections, there are held, in communes of less than five thousand inhabitants, communal assemblies, which elect the agents of each commune and their assistants.
29. Whatever is done in a primary or communal affembly beyond the object of its convocation, and against the forms determined by the constitution, is null.
30. The assemblies, whether primary or communal, make no elections but those which are attributed to them by the constitution.
31. All the elections are made by secret ballot.
32. Every citizen who is legally convicted of having fold or bought a suffrage, is excluded from the primary and communal alfemblies, and from all public functions, for twenty years; in case of a second offence, he is excluded for ever,
Electoral Asemblies. 33. Each primary assembly nominates one elector foś two hun. dred citizens, prefent or absent, who have a right to vote in the faid affembly. To the number of three hundred citizens inclufively, but one elector is nominated.--Two are nominated, for from three to five hundred.--Three, for from five hundred and one to seven hundred.— Four, for from seven hundred and one to nine hundred.
34. The members of the electoral assemblies are nominated every year, and cannot be re-elected till after an interval of two years. 35.
No man can be nominated an elector, if he be not twentyfive years
of age, and if he do not unite to the qualifications néceffary for exercising the rights of a French citizen, one of the following conditions, viz.- In communes of more than six thou-, sand inhabitants, that of being proprietor, or having the usufruct of a property, valued at a revenue equal to the local value of two hundred days labour; or being lessee, either of a habitation va. lued at a revenue equal to the value of one hundred and fifty days labour, or of a rural property, valued at one hundred and fifty days labour. In communes of less than fix thousand inha. bitants, that of being proprietor, or having the usufruct of a propérty, valued at a revenue' equal to the local value of one hundred and fifty days labour; or of being lessee, either of a habitation, valued at a revenue equal to the value of one hundred days labour, or of a rural property, valued at one hundred days labour. And in the country, that of being proprietor, or having the usufruct of a property, valued at a revenue equal to the local value of one hundred and fifty days labour; of of being the renter
(fermier où metayer *) of property valued at two hundred days labour. With respect to those who may be proprietors, or have the usufruct of one property, and be lessee, or renters of another, their means under both heads thall be taken cumulatively, to make out the necessary qualification for being eligible.
36. The electoral assembly of cach department meets on the 20th Germinal (April 9) of each year, and terminates in one single session of ten days at most, and without the power of adjourning, all the elections to be made ; after which it is diffolved of full right.
37. The electoral assemblies cannot employ themselves upon any object foreign to the election with which they are charged; they can neither fend nor receive any address, any petition, any deputation.
38. The electoral assemblies cannot correspond with one another.
39. No citizen, having been a member of an electoral afsem. bly, can take the title of elector, or meet in this quality with those who have been members of the same assembly with him.The contravention of this article is an infringement of the general safety.
40. Articles 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 31, and 32, of the preceding title on the primary assemblies, are common to the electoral assemblies.
41. The electoral assemblies choose, as there may be occasion -1. The members of the legislative body, viz. the members of the council of elders, afterwards the members of the council of five hundred. 2. The members of the tribunal of annulment, 3. The high jurors. 4. The adıninistrators of departments. 5. The president, public accuser, and register of the criminal tribunal. 6. The judges of the civil tribunals.
42. When a citizen is elected by the electoral assemblies to replace a functionary who is dead, resigned, or removed, that citizen is elected only for the time that remained to the functionary replaced.
43. The commissary of the executive directory belonging to the administration of each department, is bound, on pain of removal, to inform the directory of the opening and closing of the electoral assemblies: this commiffary can neither stop nor suspend the operations, nor enter the place of fitting of the assembly ; but he has a right to demand communication of the minutes of each sitting within the twenty-four hours following, and he is bound to denounce to the directory infractions of the constitutional act. In all cases the legislative body alone pronounces on the validity of the operations of the electoral assemblies.
* Metayer, is a person who rents both a farm and the stock upon it.