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the point of stoical philosophy, which says, pain is not an evil. During the discourse, upon every puncture he felt from his distemper, he smiled and cried out, Pain, Pain, be as impertinent and trou. blesome as you please, I shall never own that thou art an evil.'

MR. SPECTATOR,

HAVING seen in several of your papers & concern for the honour of the clergy, and their doing every thing as becomes their character, and particularly performing the public service with a due zeal and devotion; I am the more encouraged to lay before them, by your means, several expressions used by some of them in their prayers before sermon, which I am not well satisfied in. As their giving some titles and epithets to great men, which are indeed due to them in their several ranks and stations, but not properly used, I think, in our prayers. Is it not contradiction to say, illustrious, right reverend, and right honourable poor sinners? These distinctions are suited only to our state here, and have no place in heaven: we see they are omitted in the liturgy; which, I think, the clergy should take for their pattern in their own forms of devotion*. There is

* In the original publication of this paper in folio, there was the following passage, left out when the papers were printed. in volumes in 1712.

[Another expression which I take to be improper, is this, the whole race of mankind, when they pray for all men; for race signifies lineage or descent; and if the race of mankind may be used for the present generation, (though, I think, not very fitly) the whole race takes in all from the beginning to the end of the world. I don't remember to have met with that expression, in their sense, any where but in the old version of Psalm xiv. which those men I suppose, have but little esteem for. And some, when they have prayed for all schools and nurseries of good learning and true religion, especially the

another expression which I would not mention, but that I have heard it several times before a learned congregation, to bring in the last petition of the prayer in these words, “ O let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once;" as if there was no difference between Abraham's interceding for Sodom, for which he had no warrant, as we can find, and our asking those things which we are required to pray for; they would therefore have much more reason to fear his anger if they did not make such petitions to him. There is another pretty fancy. When a young man has a mind to let us know who gave him his scarf, he speaks a parenthesis to the Almighty. Bless, as I am in duty bound to pray, the right honourable the countess ;” is not that as much as to say, 66 Bless her, for thou knowest I am her chaplain?”

Your humble servant, T.

66

J. o.'

two universities, add these words, Grant that from them, and all other places dedicated to thy worship and service, may come forth such persons, &c.' But what do they mean by all other places? It seems to me, that this is either a tautology, as being the same with all schools and nurseries before expressed, or else it runs too far; for there are several places de dicated to the divine service, which cannot properly be intended here.)

Spectator in folio.

N° 313. THURSDAY, FEB. 28, 1711-12.

Exigi:e ut mores teneros seu pullice ducat,
Ut si quis cerâ vultum facit,

JUV. Sat. vii. 237.
Bid him besides his daily pains employ,
To form the tender manners of the boy,
And work him, like a waxen babe, with art,
To perfect symmetry in ev'ry part.

CH. DRYDEN. I SHALL give the following letter no other recom mendation than by telling my readers that it comes from the same hand with that of last Thursday.

SIR,

I send you, according to my promise, some farther thoughts on the education of youth, in which I intended to discuss that famous question, “ Whether the education at a public school, or under a private tutor, is to be preferred?

• As some of the greatest men in most ages have been of very different opinions in this matter, I shall give a short account of what I think

may

be best urged on both sides, and afterwards leave every person to determine for himself.

• It is certain from Suetonius, that the Romans thought the education of their children a business properly belonging to the parents themselves; and Plutarch, in the Life of Marcus Cato, tells us, that as soon as his son was capable of learning, Cato would suffer no body to teach him but himself, though he had a servant named Chilo, who was an excellent grammarian, and who taught a great many other youths.

On the contrary, the Greeks seemed more in. clined to public schools and seminaries.

• A private education promises, in the first place, virtue and good breeding; a public school, manly assurance, and an early knowledge in the ways of the world.

Mr. Locke, in his celebrated treatise of educa. tion, confesses, that there are inconveniences to be feared on both sides : “ If,” says he, “ I keep my son at home, he is in danger of becoming my young master; if I send him abroad, it is scarce possible to keep him from the reigning contagion of rudeness and vice. He will perhaps be more innocent at home, but more ignorant of the world, and more sheepish when he comes abroad.” However, as this learned author asserts, that virtue is much more difficult to be obtained than knowledge of the world, and that vice is a more stubborn, as well as a more dangerous fault than sheepishness, he is altogether for a private education; and the more so, because he does not see why a youth, with right management, might not attain the same assurance in his father's house, as at a public school. To this end, he advises parents to accustom their sons to what. ever strange faces come to the house: to take them with them when they visit their neighbours, and to engage them in conversation with men of parts and breeding.

• It may be objected to this method, that conver. sation is not the only thing necessary; but that unless it be a conversation with such as are in some measure their equals in parts and years, there can be no room for emulation, contention, and several of the most lively passions of the mind; which, without being sometimes moved, by these means, may possibly contract a dulness and insen. sibility.

• One of the greatest writers our nation crer produced observes, that a boy who forms parties, and makes himself popular in a school or a college, would act the same part with equal case in a scuate or a privy-council; and Mr. Osborne, speaking like a man versed in the ways of the world, affirms, that the well laying and carrying on of a design to rob an orchard, trains up a youth insensibly to caution, secrecy, and circumspection, and fits him for matters of greater importance.

. In short, a private education seems the most na. tural method for the forming of a virtuous man ; a public education for inaking a man of business. The first would furnish out a good subject for Plato's republic, the latter a member for a community overrun with artifice and corruption.

It must, however, be confessed, that a person at the head of a public school has sometimes so many boys under his direction, that it is impossible he should extend a due proportion of his care to each of them. This is, however, in reality, the fault of the age, in which we often see twenty parents, who, though each expects his son should be made a scholar, are not contented all together to make it worth while for any man of a liberal education to take upon him the care of their instruction.

In our great schools, indeed, this fault has been of late years rectified, so that we have at present not only ingenious men for the chief masters, but such as have proper ushers and assistants under them. I must nevertheless own, that for want of the same encouragement in the country, we have many a promising genius spoiled and abused in those little seminaries.

"I am the more inclined to this opinion, having myself experienced the usage of two rural masters, cach of them very unfit for the trust they took upon

VOL. XI.

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