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N° 374. FRIDAY, MAY 9, 1712.

Nil actum reputans si quid superesset agendum.

LUCAN. ii. 57.
He reckon'd not the past, while aught remain'd
Great to be done, or mighty to be gain'd.



There is a fault, which, though common, wants a

It is the very contrary to procrastination. As we lose the present hour by delaying from day to day to execute what we ought to do immediately, so most of us take occasion to sit still and throw away the time in our possession, by retrospect on what is past, imagining we have already acquitted ourselves, and established our characters in the sight of mankind. But when we thus put a value upon ourselves for what we have already done, any farther than to explain ourselves in order to assist our future conduct, that will give us an over-weening opinion of our merit, to the prejudice of our present industry. The great rule, methinks, should be, to manage the instant in which we stand, with fortitude, equanimity, and moderation, according to men's respective circumstances. If our past actions reproach us, they cannot be atoned for by our own severe reflections so effectually as by a contrary behaviour. If they are praise-worthy, the memory of them is of no use but to act suitably to them. Thus a good present behaviour is an implicit repentance for any miscarriage in what is past; but present slackness will not make up for past activity. Time has swal. lowed up all that we contemporaries did yesterday, as irrevocably as it has the actions of the antedi.

Juvians. But we are again awake, and what shall we do to-day-to-day which passes while we are yet speaking ? Shall we remember the folly of last night, or resolve upon the exercise of virtue to. morrow? Last night is certainly gone, and to-morrow may never arrive. This instant make use of. Can you oblige any man of honour and virtue? Do it immediately. Can you visit a sick friend? Will it revive him to see you enter, and suspend your own ease and pleasure to comfort his weakness, and hear the impertinences of a wretch in pain ? Do not stay to take coach, but be gone. Your mistress will bring sorrow, and your bottle madness. Go to neither- Such virtues and diversions as these are mentioned because they occur to all men. But every man is sufficiently convinced, that to suspend the use of the present moment, and resolve better for the future only, is an unpardonable folly. What I attempted to consider, was the mischief of setting such a value upon what is past, as to think we have done enough. Let a man have filled all the offices of life with the highest dignity till yesterday, and begin to live only to himself to-day, he must expect he will, in the effects upon his reputation, be con. sidered as the man who died yesterday. The man who distinguishes himself from the rest, stands in a press of people: those before him intercept his progress; and those behind him, if he does not urge on, will tread him down. Cæsar, of whom it was said that he thought nothing done while there was left any thing for him to do, went on in per. forming the greatest exploits, without assuming to himself a privilege of taking rest upon the foundation of the merit of his former actions. It was the manner of that glorious captain to write down what scenes he had passed through; but it was rather to

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keep his affairs in method, and capable of a clear review, in case they should be examined by others, than that he built a renown upon any thing that was past. I shall produce two fragments of his, to de. monstrate tbat it was his rule of life to support himself rather by what he should perform, than what he had done already. In the tablet which he wore about him the same year in which he obtained the battle of Pharsalia, there were found these loose notes of his own conduct. It is supposed, by the circumstances they alluded to, that they miglit be set down the evening of the same night.

My part is now but begun, and my glory mast be sustained by the use I make of this victory; otherwise my loss will be greater than that of Pom. pey. Our personal reputation will rise or fall as we bear our respective fortunes. All my private ene. mies among the prisoners shall be spared. I will forget this, in order to obtain such another day. Trebutius is ashamed to see me: I will go to his tent, and be reconciled in private. Give all the men of honour, who take part with me, the terms I offered before the battle. Let them owe this to their friends who have been long in my interests. Power is weakened by the full use of it, but ex. tended by moderation. Galbinius is proud, and will be servile in his present fortune: let him wait. Send for Stertinius: he is modest, and his virtue is worth gaining. I have cooled my heart with reflection, and am fit to rejoice with the army to-morrow. He is a popular general, who can expose him. self like a private man during a battle; but he is more popular who can rejoice but like a private man after a victory.' : What is particularly proper for the example of all who pretend to industry in the pursuit of tro

nour and virtue, is, that this hero was more than ordinarily solicitous about his reputation, when a common mind would have thought itself in security, and given itself a loose to joy and triumph. But though this is a very great instance of his temper, I must confess I am more taken with his reflections when he retired to his closet in some disturbance upon the repeated ill omens of Calphurnia's dream, the night before his death. The literal translation of that fragment shall conclude this paper.

Be it so then. If I am to die to-morrow, that is what I am to do to-morrow. It will not be then, because I am willing it should be then; nor shall I escape it, because I am unwilling. It is in the gods when, but in myself how, I shall die. If Calphurnia's dreams are fumes of indigestion, how shall I behold the day after to-morrow? If they are from the gods, their admonition is not to prepare me to escape from their decree, but to meet it. I have lived to a ful. ness of days and of glory : what is there that Cæsar has not done with as much honour as ancient heroes ? Cæsar has not yet died! Cæsar is prepared to die.'


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N° 375. SATURDAY, MAY 10, 1719.

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Non possidenterk multa, vocaveris
Rectè beatum : rectiùs eocupat
Nomen beati, qui deorum

Muneribus sapienter uti,
Duramque callet pauperiem pati,
Pejusque letho flagitium times.

HOR. 4 Od. ix. (
We barbarously call them blest
Who are of largest tenements possest,
While swelling coffers break their owner's resta

More truly happy those who can

Govern that little empire man;
Who spend their treasure freely, as 'twas giv'n
By the large bounty of indulgent hcav'n;
Who, in a fix'd, unalterable state,

Smile at the doubtful tide of Fate,
And scorn alike her friendship and her hate;

Who poison less than falsehood fear,
Loth to purchase life so dear.


I have more than once had occasion to mention a noble saying of Seneca the philosopher, that a vir. tuous person struggling with misfortunes, and rising above them, is an object on which the gods them. selves may look down with delight. I shall there. fore set before my reader a scene of this kind of distress in private life, -for the speculation of this day.

An eminent citizen, who had lived in good fashion and credit, was, by a train of accidents, and by an anavoidable perplexity in his affairs, reduced to a low condition. There is a modesty usually attending faultless poverty, which made him rather choose to reduce bis manner of living to his present circum

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