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or three turns with the tying-silk over the stem of the hackle and the bare shank-top, as shown at c (fig. 16.). Use the catch, to hold the tying-silk down out of the way, and pull Fig. 16. the stem of the hackle in order to be sure that you have it close upon the shank; for, unless this care be taken, it is liable to uncoil while fastening. Cut off the super

fluous stem, take another turn or two with the silk, and fasten off with two half-hitches, thus: — Stop the last coil of the tying-silk, and throw the silk over in the direction of the arrow in fig. 17., in the form of a ring. Again stop while

you pass the end b (fig. 17.) through the ring, and draw it tight. The head of the fly, if finished properly, will appear as fig. 18.

TO MAKE A BUZZ-FLY.

The making of a palmer will have taught so

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much of the general manipulations of fly-making and their principles, that very little remains to be done in order to apply them to every description of fly. Abuzz-fly (fig. 19.) is much easier to make than either a palmer or a wing-fly, on account of the less troublesome character of the hackle in the one case, and the less number of materials in the other.

Proceed exactly as directed for the palmer, except that the hackle must be tied in about half way up the shank, instead of at the bend, as d at (fig. 20.). If you make the body of herl, or of silk, tie it in as for the body of the palmer; but if the body is to be of dubbing, a few fibres of that material must be formed, by twirling them between the fingers, into a mass of a taper form and double the length of the part of the shank you intend to cover with the body (c, fig. 20.). Of course, if you want a thick or thin body, the quantity of fur must be proportioned accordingly; practice will soon enable you to judge to a nicety of the proper quantity. When you have arrived at the stage of the process at which the materials for the body are to be tied in (viz., after the hook and gut are attached), and have there fastened the silk or other material for rib, if required, take the dubbing and apply its finer end to the bend of the hook, from which the tying-silk is depending, and, with the finger and thumb of your right hand, twist the dubbing and the silk together evenly and not tightly, and wind both, thus twisted together, up the shank, to form the body, fastening the hackle in your way upwards, with one turn over its point, at d (fig. 20.), and continuing to wind the dubbing beyond it to the top of the shank. There, between the gut and shank-top, leave the tying-silk, which you must be careful is now free from any particles of dubbing, or the neatness of the head will be destroyed, and proceed to wind up the rib in the manner before directed for winding the gold twist of the palmer, and fasten it at the head in the same way; completing the fly by winding the hackle in close coils to the head, and securing it there with half hitches. Buzz, as well as wing-flies, generally require whisks, which are intended to imitate the setae or tail-like appendages of the natural insect. These must be tied in, at the bend of the hook, immediately after the first operation of attaching the hook and gut, and before the tying in of the materials for the body. Two turns of the silk are sufficient to secure them; indeed, you must be sparing of winding the tying-silk too much at this end of the body, or you will make the fly clumsy at the very place which ought to be particularly fine and neat.

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TO MAKE A WING-FLY.

The operations are the same as those for making a buzz-fly, as far as they go, the only difference between the two classes being the addition of wings; except that the hackle, which in the wing-fly is intended to represent legs only, should have less plume, and be altogether on a smaller scale than for a buzz-fly made on a hook of the same size. This is illustrated in fig. 21., in which a represents a hackle prepared for a wing-fly, and b one prepared for a fly made buzz. The tying on of the wing must be effected after the hackle is wound and fastened, taking care that sufficient head-room be left for

Fig. 21.

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the purpose. We mean by head-room the bare part of the hook shank at the top, where the head of the fly is represented and the general fastening off is performed. To prepare the wing.—With the fore-finger and thumb of your left hand take by the shortest plumes (a, fig. 22.) a wing feather of the kind required, and with the thumb and fore-finger of your right hand stroke a portion of the plumes of the opposite side (rejecting the extreme part nearest the quill) till it stands at right angles with the stem, as b. Select a proper quantity (somewhat less than that shown in the figure) and bring it even at the points, being careful not to disarrange the fibres, as regards their cohesiveness. Pinch it tightly, to prevent any slipping, and with a sudden motion strip it cleanly off. Fold it so that the undermost side of the fibres (the side which grew nearest the body of the bird) may stand outward, and press it or ----with the thumb-nail at the point -round which the tying-silk will pass in tying it on (b), that it may lie the neater. When thus prepared it will resemble fig. 23.

Fig. 23.

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