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er over the east of Europe. But Kosciusko would take no part in this struggle, which was conducted by DomTHADDEUS KOSCIUSKO was one of nature's noble-browski, in 1807 and 1808, being prevented less by ill But he was noble by patent also. His family health than by having given his word to Paul I. never was very ancient. He was born about the middle of the to serve against the Russians. To Napoleon's propoeighteenth century, in Lithuania, and was educated at sals he answered, that he would exert himself in the Warsaw. He studied military tactics in France. He cause of Poland, when he saw the country possessed loved solitude and study. In early life his spirit was of its ancient territories, and having a free constitution.' roused by recitals of the wrongs endured by the Amer- Fouché tried every means to carry him to Poland. An ican provinces, and the bold heroism of the citizens in appeal to the Poles, which appeared under his name in self-defense. He came to their aid, proffered his servi- the Moniteur of November 1, 1806, he declared to be ces, and became General Washington's aid. He dis-spurious. Having purchased an estate in the neighbortinguished himself in several engagements, and his hood of Fontainebleau, he lived there in retirement bearing at the siege of Ninety-Six was romantically until 1814. April 9, 1814, he wrote to the Emperor brave. He returned to Poland in 1786. Alexander to ask of him an amnesty for the Poles in In 1789 he was made a Major General in the Polish || foreign lands, and to request him to become king of Poarmy, and served under Poniatowski. When Stanisland, and to give to the country a free constitution, like laus was conquered, he refused submission, and with that of England. In 1815, he traveled with Lord several other officers, left the subdued army, and retire Stewart to Italy, and, in 1816, he settled at Soleure. from Poland. The assembly of France at the same In 1817, he abolished slavery on his estate of Siecnowtime gave him the privileges of a French citizen. icze, in Poland. He afterwards lived in retirement, enWhen the oppressed Polanders made a fresh effort for joying the society of a few friends. Agriculture was freedom, they called Kosciusko to the head of their ar- his favorite occupation. A fall with his horse from a mies. He advanced at the head of only 4000 men, precipice, not far from Vevay, occasioned his death, half armed, to meet and put to the rout 12,000 Rus- October 16, 1817, at Soleure. He was never married. sians. Soon, however, he was shut up in Warsaw by In 1818, Prince Jablanowski, at the expense of the a besieging force of 60,000 Prussian and Russian Emperor Alexander, removed his body, which, at the troops. But the Polanders rose in their might and request of the senate, the Emperor allowed to be deposcompelled the besiegers to retire. ited in the tomb of the kings at Cracow. A monuKosciusko, with 60,000 troops, mostly untrained ment was also erected to his memory, and the women peasants, maintained himself against twice that num-of Poland went into mourning for his loss." ber of veteran troops. His efforts were unprecedented, During his second visit to America, Kosciusko resiand were crowned with success, until Catharine, the ded at West Point. This is one of the most charming Queen of Russia, overwhelmed Poland by superior scenes on the face of the whole earth, and no surer evinumbers. The united Russian forces assailed the dence could be given of destitution of taste, than the unPoles, not one-third their number, and were three times admiring passage of the Highlands in a clear summer's repulsed, but prevailed at last. Kosciusko fell from his day. On the elevated bench which contains the buildhorse in the midst of the carnage, covered with wounds,ings of the Military School, in fair view of the river exclaiming, "Finis Poloniæ," and was made prisoner. craft, stands the white marble monument represented In him fell devoted Poland. in the engraving. Near this spot Kosciusko cultivated Catharine caused the chieftain and his associates, a garden; and it was meet to erect this shaft upon the prisoners of war, to be incarcerated in prison. But ground which afforded him retirement, when his patriPaul I. liberated the captives, and treated his noble pris-otic hopes were withered, and his arm, so often raised oner with marks of esteem, presenting him his sword, || in defense of his country, hung down in despair. which Kosciusko returned with these memorable words, In reviewing the history of such a man, and witness"Since I have no longer a country to defend, I no long-ing the many virtues which ennobled his enterprising er need a sword." To his dying day he never after-life, the Christian will almost involuntarily inquire, ward wore a sword. was he also a man of prayer? Did he "pass through the regeneration," and die the friend of God? How true it is that the sublimest human virtues in the world's estimation, are at last all in vain, without the "Napoleon afterwards formed the plan of restoring sprinkling of a Savior's blood, and the sanctifying powPoland to its place among the nations, and thus, at the er of the Holy Spirit. "Except a man be born again same time, injuring Russia and extending his own pow- "he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." H.

Kosciusko now passed through France, where all paid him reverence, to America, which he reached in





To make such an impression deep and abiding, there is probably nothing better adapted than to revisit the place of our childhood, youth, and early manhood, after years of continued absence. You return to the spot where THERE is nothing stable and permanent in life. It memory calls up a thousand living and thrilling associhas no fixed, abiding point. The stream of time never ations. In every thing what a change! An extended stands, but hastens on to the fathomless ocean of eter-circle of early acquaintance is converted into a community. Floating onward upon its bosom, while all men nity of strangers. You must undertake the task of around us are borne forward at the same ratio of pro- learning an entire new catalogue of proper names. gression with ourselves, it is not passing strange that You will find an exercise of your skill in physiognowe should not correctly note the great changes which my in the recognition of strange faces. As you pass are perpetually transpiring in society. The progress the streets of your native village, the houses of busiof each individual through the different stages and ness, offices, and shops, and the golden lettered profesperiods of life is not only constant, but so gradual sional cards, all denote new occupants. Go to the as scarcely to be perceptible to the unreflecting, unless place where you received a knowledge of the elements by some event, calculated to arrest the attention and to of your native language, and your first intellectual direct it to this object, the mind is roused from its rev-training, where the young idea was first taught how to erie, and the waking dream is dissipated. But the bus-shoot, and inquire for the companions of those blithetle and strife of business-the ordinary routine of do- some days, and not one is found. Go next to the holy mestic cares and duties-the eager pursuits of science, sanctuary. Here those love to meet who have taken which drink up the spirits, and rivet the attention to a sweet counsel together-they delight to go to the house given class of objects, centring all the energies of of God in company, and mingle their songs and aspiramind in one channel—and the all-engrossing and active tions, their sighs and their tears, their hopes and their duties of a learned profession-all these, midst scenes fears, their joys and their sorrows. But where are which have become familiar and seem to remain unva- those who, in other days, associated together here? rying, are quite unfavorable to a due appreciation of You look around for them in vain. They no longer the new and varying aspects which human society con-occupy their seats in the great congregation, or come stantly presents. Under such circumstances, great and round the sacramental board. They are gone-they striking changes succeed each other, and go on for dwell in the spirit land. Or do you sit down with years both in ourselves and others, and yet remain by some surviving friend of other days, and select some us quite unperceived. Tender, smiling infancy may individual from memory's record of those whose acgive place to prattling, volatile, inquisitive childhood-quaintance was identified with other times, for the purchildhood be transformed into cheerful, aspiring, ambi- pose of reviving their personal history? Such a one tious youth-youth ripen into strong and vigorous has long since emigrated. Another has met with such manhood, and manhood may, with a smooth and steady or such a revolution in the domestic relations, or secucurrent flow on through all the varied scenes of active lar interests; or what will interest you to know, whethand useful life, till old age steals upon us with scarce er for weal or woe, in moral character and prospects. an echo of its advancing footsteps, unless, perhaps, we Of some you will weep to hear of their relapse, while are admonished of its invasion by some incident-in- the reclamation and espousal to the cause of Christ of firmity, the growing obtuseness of the senses, or the others will strike joy to the centre of your heart. waste of that strength, agility, and elasticity, while in Casting about among your early acquaintance, you the full possession of which weariness and debility were will be startled to find that such a youth of your acto us perfect strangers-we may pass from one extreme quaintance, in departed years, now fills such a civil ofto the other almost without cognizance of the transit. fice, or some responsible station, has entered upon such a profession, is prosecuting such an enterprise, eager in pursuit of honor, wealth or pleasure; or perhaps a higher seat in your esteem is claimed, while your heart kindles with holy gratitude, when you learn that such a one has selected a loftier object, and makes life an offering to the honor of God and the good of men. Such and such, you learn, have been struck from the register of the living, mourned by many, forgotten by some, unknown to others, and to most as though they had not been.

And for this we may account, from the fact that, ordinarily, in proportion as objects become familiar, they arrest the attention less; also, probably, from our being accustomed to looking forward with hope and anticipation to the future rather than dwelling on the present, retrospecting the past, or comparing the past with the present, especially if such a view is calculated to awaken conscience, or call to remembrance our own mortality. Such a view is not adapted to warm into being emotions of gayety and light-heartedness. Indeed, when we take a moralizing and sentimental survey of the past, and number the years which have fled, and into circumstances. To some, as they entered the dark reflect on the changes they have wrought, both in our-valley, it seemed as if a black and rayless night of horselves and others, a feeling of pensiveness will almost ||ror and despair were shutting in around them. Others, irresistibly steal over the mind. And this is neither as they reached the margin, and looked off on the strange nor wrong, for it is instinctive. boundless ocean on which they were about to embark,

But listen to their history a little farther. Inquire




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