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A teachable spirit was also a characteristic of the may adopt the language of Whittier, in his beautiful sisters of Bethany. Mary, as before remarked, sat poem of Palestine: at Jesus' feet, and learned of him who was meek “Yet, loved of the Father, thy spirit is near and lowly. It was the privilege of Martha to con To the meek, and the lowly, and penitent here; verse with her Lord on that most interesting subject,

And the voice thy love is the same even now

As at Bethany's tomb, or on Olivet's brow. the resurrection of the dead. “Thy brother shall rise again," is the language of our Savior. “I know,"

O, the outward hath gone! but in glory and power replied Martha, “that he shall rise again in the resur

The spirit surviveth the things of an hour;

Unchanged, undecaying, its Pentecost flame rection at the last day.” Consoling thought! Then On the heart's secret altar is burning the same." shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the king

L. E. A. dom of our God—then shall kindred souls be joined in an indissoluble union, where songs and everlasting joy shall be upon the head, and sorrow and sighing shall

Original. be unknown! “The meek will he teach his way,” is

THE ADIEU. the promise of God'; and it was a teachable spirit in the sisters of Bethany which led them to the possession

A SCENE OF THE REVOLUTION. of that faith which forms another prominent trait of character. The language of Martha and Mary, when period which tried men's souls. There are preserved a great

The Revolution, by way of distinction, has been called the first they saw the Savior, after the death of Lazarus, number of anecdotes of heroic deeds and sufferings, which was, “Lord, if thou hadst been here my brother had prove that it well deserved that appellation. Were I attemplnot died.” They believed he had power to rescue evening to picture the patriotic bearing of our fathers on that occafrom the monster, Death; and they also had some hope sion, I would ask no deeper shades for the piece than are pre

sented below. that he would rescue even from the dominion of the

“ The wedding ceremony closed. Leander and Lavinia were grave; for Martha adds, “but I know that even now seated side by side, and their friends were pressing near to sa. whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, God will give it!ute them with friendly congratulations. The mother of the thee.” “I am the resurrection and the life,” is the in-stood holding the hand of her daughter. That moment the door

bride had iinpressed an affectionate kiss on the lips of each, and structive reply; "he that believeth in me, though he of the apartment burst open and one of the neighboring yeowere dead, yet shall he live. Believest thou this?"| men thrust himself into the midst of the circle, crying, 'To “Yes, Lord,” answered Martha, “I believe thou art the arms ! to arms!' A moment's explanation revealed to the Christ, the anointed one, the promised, the long expected in the vicinity of Lexingwn. Blood was spilled. Leander

happy company the fearful scene which was then being enacted Messiah.” The weeping Mary and her sister were sprang from his seat, gave his fair Lavinia one hasty, servent comforted. Lazarus was promised to their faith, and kiss, and in five minutes more his fleet horse was bearing him, the astonished Jews, who had assembled around the sword in hand, to the aid of his brave and bleeding country. sepulchre, saw Lazarus, at the command of the Savior, God, come forth, resuscitated by divine power, a living I go, my love! receive my quick adieuwitness to glorify God.

False to my country, I were false to you; Faith is omnipotent. It brings consolation in the 'Twas late I met thee with a raptured heart, darkest hour. It lifts the vail of futurity, and reveals The charm is broken, and we quickly partto us the weight of glory which shall compensate the But, parting, many a thought will linger here, patient endurance of all our afflictions. Martha and And many a sigh will prove this heart sincere; Mary had their faith rewarded. So may every daugh. Fancy shall paint the beauty of these scenes, ter of Zion; and like them, too, show forth their grati- || And tread this carpet in noctural dreams. tude. Martha ministered to our Savior and his disci- The parlor where we pass’d the short-lived days, ples a few days before his crucifixion. We may give the sofa where we sat and joined our lays, a cup of cold water to a disciple in the name of a dis- The fire-side where our evening hours have sped, ciple. We may feed the hungry and clothe the naked. While pleased and charmed on mutual thought we fed; We may send the word of life to the destitute, and hear| The rich parterre, bedecked with sweetest flowers, it said, in the day of final reckoning, “Inasmuch as ye Diversified with rural walks and bowers; did it unto the least of these, my brethren, ye did it | The modest seat where love has held discourse, unto me.” Mary anointed our Savior with costly per-| And charm'd each heart, imprisoned by its force; fume. She wiped his feet with the hair of her head. The listening trees which waved their gentle boughs, In humility it is our privilege to bow before him. Our And heard with sympathy our solemn vows; prayers may ascend as incense, and the “heart's adora- The balmy breeze which fanned the cooling shade, tion” he will not, cannot spurn. He will regard the And wafted up to heaven the prayers we made; cry of the destitute, and will not despise their prayer, The murm'ring rill which choose its winding way, for thus in mercy hath he promised.

To feast our sense and lead our thoughts astray; The palm trees of Bethany still throw their “shadows The laughing meadows dress’d in hues of green, of beauty,” but the sisters are gone to the paradise of And then thine own fair form to crown the scene; God. The blessed Redeemer, whom having not seen | Fancy, I say, in nightly dreams shall dwell we love, has ascended on high; but in conclusion well in this parterre, and watch my love. Farewell!

men."

84

SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL.

BY D. P. KIDDER.

Original.

| rush on deck, and an outcry for the captain to put SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL.||back. “Arriba, Senhor Commandante, arriba! nao

esta capaz, vamos arribar!"

The captain was a large mulatto, adorned with a red Voyage from Rio to Santos-A Coasting Steamer-Comman-woolen cap, shag overcoat, and big trowsers. The tout

dante-Mangaratiba ---Angra dos Reis --Monasticism--Paraty- | ensemble of his costume was not an indifferent carica-
Island of S. Sebastian-Arrival at Santos -- Mode of Traveling ture of the Turkish. He was somewhat agitated at
Inland-Transportation-Tropeiros - A Traveling Party-
Serra do Mar.

first, but had decision enough to keep his boat on her

course, and afterward seemed not a little desirous to On the 15th of January, 1839, I embarked on board show himself piqued with the attempted infringement a steamboat bound from Rio de Janeiro to Santos. upon his prerogatives. He belabored his countrymen The latter town is the principal port of the province sadly for presuming to address him in such a "papaof San Paulo. It is distant from Rio in direct course gaio" style; thus comparing their cries of alarm to the 225 miles, but the passage is lengthened to about 300 screaming of parrots. miles, in order to touch at intermediate ports. The Owing to the small power of our boat, we made but passengers having been severally required to exhibit slow progress. When darkness came on, we were still their passports to the visiting officer, who came on in sight of the Sugar Loaf. During the night the sea board at Fort Villegagnon, we got under way at 5 became more quiet, and our headway greater. P. M.

Daylight the following morning discovered to us sevThe afternoon was one of the most rainy I had evereral small islands on either hand, in the midst of which witnessed in Rio. I had literally waded through streams | lay our course into the bay of Mangaratiba. This villa of water at the corners of the streets previous to em. lies in an angle between two mountains. It appears barking. I paid but little attention to a thorough pre- || almost inaccessible from the rear, nevertheless it reliminary wetting, in anticipation of a comfortable shel-ceives from the vicinity, and ships annually to Rio, ter when once on board. My disappointment in this about four thousand bags of coffee, besides other proparticular was soon obvious. The Paquete do Norte duce. The mountains around are not very high, but was one of the best boats then belonging to the great are covered with a wild and beautiful vegetation. A commercial emporium as well as political capital of house was apparent here and there, upon the less abrupt Brazil; but she had been constructed to float on salt declivities. The villa contained one church, and about water, and not to shed rain. Her engines were of sev- | fifty habitations. Eleven small craft were at anchor in enty horse power. She had been built in England for the harbor. the Nitherohy Steam Company; but in view of navi Getting under way duly, we came to anchor about gating the high seas she had neither “hurricane" nor noon in the Angra dos Reis. This name was given “spar-deck.” There was indeed a cabin below, fur- originally by Martin Affonso de Souza to the ample and nishing twelve berths; but what were these among from splendid bay, at the opening of which Ilha Grande is thirty to forty passengers !

situated. That individual known in history as the first . The truth was, that in the mild weather ordinarily Donatory, who received a grant of land in Brazil, proenjoyed on these passages, the majority preferred to ceeded along this entire coast in 1531, as far as the spend both night and day upon deck. Only a short river La Plata, naming the places observed by him acexperience of the confined air and sweltering tempera-cording to the successive days in which he visited them. ture of the apartment below, inclined me to a similar Although several of these harbors and islands had been choice on the present occasion. Rather than run any | previously discovered and probably named, yet owing hazard of suffocation, I determined to take my chance to the circumstance that Souza became an actual setfor keeping dry under a tattered awning, that extended tler, combined with the fact that in following the Roman over the quarter-deck.

callendar he flattered the peculiar prejudices of his counAnother peculiarity of our fare was, that each pas- trymen, the names imposed by him have alone remainsenger was expected to “find himself” with provisions.ed to posterity. Having entered the bay of Nitherohy Luckily I had escaped much concern on this score, by on the first day of the year, and supposing from the joining the party of which the reader will learn more narrowness of the entrance that it was of course a river, by and by. In my visit below, I had found my friends he gave it the fine sounding, but geographically inaccupreparing for a grand collation in true French style. I rate name of Rio de Janeiro. The sixth day of JanBut my apprehensions that their good cheer would be uary, designated in English as that of the Epiphany, is presently interrupted by sea-sickness, that unceremo- termed in Portuguese dia dos Reis Magos, day of the nious visitant of almost all landsmen who are caught Kings, or Royal Magi. This takes it for granted that afloat, led me to decline all participation. The result the wise men who visited the infant Savior in Bethleproved the correctness of my determination.

hem were either kings or princes! On that day Souza Within the harbor all had been calm; but on pas- visited the places I am describing, and hence the two sing out we encountered a head wind and a tremen- names, Ilha Grande dos Magos and Angra dos Reis. dously rolling sea. No sooner did the little boat begin | The latter is now applied chiefly to the town within to feel the force of the waves, than there was a general | the bay, and Ilba Grande is deemed sufficient to indi

SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL.

85

cate the island. The island of S. Sebastian, and the &c. It furnishes several good places of anchorage, and
port of S. Vicente were named in like manner, on the is frequently resorted to by American whale-ships, in
20th and 220 days of the same month. Angra dos order to recruit their stock of wood, water, and fresh
Reis was at a very early period admitted to the denomi- | provisions.
nation of a city, but its subsequent growth did not cor Paraty was the next port at which we touched, and
respond to the expectation of its founders. I judged the last belonging to the province of Rio de Janeiro.
it to contain at the present time about two hundred and The villa is small, but regularly built, and beautifully
fifty houses, which are arranged in a semicircular form situated at the extremity of a long arm of the sea, in
upon the praya or low ground, bordered by surrounding which are sprinkled a number of diversely shaped and
mountains. To illustrate the deficiency and contradic- palm crested islands. It contains three churches, each
tory nature of many statements, (statistics there are dedicated to Nossa Senhora, our lady, first of the con-
not,) respecting the population of Brazil, I mentionception, second of grief, third of the lapa, or cliff. The
the opinions of two gentlemen, apparently competent territory connected with this port embraces the fertile
judges respecting Angra. One of them estimated the plains of Bananal, Paraty - Merim, and Mambucaba;
inhabitants at 4000, exclusive of slaves and colored distinguished for their luxuriant.production of many
people, who in any case must constitute about half. of the fruits of southern Europe, as well as coffee, rice,
The other fixed upon 2000 as the entire number, which mandioca, legumes, and the choicest of sugar-cane.
must have been much nearer the truth. The ecclesias The morning of the 17th found us navigating the
tical establishment of Angra appears to have been got channel to leeward of the island of S. Sebastian, and
ten up in anticipation of the future greatness of the approaching the villa of that name, which is situated
place, by the same policy which has secured to the on the mainland. This island belongs to the province
Church of Rome the finest localities and the most costly of S. Paulo. It is twelve or fourteen miles long, and
edifices that are seen in the actual cities of Brazil. Said of nearly equal width. It is well cultivated, and some-
establishment consists of three convents and three what populous. Like Ilha Grande, it is a rendezvous
churches. The former belong severally to the three for vessels engaged in the slave trade. Such craft have
orders of monks most prevalent in the empire; the great facilities for landing their cargoes of human beings
Benedictines, the Slippered Carmelites, and the Fran-at these and contiguous points; and if they do not
ciscans of St. Anthony. These monasteries were sev-||choose to go into the harbor of Rio to refit, they can be
erally occupied by a single friar, in the capacity of a furnished at this place with the requisite papers for an-
superintendent. A gentleman residing in the place, other voyage. For no other object could the vice con-
informed me respecting them, and took occasion to ex- | sulate of Portugal, which is established on shore, be
press great contempt for a class of men, who, he said, possibly called for. The villa is quiet and respectable,
spent their lives in surfeiting and indolence. If this is composed chiefly of mud-houses, among which is a
not the general sentiment of intelligent Brazilians, it is church of the same material. It has a Professor of
certainly one that is very common among them, respect- Latin, and two primary schools, one for boys and the
ing monastic institutions.

other for girls.
In March, 1838, the Carmelitic order presented a pe On our egress from this roadstead we passed between
tition to the Provincial Assembly of Rio de Janeiro, two rocky islands, called Os Alcatrazes. The smaller
praying for the privilege of admitting thirty novices one is of curious shape, and said at some seasons to be
into the convent at Angra. In the course of the discovered with the eggs of sea-fowl. Fishermen fre-
cussion which ensued, one of the deputies, Senhor Ce- quently collect whole canoe-loads of them. These
zar de Menezes, in an eloquent speech reported at the islands are about five leagues from S. Sebastian, and
time, undertook to demonstrate that monasticism, from eight from Santos.
its history in past times, and from its essential spirit, Santos is situated upon the northern portion of the
could not harmonize with the ideas of the present en-island of S. Vicente, which is detached from the conti-
lightened age, nor be adapted to the government and nent merely by the two mouths of the Cubatam river.
circumstances of the country. His conclusions were | The principal stream affords entrance at high water to
these: “The measure is contrary to nature, unsupport- | large vessels, and is usually called Rio de Santos up as
ed by policy, and alike opposed to morality, to our finan- far as that town. At its mouth, upon the northern
cial interests, and to the Brazilian constitution.” Were bank, stands the fortress of S. Amaro. This relic of
it compatible with the limits I have assigned myself to olden time is occupied by a handful of soldiers, whose
translate the whole speech, I could hardly present the principal employment is alternately to go on board the
reader with a better summary of practical arguments vessels as they pass up and down, as a guard against
against monasticism. Suffice it to say, the privilege smuggling. The course of the river is winding, and
in this case was not conceded, although similar ones | its bottom muddy. Its banks are low, and covered with
have recently been in other provinces.

mangroves. Ilha Grande measures about fifteen miles east and Passing up, we first came in sight of a few houses west, and at its greatest breadth seven miles north and on the left, called, as the traveler in that country would south. A considerable portion of it is under cultiva- be sure to anticipate, Villa Nova. Soon after, on the tion, devoted to the production of sugar-cane, coffee, ll opposite side, appeared Fort Itipema, an old fortification

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86

SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL.

much dilapidated, and whose only garrison was a single || on foot, in order to give proper attention to their anifamily. Next became visible the masts of twenty or mals and baggage. The latter being mostly of an inthirty vessels lying at anchor before the town, which is convenient form, and not easily balanced, gave them upon the southern or left bank as we ascend. On | great annoyance from its propensity to get loose and arriving, we were boarded by a port officer in regimen- fall off. The principal was a very tall and large man, tals. His visit was one of mere ceremony, as he did apparently about thirty years of age. His features not demand our passports, but seemed only concerned were coarse in the extreme, and a hair-lip rendered his to get his letters. Thus favorably ended our passage, speech indistinct. His arms, feet, and legs to his knees occupying about forty-eight hours, rather more than the were bare, and soon after starting off came his shirt, usual time.

exhibiting a tawny and properly yellow skin. His Deferring for the present all notice of Santos, I will companion and probably younger brother, was not so undertake the task of conveying to my readers some large, but appeared to have equal nerve. He was betidea of the company that next morning set out for the ter dressed, and walked with his shoulders inclined forinterior. It is necessary to premise that not only railward. His jet black hair was long, and hung in ringlets cars, but also stage coaches, and all other vehicles of upon his neck. His eyes were dark and flashing, and public conveyance, are entirely unknown in the coun: his countenance not dissimilar to that of a North Amertry; owing, in a great degree at least, to the unsuitable ican Indian. These persons were a specimen of the character of the roads. All who do not walk must ex- Paulista tropeiros, who, as a class, differ very much pect to be conveyed on the backs of mules or horses, from the Mineiros and conductors that visit Rio. They and to have their baggage transported in the same way. have a certain wildness in their look,' which, mingled For long journeys, the former are generally preferred. with intelligence and sometimes benignity, gives to But it frequently happens at Santos that neither can be their countenance altogether a peculiar expression. hired in sufficient number, without sending to a consid- They universally wear a large pointed knife, twisted erable distance. Although scarcely a day occurs in the into their girdle behind. This faca de ponta is perhaps year in which more or less troops of mules do not leave more essential to them than the knife of the sailor is to that place for the upper country, yet the greater part of him. It serves to cut wood, to mend harnesses, to kill those animals are totally unfit for riding, being only ac- and dress an animal, to carve food, and in case of necustomed to the pack-saddle, and having never worn cessity, to defend or to assault. Its blade has a curve the bit. On the present occasion, a young German and peculiar to itself, and in order to be approved, must myself had been each provided with a horse, and had have a temper that will enable it to be struck through left our heavier luggage to be sent on subsequently. a thick piece of copper without bending or breaking. The other members of our company, rather than to This being a favorite companion, is often mounted with suffer delay, resolved to engage the requisite portion of a silver handle, and sometimes encased in a silver sheath, a troop then ready to proceed up the serra. It may be although generally worn naked. here remarked, that ordinary transportation to and from As to the travelers, we represented at least six differthe coast is accomplished with no inconsiderable regu- ent nations of the old and new worlds, presenting no larity and system, notwithstanding the manner. Many small variety, both in character and costume. Mons. planters keep a sufficient number of beasts to convey G., physically the greatest man among us, was mounted their entire produce to market; others do not, but de- upon the smallest mule; and not being accustomed to pend more or less upon professional carriers. Among riding in this style, often consoled himself with the rethese, each troop is under charge of a conductor, who flection that if he fell, neither the distance nor the dansuperintends its movements and transacts its business. ger would be great, as his feet almost touched the ground. They generally load down with sugar and other agri- This gentleman holds a distinguished place in the cultural products, conveying, in return, salt, flour, and botanical department of the Museum of Natural Hisevery variety of imported merchandise. A gentleman tory in Paris, and was at that time sent out by the French who had for many years employed these conductors in government on a special scientific mission to Brazil. the transmission of goods, told me he had seldom or Having not only had the pleasure of his company never known an article fail of reaching its destination. as companion de voyage, but also as a fellow boarder for

I had been summoned by my friends to start at a very several weeks at S. Paulo, and in repeated excursions early hour; but in reply, requested the privilege of over- in the neighborhood of that city, I must be allowed to taking them on the road. Getting my affairs duly ar- | mention several of those qualities which rendered his ranged, and proceeding to the place of rendezvous, society agreeable. His sociability was only equaled by instead of finding that they had gone, I myself had oc- his cheerfulness of disposition. His fund of enlivening casion to wait about two hours. After the busy scene anecdote was almost inexhaustible, being drawn from a of arranging saddles and cargo, and mounting and dis strangely diversified personal history, and from extenciplining refractory animals, we at length found our- sive acquaintance with learned men. His conversation, selves all started upon the aterrado, or cast-up road always interesting, was pre-eminently so when inspired leading to Cubatam. The first characters that engaged by his enthusiasm in botanical pursuits. Hence les my attention were the two Tropeiros, or conductors of fleurs magnifiques which adorned notre belle route, imthe troop. They were not mounted, but preferred going | parted a double gratification.

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The individual next to be noticed was Doctor I., a Brazilian physician educated in France, and extensively traveled in Europe; whose devotedness to the cause of science, equally with his noble and generous disposition, led him to make this entire journey for the sake of introducing Mons. G. at S. Paulo, and of making his sojourn in Brazil as pleasant as possible. Such attentions were the more desirable to Mons. G. as he was entirely unacquainted with the language and customs of the country, and they were amply realized in the spirited manner in which the Doctor discharged his office as general manager to the party.

Mons. B., a subject of the king of Sardinia, was a painter by profession. Senhor P., a young Fluminense, had spent several years in Paris, and was now going to take his course as a student at law in the University at S. Paulo. He, and a young Parisian associated with Mons. G., kept the road alive with their merriment, singing at the top of their voices. In addition to these might be mentioned Mynheer F., son to the secretary of the Rhenish Missionary Society at Elberfeldt; a third Brazilian, a third Frenchman, and a Portuguese. Respecting the only North American in the group, it is perhaps unnecessary to remark at present, unless that his paulista boots and other riding accoutrements must have assimilated his appearance to that of a genuine tropeiro, unprovided, of course, with either long knife or pistols.

The road was level as far as Cubatam, leading along the river, and twice crossing that stream by bridges. The principal house of the village mentioned was the Registro; where, in addition to paying a slight toll, each passer-by has his name and nation registered. A short distance beyond Cubatam we commenced ascending the Serra do Mar, or cordillera of the Sea. This range of mountains stretches along more than a thousand miles of coast, sometimes laved at its very feet by the ocean; at others branching off inland, leaving a considerably wide range of low and level interval, called by the Portuguese, Beira Mar. Its general formation is granitic, although in this region it is covered with sufficient soil to sustain a dense forest, and is destitute of those bold and barren peaks which shoot up at other points. Its height is by no means so great as has been repeatedly affirmed. Mr. Mawe gives 6000 feet as the lowest estimate: but Captain King, by actual measurement, determined its altitude to be only 2250 feet. Mr. M. made a still more palpable mistake in saying that Santos did not fall within the angle of vision from its summit. I know not how to account for the latter inaccuracy of statement, unless by supposing that the town and its vicinity were enveloped in fog, though the top of the mountain might have been clear when he enjoyed the prospect. This sometimes happens, although the reverse is much more frequently witnessed.

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Original
TO A MISSIONARY.
Go, servant of the living God, bear forth

Tidings of mercy to the tribes of men;
Go, and from east to west, from south to north,

Proclaim a Savior crucified; and when

Trials assail thee, may thy Master then Uphold thee with his everlasting arm

And spread the mantle of His love around, To shield thy soul from each impending harm.

See! in His hand he holds a glittering crownBe strong, fear not, it soon shall be thine own!

P. P.

Of all the marvelous works of the Deity, perhaps there is nothing that angels behold with such supreme astonishment as a proud man.

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