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whole art and mystery of the game consists in forcing the opposite King into such a position that, with any other piece he would be liable to be taken. When such a force can be brought against him as allows him no escape, either by capture of the attacking pieces or otherwise, he is checkmated, and the game is lost. But this requires further explanation. · CHECK AND CHECKMATE.—The King, as before observed, always remains on the board and cannot be taken like the other pieces. When, therefore, he is attacked by a piece or pawn, he is said to be in check-a position of which the player receives warning by his opponent crying check ! Under such circumstances, he must do one of these three things :-He must move out of check, interpose a man, or take the piece—the piece that attacks him. In taking a piece, the King, equally with the other pieces, moves on to the square previously occupied by his opponent. If the King can do neither of these things he is said to be cheekmated, and his game is lost. There are several kinds of check :-Simple check is when the King is attacked by a single Piece or Pawn. Discovered check is when, by removing a Piece or Pawn from before a checking piece, an attack from the latter is opened or discovered. Double check occurs when the adverse King is attacked by two pieces at one and the same time. The Double check of course occurs in consequence of a Discovered check.
Place the pieces thus:-
Now, by removing the Knight to his Queen's
Stalemute is that position of the King in which, though not in check, he cannot move without going into check. Stalemate is a drawn game. It must be understood, however, that stalemate is not effected, while the player attacked has any other piece or pawn to move. Smothered Mate is a term employed when the King is so surrounded by his own men that he cannot escape the attack of the adverse Knight.
DRAWN GAME.-If neither player can checkmate his opponent, the result is a drawn game. The several situations in which the game is drawn are-by stalemate ; by perpetual check, or when both parties persist in acting on the defensive; when the forces on each side are equal or nearly 80 ; as Queen against Queen, Rook against Rook, and so on; and no effective result can be obtained; or when, having sufficient force, the attacking party is unable to effect checkmate in fifty moves from the time his opponent begins to count.
CASTLING.–Once in every game the King has the privilege of moving two steps. This is done in the move called Castling, and is performed in combination with either of the Rooks. It is performed in this way :-If the space between the King and Rook be unoccupied, the King moves two squares to the right or left, and the Rook is brought to the square next the King on the side farthest from the corner from which it was moved. The player cannot Castle—if either King or Rook has been previously moved ; if the King passes over or rests on a square commanded by an opta ponent's piece; or if the King be at the moment in check.
EN PRISE.-A piece attacked by another is said to be en prise ; that is, in danger of being taken.
To INTERPOSE is to bring a piece between your King, when in check, and the attacking piece. This term is also used when you cover your opponent's attack on any other piece with one of your own.
WINNING THE EXCHANGE.—When you take a Queen for a Rook, a Rook for a Bishop, or a Bishop for a Knight, you are said to win the exchange.
Minor PIECES.—The Knight and the Bishop are so called. It is usual to call the King, Queen, Rook, Bishop, and Knight, Pieces, and the Pawns Men.
RANK AND FILE.-As the pieces stand on the board at the commencement of the game, they
are in two ranks, the Pawns before the superior pieces, after whom they are called, as the King's Pawn, Queen's Bishop's Pawn, &c. The hori. zontal rows of squares are termed ranks, and the vertical squares files.
DOUBLED PAWN.-When two of your Pawns stand on the same file, the front one is called a Doubled Pawn.
ISOLATED PAwN.-A Pawn standing alone, without the protection of another Pawn or Piece.
PASSED Pawn.—When a Pawn has advanced to a square unguarded by a Pawn belonging to the opposite player, it is called a Passed Pawn.
TO TAKE EN PASSANT. When a Pawn has advanced to the fifth square, and the opposite player pushes a Pawn two squares forward, as his first move, the other Pawn has the privilege of capturing him in passing ; that is to say, the Pawn that has passed over the square guarded by the advanced Pawn, is liable to be captured just as if it had moved only one square ; or it may be allowed to remain, at the option of the other player. A Pawn only, and not a Piece, can be taken en passant.
QUEENING A Pawn.When you are able to advance a Pawn to the eighth square of the file, you can exchange it for a Queen or any other piece. Thus, you may have two or more Queens, three or more Rooks, Bishops, or Knights, on the board at the same time. This peculiarity belongs to the modern game of Chess. According to Major Jaenisck, the Italians changed the ad. vanced Pawn for any Piece already taken.
FORCED MOVE.- When a player can only make one single move, it is called a forced move.
GAUBIT.-This term is derived from the
Italians, who, when in wrestling, give their opponents some apparent advantage for the purpose of_tripping_them up. In Chess it is used when a Pawn or Piece is purposely abandoned by the player who has the first move. There are various kinds of Gambits—as the King's Gambit, the Muzio Gambit, &c.—but of these we shall have to speak by-and-by. The Pawn sacrificed is called the Gambit Pawn.
J'ADOUBE.—This term is used when a player touches a Piece or Pawn without the intention of moving it. It means, “I adjust, or replace.”
CHESS NOTATION. In the notation employed in Chess, the squares of each file are called after the superior pieces. Thus the King or Queen is said to be on his or her square; moving one pace forward, they are said to move to their second squares, and so on. The several pieces are thus designated-K. for King, Q. for Queen, R. for Rook, B. for Bishop, Kt. for Knight, Q. P. for Queen's Pawn, &c.
tinguished as K. B., Q. B., (King's Bishop, Queen's Bishop,) K. Kt. P., Q. R. P., (King's Knight's Pawn, Queen's Rook's Pawn,) and so forth.
In order that the young player may comprehend much that will follow, it is necessary that he should acquaint himself with the notation adopted by all English players, and generally in use throughout Europe. Having placed the men on the board, it will be seen that each side occupies two distinct ranks of men, on the first of which stand the Pieces, and on the second the Pawns. The eight squares on the first horizontal