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THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.—(Continued.)

19. Psychology Applied to the Art of Teaching. By JOSEPH BALDWIN,

A. M., LL. D. $1.50. 20. Rousseau's Emile; OR, TREATISE ON EDUCATION. Translated and an

notated by W. H. PAYNE, Ph. D., LL. D., Chancellor of the University of

Nashville. $1.50. 21. The Moral Instruction of Children. By FELIX ADLER. $1.50. 22. English Education in the Elementary and Secondary Schools.

By ISAAC SHARPLESS, LL.D., President of Haverford College. $1.00. 23. Education from a National Standpoint. By ALFRED FOUILLÉE. $1.50. 24. Mental Development of the Child. By W. PREYER, Professor of

Physiology in Jena. Transiated by H. W. BROWN. $1.00. 25. How to Study and Teach History. By B. A. HINSDALE, Ph. D., LL.D.,

University of Michigan. $1.50. 26. Symbolic Education. A COMMENTARY ON FROEBEL'S “MOTHER PLAY."

By Susan E. Blow. $1.50. 27. Systematic Science Teaching. By EDWARD GARDNIER HOWE. $1.50. 28. The Education of the Greek People. By Thomas DAVIDSON. $1.50. 29. The Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System. By

G. H. MARTIN, A. M. $1.50. 30. Pedagogics of the Kindergarten. By FRIEDRICH FROEBEL. 12mo. $1.50. 31. The Mottoes and Commentaries of Freidrich Froebel's Mother

Play. By SUSAN E. Blow and HENRIETTA R. ELIOT. $1.50. 32. The Songs and Music of Froebel's Mother Play. By SUSAN E.

Blow. $1.50. 33. The Psychology of Number, and its Application to Methods of

Teaching Arithmetic. by JAMES A. MCLELLAN, A. M., and JOHN

DEWEY, Ph. D. $1.50. 34. Teaching the Language-Arts. SPEECH, READING, COMPOSITION. By

B. A. HINSDALE, Ph. D., I.L. D., Professor of Science and the Art of Teach

ing in the University of Michigan. $1.00. 85. The Intellectual and Moral Development of the Child. PART I.

Containing Chapters on PERCEPTION, EMOTION, MEMORY, IMAGINATION, and CONSCIOUSNESS. By GABRIEL COMPAYRÉ. Translated from the French by Mary E. WILSON, B. L. Smith College, Member of the Graduate

Seminary in Child Study, University of California. $1.50. 36. Herbart's A B C of Sense-Perception, and Introductory Works.

By WILLIAM J. ECKOFF, Ph. D., Pd. D., Professor of Pedagogy in the Uni.

versity of Illinois ; Author of “Kant's Inaugural Dissertatiou." $1.50. 37. Psychologic Foundations of Education. By WILLIAM T. HARRIS,

A. M., LL. D. $1.50. 38. The School System of Ontario. By the Hon. GEORGE W. Ross, LL.D.,

Minister of Education for the Province of Ontario. $1.00. 39. Principles and Practice of Teaching. By JAMES JOHONNOT. $1.50. 40. School Management and Sehool Methods. By JOSEPH BALDWIN.

$1.50 41. Froebel's Educational Laws for all Teachers. By JAMES L.

HUGHES, Inspector of Schools, Toronto. $1.50. 42. Bibliography of Education. By WILL 8. MONROE, A. B., Department

of Pedagogy and Psychology, State Normal School, Westfield, Mass. $2.00. 43. The Study of the Child. A Brief Treatise on the Psychology of the

Child, with Suggestions for Teachers, Students, and Parents. By A. R. TAY-
LOR, Ph. D., President of the State Normal School, Emporia, Kan. $1.50.

OTHER VOLUMES IN PREPARATION.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.

S6716

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

OF TEACHING

BY

JAMES JOHONNOT

REVISED BY

SARAH EVANS JOHONNOT

NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

COPYRIGHT, 1878,
BY JAMES JOHONNOT.

COPYRIGHT, 1896,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.

ELECTROTYPED AND PRINTED
AT THE APPLETON PRESS, U. S. A.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

This book embodies in a compact form the results of the wide experience and careful reflection of an enthusiastic teacher and school supervisor.

James Johonnot was a power in teachers' institutes to arouse professional aspiration and kindle zeal for improvement. He advocated the new education as based on the methods of Pestalozzi and as finding its material of instruction not merely in the traditional three R's but also in natural science. The chapters in this book on the Objective Course of Instruction, Object-Teaching, Systems of Education Compared, all develop the Pestalozzian method of interesting the pupil in the study of real things. Again, the chapters on the Relative Value of the Different Branches of Instruction, Agassiz, and Science in its Relations to Education, all lay emphasis on the doctrine that natural science should lead in this course of study.

Mr. Johonnot ranked himself on the side of the educational reformers, and this his book belongs under the division which we have described as criticisms of education. The mere routine teacher who follows in a lifeless manner the traditions handed down to him is often goaded into something like vital action by the taunts and scorn of the reformer. It is the only door of hope for him. He must break with tradition, and learn to think and act for himself. Then he can grow.

The first and most needed reform in methods of instruction called for in the educational revival begun by Horace Mann was the substitution of something better for text-book memorizing. Lessons on objects were recommended as the best substitute for lessons on mere words. “Things before words” became the motto. Great improvement in the work of class instruction followed when the teacher began to lay less emphasis on the parrotlike repetition of the words in the book and to insist on the understanding of the meaning, and especially to require illustrations drawn from the pupil's own experience. It became a part of the work of the good teacher to lead his pupils to test and verify by actual experiment the statements of the book, and the method of investigation began to take the place of the method of memorizing the words of the author.

Instruction had sunk to this low level of parroting the words of the book, or, rather, had remained on it as a necessary consequence of the ungraded and unclassified state of the rural schools in sparsely settled

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