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IRUQUOIS AND MOBILIANS.

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CH. 11. less warlike, than the Hurons or Wyandots, by whom

they were attacked. The Iroquois were driven by them, from the banks of the St: Lawrence; and dividing

into five tribes, the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Nations Oneidas and Mohawks, they spread themselves by deern New grees, east of Lake Erie, and south of Ontario, along York. the romantic waters of northern New York, to which

they have left their bold and harmonious names. The place of their grand general council, or congress of chiefs, was at Onondaga.

14. Here they made a stand, and became the most fearless, subtle, and powerful of savages. They conquered the Hurons, fought the Delawares, and put in

fear all the surrounding tribes. Finally, in the con. powerful tests between France and England, they were courted

by both parties as allies, and dreaded by both as foes. Of the Five Nations, the Mohawks were the most warlike. Their chief seat was at Johnstown, on the beautiful river, which still bears their name.

15. Of the Mobilians, the most extensive and pow

erful confederacies were the Creeks, situated mostly southern in Georgia; the CHEROKEEs in the mountainous region sonfede- north and west; and the Choctaws and CHICKASAWS,

nearer to the Mississippi.

16. The Natchez have excited much interest on account of the difference of their language from that of the surrounding tribes. Natchez, on the Mississippi, marks their location. The SHAWANESE, the native tribe of Tecumseh, once resided on the banks of the Suwaney river in Florida. From thence they migrated northward, first to Pennsylvania, and afterwards to Ohic

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13. To what place did they change their location? What were the names of each of the Five Nations ? Where was their general council held ? — 14. What character did they now assume ?

What nations contend with ? By what nations wala their alliance courted? Which tribe was the most warlike ?Where was its principal seat ? Learn from the map the location of the Mobilian tribes.-15. Which were the most extensive and powerful? Which are the most northerly ?

Which aro partly in Georgia ? — 16. Which near the Mississippi? Where fire the Shawanese? Which tribe has a language by itself ?

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P’D. I.

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* First Discovery-Columbus, &c. 1. THOUSANDS of years had elapsed since the crea- p't. I tion of the world, and the inhabitants of the eastern hemisphere were yet ignorant, that, on the face of the ca. 1. planet, which they inhabited, was another continent of nearly equal extent. Nor did they become acquainted ages is; with this fact by any fortunate accident; but they owed its proof, to the penetration and persevering efforts of a

play. man, as extraordinary, as the discovery which he made.

1. What did the people of the eastern hemisphere know about this continent three hundred and fifty years ago ? Did they learn 118 existence by accident?

norant of
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talents of Columbus.

| 2. This was Christopher COLUMBUS, a native of PD.T. Genoa, born in 1447.

He possessed all those enerCH. 1. getic impulses of the soul which lead to high achieve

ment; and, with these he combined judgment the most 1447 Birth“ grave and solid, prudence and patience the most steady and rare and unoffending, piety the most devout, and, what

ensured his success, the most untiring perseverance ever manifested by man.

3. Columbus had married the daughter of one of the Portuguese discoverers, then deceased; whose widow, finding how eagerly her son-in-law sought such sources of information, gave to him all the maps and charts which had belonged to her husband. Marco Polo, a Venetian, had travelled to the east, and returned with wonderful accounts of the riches of Cathay and the island of Cipango, called, generally, the East Indies, and now known to be China and Japan.

4. The idea that the earth was round, was ridiculed ces fa- by most persons at that time; but it was fully believed

by Columbus, on the evidence of its figure, exhibited nius. in eclipses of the moon. Hence, he believed, that

those rich countries described by Marco Polo might be found by sailing west; and he formed the design to lead the way, through unknown oceans.

5. Columbus believed that great allvantages would vices to accrue to the nation who should patronize his under

wing taking; and, with filial respect, he first offered his serreigns vices to his native state, but had the mortification to

find them rejected. He then applied to John II. of Portugal; to Henry VII. of England; and to Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain. But these monarchs could not comprehend his schemes, and would not encourage them.

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2. Who was the discoverer ? What was his character ? -3, What woman gave him sources of information ? What traveller had excited his mind about distant countries? What countries 4. In what opinion was Columbus in advance of his contempora. ries? Why did he believe in the true figure of the earth ? How did he suppose he could reach those rich countries called the Eası Indies ? 5. To whom did Columbus first offer his services ? With what success? Whose patronage did he next solicit ? What sovereign of England ? What sovereigns of Spain ?

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6. At the court of Spain, he had spent two years in P'T.I. a succession of mortifying repulses; and at length, PSD. I. quite discouraged, he was preparing to go to England, ca. I. when he was recalled by a mandate from Isabella.

They are Not knowing how to raise the sum of money requisite accepted for defraying the expenses of the voyage, the excellent by... queen determined to sacrifice her jewels; but this was prevented by the extraordinary exertions of her ministers.

7. Columbus made his first voyage, the most inte- 1492 resting of any in the annals of navigation, in 1492. He Columdiscovered the first found land of the New World, on the eleventh of October. It was an Island called by the natives Guanahani, but to which he piously gave the name of San Salvador, the Holy Saviour.

11 8. In his third voyage he discovered the continent on the coast of South America, fourteen months after home in the Cabots had reached its shores in the north-east. By the ingratitude of Ferdinand, he was, like a con

Deprived demned criminal, sent home in chains. Americus Vespucius, a native of Florence, having made a voyage to ming the the New World, received from the public an honor which belonged to Columbus, that of giving a name to the continent. In 1502, the great discoverer made his fourth and last voyage, when, having returned to Spain, in Vallo his patroness, Isabella, being dead, his just claims dis-dolid in regarded, and himself neglected, he sunk beneath his 1506 sufferings, and died, in the 59th year of his age. When the good meet with calamities in this world, it is pleasant to reflect, that there is a future state, where they will be made happy.

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9. Many attempts were now made to show that the country had been previously discovered. The Welsh Welch brought forward the story of Madoc, son of Owen Madoc 6. Who was the only one to understand his views or favor them? What sacrifice was she prepared to make ? -7. When did Columbus inake his first voyage? What land did he first discover ? When? What name give ? -8. What did he discover in his third voyage? Did any persons discover the continent before him? How was he treated ? After whom was the continent named ? In what year did he make his last voyage? What occurred soon after ? -9. From what story did the Welch claimu to be the discuverers of the western coutinent ?

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P’T. 1. Gwyneth, who, in the twelfth century, had sailed west,

discovered a country, and afterwards conducted a coloce. II. ny thither, which was heard of no more.

If this story be true, there yet exists no proof, that the region found was America.

10. The Norwegians discovered Iceland and Green.

land, during the ninth century, and there established Nor colonies. Biorn, or Biron, an Icelander, in a voyage ale nan to Greenland, during the eleventh century, was driven

south-west in a storm, and found a region which, from

its great number of vines, he called Vineland; but land. here, also, proof fails, that the place found, had its

locality on the American coast.

Vine

CHAPTER IL

English Discoveries French.

America

Dected with four nations of Europe.

1. The principal European nations who first discois con- vered and colonized our county, are

I. The English,
II. The French,
III. The Spanish,

IV. The Dutch. 1496.

2. John Cabot, a native of Venice, had, with his . jan and family, settled in England. He and his renowned son, Sebas. Sebastian, were men of great learning, enterprise, and

ability. By a commission of Henry VII., dated March 5th, 1496, (the oldest American state paper of England)

they had authority to discover and colonize any hea 1497. then countries not before known to Christians.

3. They sailed from England in May, 1497, and in June, discovered the Island of Newfoundland, which

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Discover de Continept.

10. From what the Norwegians ?

CHAPTER II. - 1. What European nations discovered and settled our continent ? - 2. Who was John Cabot ? Who Se bastian? Who gave them a commission, and at what time ? 3 What ininortant discovery did they make 1

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