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A CUIANCE OF UOVERNMENT.

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o eu a faithful steward to the earl of Lincoln, was PT. 1. chosen deputy-governor.

P'D. IIL 6. At the first, the freemen all went to Boston to vote, ca, ve every man for himself. The government then was a simple democracy. But the settlements were soon so spread, that some would have to go many miles. They ment

changes then concluded to choose certain of their number, as is now done in our freeman's meetings, to go to the seat of government and do their public business for them. This was changing the government to a representative democracy. The same change took place in most of the other colonies.

7. Charles I., the son and successor of James I., was no less violent in his religious and political despotism; 1635. and emigrants continued to flock to New England. In 3000 emi the year 1635, not less than three thousand arrived, srate to among whom, was the younger Henry Vane, afterwards much known in the history of England.

8. The high manner of Vane, his-profound religious feeling, and his great knowledge, so wrought in his favor, that, disregarding his youth, the people rashly 1636. withdrew their suffrages from the good Winthrop, and chose him governor, the year after his arrival.

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CHAPTER VI.

Rhode Island and its first Founder.

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1. Roger Williams, a puritan minister, had been driven from England by persecution. When he arrived Feb,5;

1631. in Massachusetts, he proclaimed, that the only business of the human legislator is with the actions of man as tolerathey affect his fellow-man; but as for the thoughts and

6. What kind of government was first in use in the colonies generally? To what kind was it changed ? -7. Who succeeded James I., as king of England ? Was he less violent in persecution? What can you say respecting emigra:ion and emi. grants ? -8. What can you say of Henry Vane ?

CHAPTER VI.--Who was Royer Williams ? What new opiabulis did he procluinn?

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JUST PRINCIPLES OF TOLERATION.

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Williams

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Salem

P'T I. feelings of his mind, and the acts or omissions of his
PD. 111. life, as respects religious worship, the only law-giver
OH. vi. is God; and the only human tribunal, a man's own

conscience.

2. The minds of the puritan fathers were troubled by these new and strange doctrines, which they be lieved would, unless checked, destroy all that they had suffered so much to establish. Williams, the elo quent young divine, frank and affectionate, had, how ever, won the hearts of the people of Salem; and they

invited him to settle with them as their pastor. Th 1635.

general court forbade it. Williams withdrew to Ply settled at mouth, where he remained as pastor for two years;anı Salere. then returned to Salem, where he was again gladly re

ceived by the people.

3. The court punished the town for this offence, by 3 withholding a tract of land, to which they had a claim.

Williams wrote to the churches, endeavoring to show the injustice of this proceeding; whereupon the couri

ordered, that, until ample apology was made for the disfran- letter, Salem should be disfranchised. Then all, even chised. his wife, yielded to the clamor against him; but he

declared to the court, before whom he was arraigned,

that he was ready to be bound, or, if need were, to atWilliams test with his life, his devotion to his principles. The

court, however, pronounced against him the sentence of exile.

4. Winter was approaching, and he obtained permission to remain till spring. The affections of his

people revived, and throngs collected to hear the be1636. Ioved voice, soon to cease from among them. The

authorities became alarmed, and sent a pinnace to con vey him to England; but he had disappeared.

5. Now a wanderer in the wilderness, he had not, upon many a stormy night, either “ food, or fire, or company," nor better lodging than the hollow of a tree. At last, a few followers having joined him, he

2. How did they affect the minds of the Puritan settlers ! Relate what happened respecting Williams? — 3. What did the general court after Salem had twice received Williams ? What letter did Williams write? What was the consequence ? - 4. Was the sentence of Williams immediately oxecutod ? 3. What happened now w Willinms?

Danished,

PROVIDENCE PLANTATION.

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to the Narra

Receives

fixed at Seckonk, since Rehoboth, within the limits of PPT. I.
the colony of Plymouth. Winslow was now governor P’D III
there; and he felt himself obliged to communicate to ch. vi.
Williams, that his remaining would breed disturbance He goes
between the two colonies; and he added his advice to
that privately conveyed to Williams, by a letter from gansetts
Winthrop, “ to steer his course to Narragansett Bay.”

6. Williams now threw himself upon the mercy of
Canonicus. In a little time he so won upon him, that
be extended his hospitality to him and his suffering
company. He would not, he said, sell his land, but
he freely gave to Williams, whose neighborhood he a noble

gift. now coveted, and who was favored by his nephew Miantonomoh, all the neck of land between the Pawtucket and Moshasuck rivers," that his people might sit down in peace and enjoy it forever.” Thither they went; and, with pious thanksgiving, named the goodly place PROVIDENCE. 7. By means of this acquaintance with the Narra

3 gansetts, Williams learned that a conspiracy was forming to cut off the English, headed by Sassacus, the powerful chief of the Pequods. The Narragansetts had been strongly moved by the eloquence of Mononotto, associate chief with Sassacus, to join in the gausetto plot. They wavered; but Williams, by making a pe- English rilous journey to their country, persuaded them rather to unite with the English, against their ancient enemies.

8. Anxious to do good to his brethren, though they had persecuted him, Williams next wrote to Governor Winthrop; who, taking the alarm, invited Miantonomoh to visit him at Boston. The chieftain went, and there entered into a treaty of peace and alliance with the English; engaging to them the assistance of the Narragansetts against the Pequods...Williams founded, at Providence, the first Baptist Church in America.

5. What advice did he get, and from whom? 6. To whom did he apply for shelter ? Could he bay land of the sachem ? Who favored him? What noble gift did he receive ? -7. What did Williams learn and what do respecting the Narragansetts ? B. What letter did he write? What church did he found ?

The
Narra

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FIRST HOUSE IN CONNECTICUT.

CHAPTER VII.

Connecticut and its Founders.

P'T. I.

The

of Coun. River.

1. The Dutch and English both claimed to be the P.D. III. original discoverers of Connecticut river; but the former CA. VII. had probably the juster claim. The natives along its

valley were kept in fear by the more warlike Pequods the this on the east, and the terrible Mohawks in the west; and

, coverers hence they desired the presence of the English, as

defenders.

2. As early as 1631, Wahquimacut, one of their

sachems, being pressed by the Pequods, went to BosAn invi- ton, and afterwards to Plymouth, earnestly requesting tation, that an English colony might be sent to his pleasant 1631

country. Governor Winthrop declined his proposal; but Edward Winslow, then governor of Plymouth, favored the

project, and visited, and examined the valley. 3. The Plymouth people had been, some time previous, advised by the Dutch to settle on Connecticut river; and they now determined to pursue the enterprise. They fixed on the

site of Windsor, as the place Dutch fix to erect a trading-house. But the Dutch changed their at Hart- minds, and were now determined to take the country

themselves. They, therefore, erected a small trading fort, called the house of Good Hope, on a point of land in Sukeag, since Hartford, at the junction of the Little river with the Connecticut.

4. The materials for the Plymouth trading-house October, being put on board a vessel, Captain Holmes, who 1633. commanded, soon appeared, sailing up the river. When mouth opposite to the Dutch fort he was commanded to stop, people or he would be fired upon; but he resolutely kept his

course; and the Windsor house, the first in Connecticut, was erected and fortified before winter.

ford.

at Windsor.

CHAPTER VII.--1. What can you say of the discovery o! Connecticut River ? What of the natives of its valley ? - 2. What request was made by one of the sachems? How was it received ? — 3. What did the Dutch advise, and what do ? Where did the Plymouth people locate : - 4. How proceed in rospect w buildin? What can be said of the Louro tlicy built

FIRST SETTLERS OF CONNECTICUT.

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P'D. JI

Coon

The

Win

the

ра tent.

5. The Grand Council first patented Connecticut to P'T. I. the earl of Warwick. That nobleman transferred his patent to Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brooke, with CH. VII. others. John Winthrop, son of the worthy gover- Patent o. nor of Massachusetts, having been sent to England on business for that colony, took an agency for the two Lords patentees, and was directed by them to build a younger fort at the mouth of the Connecticut river.

throp. 6. The patent granted all that part of New England which extends from Narragansett river one hundred and twenty miles on a straight line, near the shore, to

1631. wards the south-west, as the coast lies toward Virginia, Extent of and within that breadth, from the Atlantic ocean to the South Sea.” These bounds show how little was known by the Grand Council of the geography of the country.

7. Before Mr. Winthrop's commission was known, 1633, Thomas Hooker and his church had determined to 1635. leave Newtown, since called Cambridge, and plant themselves upon Connecticut river, in accordance with Hooker the invitation given by the sachem. They obtained town for that object, a reluctant permission from the general court of Massachusetts.

8. Other parties around the Bay were also in motion. In August, a few pioneers, from Dorchester selected a place at Windsor, near the Plymouth trading- Wethhouse; and others, from Watertown, fixed on Pyquag, now Wethersfield.

9. Having made such preparations as they were able, a party, intending to be in advance of Hooker, set out Hardin October, with their families, amounting in all to

ships sixty persons, men, women, and children. To proceed rapidly across a trackless wilderness, through swamps and over mountains, was impossible; and when the tedious journey was accomplished, winter was at hand; and it set in earlier than usual, and was uncommonly severe.

Windsor

and

ersfield.

5 Who gave the patent of Connecticut? Who was the first patentee? To whom did he transfer ? What agent did they appoint? What directions give ? -6. What territory did the patent include ? -. Where were Thomas Hooker and his church first settled? Where did they determine to go? What right had they to go there ? —8. What other parties had similar designs? - 9. Give an account of the party who went in adl. vance of Hon' er 1

dured

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