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THE THEOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE.

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and worshipped under a large tree, when Mr. Daven- P'T. 1. port preached to them concerning the temptations of P'D. 11: the wilderness. Not long after, the free planters sub- CH. IX scribed, what, in distinction from a church union, they April 18, termed a plantation-covenant.

1638. 13. Under this coverant they continued until the next year, when they assembled in a large barn be. longing to Mr. Newman, formed themselves into a body 1636. politic, and established a form of government. The governor and magistrates were to hold annually a general court, to regulate the affairs of the colony. Eaton was chosen governo.. They purchased their lands from the natives, and gave to the place the name governo of New HAVEN.

Govern
ment.

Mr.
Eaton,

CHAPTER IX.

Intolerance of the times—R. Island-N. Hampshiro-Delawaro.

4 time advanced religious opinions, so entirely at variance with those of the Puritan settlers, that a great disturbance” arose in the Bay colony. Gov. Vane considered that whether her opinions were true or false, The tho she had a right to enjoy them herself, and explain ological them to others. Mr. Cotton, the minister of Boston, ance. and the most celebrated of all the clergy of Massachusetts, was also, at first, inclined to defend Mrs. Hutchinson: but the ministers, generally, regarded her doctrines, not only as false, but, as dangerous to such a degree, that, if let alone, they would overthrow both church and state.

2 In this extremity, a synod of ministers was assembled at Boston. Mr. Davenport had opportunely

12. Where did they worship on the first Sunday? Where enter into the plantation-covenant ? -

- 13. What political arrangements did they make the next year ?

CHAPTER IX.-1. What caused a disturbance in the colony? What was Gov. Vane's view of the case ? What that of the clergy generally? – 2. What assemblage was held at Boston ?

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banished.

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ed.

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Mass. be

P'T. I. arrived from London, and Mr. Hooker, desirous to pre P’D. IIT. pare minds for political as well as religious union, reCH. II. crossed the wilderness from Hartford. Mrs. HutchinMrs. H. son's opinions were unanimously condemned by the

synod; and herself, and the most determined of her adherents were banished.

3. The unfortunate woman, excommunicated from

the church, became an outcast from a society, which 1638, had but now followed and flattered her. She went

first to Rhode Island, to join the settlement, which her 1643.

followers had there made. From thence, she removed Mrs. H. with her family to the state of New York, where she destroy

met death in its most appalling form; that of an In

dian midnight massacre. 3 4. One of the earliest cares of the Puritan fathers,

was to provide the means of instruction for their chil.

dren. At the general court in September, 1630, the 1630. sum of four hundred pounds was voted to commence gins a

a college building, at Newtown, now called Camcollege. bridge. In 1638, Mr. John Harvard, a pious divine 1638. from England, dying at Charlestown, left to the college Mr. Har. a bequest of nearly eight hundred pounds; and gratiLequest.

tude perpetuated his name in that of the institution. All the several colonies cherished the infant seminary, by contributions; regarding it as a nursery, from which the church and state, were to be replenished with qualified leaders.

5. Rhode Island. The most respectable of the

banished followers of Mrs. Hutchinson went south, 1638. headed by William Coddington and John CLARKE

ers of The latter had been persecuted as a baptist. By the Mrs. H. influence of Roger Williams, they obtained from Mi R. I. antonomoh the noble gift of the island of Aquetneck,

called Rhode Island, on account of its beauty and fertility. Here they established a government, on the principles of political equality and religious toleration Coddington was made chief magistrate.

2. What was done in regard to Mrs. Hutchinson ?- 3. Wha became of her ? — 4. What was done in regard to the education of the young? Who was John Harvard ? For what is he re. membered ? - 5. Who gave away the island of Aquetneck ? To whom? What name was given to it ? On what principlee was government established ?

vard's

NEW HAMPSHIRE-DELAWARE.

77

Mr. Wheel

patent.

shire set tlements

6. New HAMPSHIRE. Another portion of the disa p'T. I. ciples of Mrs. Hutchinson, headed by her brother-in

P'D. III. law, Mr. Wheelright, went north; and, in the valley cu. Ir. of the Piscataqua, founded Exeter. It was within a

1629 tract of country lying between that river and the Merrimac, which Wheelright claimed by virtue of a pur- right's chase made of the Indians. This claim interfered with Indian that conveyed by patent to Mason and Gorges, and was accordingly disputed.

7. In the meantime, small, independent settlements, L} were made along the water courses, by emigrants from Massachusetts and the other colonies; but they did not flourish, for they imprudently neglected the culture of 1641 their lands,-present necessities being scantily supplied Hamp. by fish and game. In 1641, these settlements, induced by a sense of their weakness, petitioned Massachusetts to receive them under its jurisdiction. The general court granted their request, and they were incorporated with that colony.

8. Delaware. Gustavus Adolphus, the hero of his age, projected, in 1627, a colony of his subjects 1697. from Sweden and Finland. About ten years after- and Fins. wards they came over headed by Peter Minuets, and die on the settled at Christina Creek, on the west side of the 1638. Delaware, calling that river Swedeland-stream, and the country, New Sweden.

9. Though this was the first effectual settlement, yet the Dutch had, in 1629, purchased of the natives a tract of land extending from Cape Henlopen to the mouth of the Delaware river. A small colony con-1629. ducted by De Vries, came from Holland, and settled near Lewistown. They perished by the savages ;o. inaos but the Dutch continuing to claim the country, dissensions arose between them and the Swedish emigrants.

Tho Dutch claim

6. Who founded Exeter ? Where is it? What claiin had Mr. Wheelwright to the land ? Who disputed his claim?7. What further may be said of New Hampshire at this early day ?-8. What eminent person projected a colony to America ? Where did the Swedes and Fins settle ?—9. Had there been a settlement of the Dutch near? What became of the Dutch colony?

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FOUNDERS OF MARYLAND.

CHAPTER X.

P'T.I.

P'D. III.

Ld. Baltimore's

in

Maryland-Virginia. 1. MARYLAND. In 1631, William Clayborne obo

tained from Charles I. a license to traffic, in those parts 3. CH. X. of America, for which there was not already a patent 1631. granted. Clayborne planted a small colony, on Kent

island, in Chesapeake bay,

2. George Calvert, afterwards LORD BALTIMORE,

was of the Roman Catholic faith. To enjoy his religion patent. unmolested, he wished to emigrate to some vacant (*Maine tract in America. He explored the country, and then called returned to England. The Queen, Henrietta Maria from an daughter to Henry IV. of France, gave to the territory of this which he had selected, the name of MARYLAND, and queen, Lord Baltimore obtained it by a royal patent.

3. He died at London in 1632, before his patent Maine, France.) passed to a legal form; but his son, Cecil Calver, the

second Lord Baltimore, by the influence of Sir Robert April 15, Cecil, obtained the grant intended for his father. By 1632

this patent he held the country from the Potomac to the 40th degree of north latitude; and thus, by a mere act of the crown, what had long before been granted to Virginia, was now taken away; as what was now granted was subsequently given to Penn, to · the extent of a degree. Hence very troublesome disputes arose.

4. Lord Baltimore appointed as governor his brother, Calvert Leonard Calvert, who, with two hundred emigrants,

sails, sailed near the close of 1633, and arrived at the Poto1633. mac early in 1634. Here they purchased of the naArrives tives, Yamaco, one of their settlements, to which was 634. given the name of St. Mary. Calvert secured by this

pacific course, comfortable habitations, some improved lands, and the friendship of the natives.

1. What was done by William Clayborne ? 2. Why did Lord Baltimore wish to leave England ? Who named his territory after herself ? - 3. Did the first Lord Baltimore receive the patent?

What did his son obtain ? What country did this patent include ? -4. Who conducted the first colony to Mary land? What judicious course did he pursue ?

TROUBLES IN MARYLAND)

79

P'D. III

Generor

ity and

tude.

5. The country was pleasant, great religious free- p'T. I. dom existed, and a liberal charter had been granted. This allowed the proprietor, aided by the freemen, to cu.. pass laws, without reserving to the crown the right of

? 다 rejecting them. Emigrants accordingly soon flocked to the province, from the other colonies, and from England.

6. Thus had the earliest settlers of this beautiful portion of our country established themselves, without the sufferings endured by the pioneers of former settlements. The proprietary government, generally so detrimental, proved here a nursing mother. Lord Baltimore expended for the colonists, within a few years, gratiforty thousand pounds; 'and they, “out of desire to return some testimony of gratitude, 9 voted in their assembly, “ such a subsidy, as the low and poor estate of the colony could bear.”

7. Lord Baltimore invited the puritans of Massachusetts to emigrate to Maryland, offering them “ free 1642 liberty of religion.” They rejected this, as they did Lord B. a similar proposition from Cromwell, to remove to the West Indies.

8. The restless, intriguing Clayborne, called the evil genius of Maryland, had been constantly on the alert to establish, by agents in England, a claim to the country, and thus to subvert the government of the 1635, good proprietary. In his traffic with the natives, he had learned their dispositions, and wrought them to 1643. jealousy. In England, the authority of the long Parliament now superseded that of the king.j. Of this, Clayborne, and other disorderly subjects of Lord Baltimore, took advantage. Thus the fair dasyn of this rising settlement was early overcast.

9. VIRGINIA. In 1621, Sir Francis Wyatt arrived 1621 . as governor, bringing from the company in England a more perfect constitution for the colony, It contained Wyatt.

invites the

puri.

tans.

to

Sir Francis

5. What inviting circumstances drew emigrants ?-6. What may be said of the proprietary government ?' 'How much did Lord Baltimore expend for the colony ? Did they testify any gratitude ? 7. What did Lord Baltimore offer the Puritans? – 8. What was Clayborne called? What were some of his plans to injure the proprietor ? — 1. Wlio arrived in Virginia ? Wliat did hic bring ?

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