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P'D. III.

remorse.

massacre

300.

P'T. I. some sceming concessions to the people, which not

only gratified the settlers, but encouraged emigrants; ch. s. and a large number accordingly accompanied Governor

Wyatt to the province.

10. This year, cotton was first planted in Virginia, Cotton and “the plentiful coming up of the seeds,” was replanted. garded by the planters with curiosity and interest.

11. Opechancanough, the brother and successor of

Powhatan, had determined to extirpate the whites, and A con- regain the country. For this purpose he formed a spirary

conspiracy to massacre all the English; and during four years, he was, secretly, concerting his plan. To each tribe its station was allotted, and the part it was to act prescribed.

12. On the 22d of March, 1622, at mid-day, they rushed upon the English, in all their settlements, and butchered men, women, and children, without pity or

In one hour, nearly a fourth part of the 1622. whole colony was cut off. The slaughter would have Indians been universal, if compassion, or a sense of duty, had

not moved a converted Indian, to whom the secret was communicated, to reveal it to his master, on the night before the massacre. This was done in time to save Jamestown and the adjacent settlements.

13. A bloody war ensued. The English, by their arms and discipline, were more than a match for the Indians; and they retaliated in such a manner as left the colonies for a long time free from savage

molesta retaliate, tion. They also received a considerable accession of

territory, by appropriating those of the conquered natives.

14. In 1624 the London company, which had set1624.tled Virginia, was dissolved by King James, and its

rights and privileges returned to the crown. Goverand Va. nors were sent over by Charles I. the successor of a royal James, who were oppressive; and the Virginians reprovince 3 3

sisted their authority. Sir William Berkeley was sent over in 1641. "The colonists were, under him, con

9. What effect had these concessions ?-10. When was cot. ton first planted in Virginia ? -11 & 12. Give an account of the Indian massacre ? — 13. What was done in retaliation ? 14. What became of the London company ? Under whom vous Virginia then? What can you say of the royal governors ?

Tho whites

L. Com. dissolved

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P'D. III.

firmed in their enjoyment of the elective franchise. P'T. I. Great harmony prevailed, notwithstanding the assernbly took a high tone in respect to their political rights; cu. a. boldly declaring “ that they expected no taxes or impositions, except such as should be freely voted for ihcir own wants.”

CHAPTER XI.

Massachusetts threatened.The Puritans in England -Varo.

UNION.

The

1. The English court began to be jealous, that their colonies, especially that of the Bay, did not intend to be governed by the parent country. They were truly informed by some, who returned dissatis- court die fied from Massachusetts, that not only was their own pleased religion established by law, but the use of the Eng- Mass. lish liturgy was prohibited. Various other charges were made against the province,-showing that it was casting off dependence upon the English crown, and assuming sovereign powers to itself.

2. Much displeased, the king determined that the colonies should be brought to submission, both in 1634 church and state; and he made archbishop Laud, famed coming for his persecuting spirit, chief of a council, which was sioners. appointed, with full powers to govern the colony in all cases whatever.

3. The Grand Council of Plymouth, as it had its beginning and course, so also it had its end in little better than knavery. We have seen that its own members, Gorges and Mason, and others, had been its patentees. These persons now wishing to make

14. Under what governor did harmony prevail ? What did the assembly declare ?

CHAPTER XI.-1. Of what were the British government jealous ? What reports concerning Massachusetts were true ? - 2, What did the king determine ? Who was made chief of a coun. cil ? With what powers ? 3. On what occasion was the Grand Council of Plymouth dissolved?

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Mass. ar

P'T. I. good certain claims to territory in Massachusetts, gave P'D. III.

up

their patent to the crown; petitioning for redress against that colony, which they asserted had forfeited

its charter, by exceeding its powers and territorial raigned. limits.

4. Willing to humble their “ unbridled spirits,” the court of king's bench, issued a writ against the indi

viduals of the corporation of Massachusetts Bay, ace Dec. cusing them with certain acts, by which they had for1634. feited their charter, and requiring them to show warcharter rant for their proceedings. ' At a subsequent term, the annulled. court pronounced sentence against them, and declared

that their charter was forfeited.

5. The rapid emigration to the colonies had attract

ed the attention of the council, and they had passed 3000 laws, prohibiting any person above the rank of a sercome to vant from leaving the kingdom without express perland in mission; and vessels already freighted with emigrants 1638. had been detained. But these prohibitions were in

vain; for persecution, conducted by the merciless Laud, grew more and more cruel; and in one year, three thousand persons left England for America.

6. Oppression, and perhaps the successful escape and resistance of their brethren in America, had so wrought upon the public mind in England, that matters had now come to open opposition to the government.

In Scotland, Charles had attempted to enforce the use 1640. of the English liturgy. Riots had followed, and the Charles Solemn League and Covenant been made, by which engaged the Scottish people bound themselves to oppose all

similar attempts. Popular opinion became resistless. Laud's party was ruined, and himself imprisoned; while the king was engaged in a bloody civil war with his revolted subjects.

7. Puritanism now reigned in England, and its dins ciples had no inducement to emigrate. Nay, some

war.

3. What evil did some of their nun, ber do to Massachusetts ? 4. What was done in the king's court respecting the charter of Massachusetts ? -- 5. What laws were made respecting emigra. tion? What effect had they ? — 6. What was now the state of things in Great Britain ? -'7. How did the rule of Puritanism in England affect emigration to America ?

THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE NEW WORLD.

83

P'D. III,

The long

ment.

3

returned, among whom was Governor Vane. The P'T. I. Long Parliament had begun to rule; and its leaders were desirous to honor, rather than humble New Eng- Ch. II. land. Cotton, Hooker, and Davenport, were invited to go to London to attend the celebrated assembly of divines at Westminster. They, however, saw no suf- Parliaficient cause to leave their flocks in the wilderness. England was no longer their country; but that for which they had suffered, though recent, was already

1642 as dear to these noble patriots, as the infant to the 1 mother.

8. A UNION was now meditated. Both internal peace, and external safety were to be secured. An Safety essential part of the compact made, was the solemn and peace promise of the framers to yield obedience to the powers thus created. 9. Two commissioners having been appointed by

1643. each of the four colonies, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven, they met at Boston, May, 1643, where they drew up and signed the Arti- federacy cles of Confederation. Rhode Island was not per- Boston mitted to be a member of the confederacy, unless it became an appendage to Plymouth. This, that colony

1 very properly refused.

10. The style adopted was that of the United Colonies of New England.” Their little congress, the first of the New World, was to be composed of eight members, two from each colony. They were to as- to meet semble yearly in the different colonies by rotation,

annually Massachusetts having, in this respect a double privilege.

11. Although this confederacy was nominally discontinued after about forty years, yet its spirit remained. The colonies had learned to act together, and when common injuries and common dangers again required

Articles of con

Comms sioners

7. What honor was paid to three of the New England clergy? A. What objects were to be secured by Union ? - 5. What four colonies seni commissioners to Boston? What important work did they perform? What hard condition was exacted of Rhode Island ? –10. What was the style adopted? Where was the little Congress of Commissioners to meet ?- 11. How long did this confederacy last ?

84

THE GERM OF THE CONFEDERACY.

CH. XL

P'T. I. united action, modes and precedents were at hand

Hence we regard the Confederacy of the four New P'D. III.

England provinces, as the germ of the Federal Union.

11. Why is it regarded as the germ of the Federal Union ?

Compare the third Map with the second, and tell the principal changes which have taken place in the geography in the course of the third period of the First Part of the

history? What are the principal patents which have been given ? Compare the different maps with the history, and tell when the name of Virginia was first given, and to what extent of country it has, at different times been applied ?

EXERCISES ON THE CHRONOGRAPHER.

Whai is the event which marks the beginning of this period? What is its date ? Point it out on the chronographer.

Massasoit visits the pilgrims in 1621, and enters into an alliance with them. Point out this date on the chronographer. James I. issued a charter to a company styled the Gc Grand Council of Plymouth, ,!! in 1620. Point out the place of this date. John Endicot began the settlement of Salem in 1628. He was appointed Governor of Massachu setts Bay in 1629. Point out the places of these dates. Three thousand persons emigrated to New England in 1635. Point to the place of this date.

Roger Williams founded Providence in 1636. Point out the place of this date. The Pequods were defeated and destroyed in 1637. New Haven was founded the same year. Show its place on the chronographer. The college at Cambridge was founded in 1630. It took the name of Harvard in 1638. Point to the place of these two dates. Lord Baltimore obtained a patent of Maryland in 1631 Point out the place of this year. What event marks the termination of this period? What is its date? Point to its place on the chronographer.

Let the teacher often repeat general qucstions, such as What is the subject of this part ? Into how many periods is it divided ? What is the first and last date of your lesson to-dny ? In what century is it? How much time occurs between the first and last date ?

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