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Nov. Prince Richard does homage to King Philip for his father's continental territories.
A.D. 1203 April 3. Death of Arthur. A general insurrection takes place in Brittany; many of John's territories are taken. Tec. John flies from Rouen to England. 1204 Rouen, Werneuil, and Château Gaillard surrender to Philip, and Normandy is re-annexed to the French dominions. Brittany, Anjou, Maine, Touraine, and Poictou acknowledge Philip. 1207 John disputes with the pope the right of appointing bishops; John de Gray is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; the pope appoints Stephen Langton. 1208 March 23. The kingdom is laid under an interdict. 1209 John is excommunicated. 1213 John is deposed by the pope. Philip collects a large fleet for the invasion of England; John sends out ships; they destroy the principal part of the French fleet. May 15. John swears fealty to the pope and surrenders his kingdom. The Barons refuse to embark in an expedition against France; John makes war on them. Aug. 25. Langton swears the barons at London to maintain the charter of Henry I. Sept. 29. John again swears fealty to the pope. 1214 Nov. 20. The barons meet at St. Edmund's Bury, and swear to assert their rights. 1215 Jan. The barons demand the Great Charter. The barons meet at Stamford; march to Oxford; they present the heads of their demands; they elect Robert FitzWalter their leader. May 24. They enter London; John agrees to their terms. June 15. Meeting at Runnymead; John grants the Great Charter. John invites an army of foreign mercenaries, and takes Rochester Castle; the barons are excommunicated by the pope. Dec. 16. The barons are again excommunicated and London laid under an interdict. The English crown is offered to Louis, son of Philip, king of France, by the confederate barons. 1216 May 30. The French army lands at Sandwich; Louis takes Rochester Castle. June 2. He enters London, and the barons do homage and swear fealty to him in St. Paul's Cathedral. Louis unsuccessfully besieges Dover Castle. Oct. John marches through Peterborough; his baggage and army are nearly all swallowed up by the wash at Fossdike; he repairs to Swineshead Abbey. Oct. 15. John is seized with fever; he appoints his son Henry his successor; the barons with him swear fealty to the prince. Oct. 18. King John dies; is buried in Worcester Cathedral. Accession of Henry III. Oct. 26. Henry is crowned at St. Peter's Church, Gloucester. Nov. 11. Great council at Bristol; the Earl of Pembroke chosen Protector; Magna Charta is revised. Dec. 6. Louis takes Hertford Castle. 1217. May 20. The battle called “The Fair of Lincoln" fought. Aug. 28. French fleet sails from Calais. Aug. 24. Hubert de Burgh takes or destroys the whole. Sept. 11. Louis agrees to abandon his claim on England. Sept. 14. He sails for France. Oct. 2. The barons who had adhered to Louis are received at court. Oct. 4. New charter granted to the city of London. The Charter of Forests is granted. 1219 May. The Earl of Pembroke, the regent, dies, and is buried in the Temple Church. Hubert de Burgh and the Bishop of Winchester are appointed regents. Pandulph is made legate. 1225 A parliament is summoned at Westminster; money is granted on condition of the ratification of the two charters. 1236 Henry marries Eleanor, daughter of the Count of Provence. 1238 Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, marries Eleanor, countess-dowager of Pembroke, sister of King Henry. 1248 The parliament remonstrate with Henry; and refuse supplies.
A.D. 1252 Henry quarrels with the Earl of Leicester. 1253 May 3. Henry solemnly swears in Westminster Hall to observe the charters, and obtains money. Prince Edward marries Eleanor, daughter of Alphonso, king of Castile. 1256 Richard earl of Cornwall is elected king of the Romans; is crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle. 1258 May 2. Parliament is assemble at Westminster; the barons appear armed. June 11. The parliament called the “Mad Parliament" meet at Oxford; committee of government appointed, and three sessions appointed to be held yearly; the king takes oaths to observe these acts. 1261 Feb. 2. Henry dismisses the committee of government; seizes the Tower and the Mint; Prince Edward joins the barons; the king publishes a dispensation from the pope absolving him from his oaths taken at Oxford. 1263 April. The Earl of Leicester returns to England. Oct. Henry defeats the barons, and Prince Edward joins him. 1264. The king and the barons refer their differences to the arbitration of Louis IX. of France; the civil war again rages. May 12. Battle of Lewes; the king, the King of the Romans, and Prince Edward, are taken prisoners; the truce of Lewes is concluded. 1265 Parliament is called, in which for the first timo representatives appear. Prince Edward escapes; battle at Kenilworth. Aug. 4. The battle of Evesham; the Earl of Leicester is slain. Parliament at Winchester; London deprived of its charter; dictum of Kenilworth. 1267 Parliament at Marlborough; the dictum of Kenilworth accepted. 1270 July. Prince Edward sails for the Holy Land. 1271 Edward lands at Acre; takes Nazareth; the Moslems are massacred; returns to Acre; is wounded by an assassin. Dec. Richard, king of the Romans, dies. 1272 Nov. 16. King Henry dies at Westminster, and is buried in the abbey.
98.—ANNALS OF EDWARD I.
Edward I, king of England, surnamed Long-shanks, from the excessive length of his legs, was the eldest son of king Henry III., by his wife Eleanor, second daughter of Raymond, count of Provence. He was born at Westminster, June 16, 1239.
Edward early manifested a character very unlike that of his weak and imprudent father. While yet only entering upon manhood, we find him taking part in important affairs of state. The more important of the transactions in which the Prince was engaged, have already been narrated.
After the war of the barons was ended, in 1267, at a parliament held at Northampton, prince Edward, together with several noblemen and a great number of knights, pledged themselves to proceed to join the crusaders in the Holy Land. The Prince accordingly, having first, in a visit to Paris, in August, 1269, made his arrangements with St. Louis, set sail from England to join that king in May, the year following. St. Louis died on his way to Palestine; and Edward, having spent the winter in Sicily waiting for him, did not arrive at the scene of action till the end of May, 1271. Here he performed several valorous exploits, which however were attended with no important result. His most memorable adventure was an encounter with a Saracen, who attempted to assassinate him, and whom he slew on the spot, but not before he had received a wound in the arm from a poisoned dagger, from the effects of which he is said to have been delivered by the princess, his wife, who sucked the poison from the wound. At last, having concluded a ten years' truce with the Saracens, he left Palestine in August, 1272, and set out on his return to England. He was at Messina, on his way home, in January, 1273, when he heard of the death of his father on the 16th of November preceding. He proceeded on his journey, and landed with his queen in England 25th July, 1274. They were both solemnly crowned at Westminster on the 19th of August following. The reign of Edward I., however, appears to have been reckoned not from the day of his coronation, according to the practice observed in the cases of all the preceding kings since the Conquest, but, according to the modern practice, from the day on which the throne became vacant, or at least from the 20th of November, the day of his father's funeral, immediately after which the clerical and lay nobility who were present in Westminster Abbey on the occasion had sworn fealty to the new king at the high altar of that church. The first military operations of Edward's reign were directed against the Welsh, whose prince Llewellyn, on being summoned to do homage, had contemptuously refused. Llewellyn was forced to sue for peace in November, 1277, after a single campaign ; but in 1281 he again rose in arms, and the insurrection was not put down till Llewellyn himself was slain at Llanfair, 11th December, 1282, and his surviving brother Prince David was taken prisoner soon after. The following year the last-mentioned prince was barbarously put to death by drawing, hanging, and quartering, and Wales was finally united to England. The conquest of Wales was followed by the attempt to conquer Scotland. By the death of Alexander III., in 1285, the crown of that country had fallen to his grand-daughter Margaret, called the Maiden of Norway, a child only three years old. By the treaty of Brigham, concluded in July, 1290, it was agreed that Margaret should be married to Edward, the eldest surviving son of the English king; but the young queen died in one of the Orkney Islands on her voyage from Norway in September of the same year. Edward made the first open declaration of his designs against the independence of Scotland at a conference held at Norham on the Tweed with the clergy and nobility of that kingdom on the 10th of May, 1291. Ten different competitors for the crown had advanced their claims; but they were all induced to acknowledge Edward for their lord paramount and to consent to receive judgment from him on the matter in dispute. His decision was finally pronounced in favour of John Balliol, at Berwick, on the 17th of November, 1292; on the next day Balliol swore fealty to him in the castle of Norham. He was crowned at Scone under a commission from his liege lord on the 30th of the same month; and on the 26th of December he did homage to Edward for his crown at Newcastle. The subject king, however, was soon made to feel all the humiliation of his position; and the discontent of his countrymen equalling his own, by the summer of 1294 all Scotland was in open insurrection against the authority of Edward. Meanwhile Edward had become involved in a war with the French king Philip IV. The first act of the assembled estates of Scotland was to enter into a treaty of alliance with that sovereign. But although he was farther embarrassed at this inconvenient moment by a revolt of the Welsh, Edward's wonderful energy in a few months recovered for him all that he had lost. In the spring of 1296 he laid a great part of Scotland waste with fire and sword, compelled Balliol to resign the kingdom into his hands, and then made a triumphant progress through the country as far as Elgin in Murray, exacting oaths of fealty from all classes wherever he appeared. It was on his return from this progress that Edward, as he passed the cathedral of Scone in the beginning of August, carried away with him the famous stone, now in Westminster Abbey, on which the Scottish kings had been accustomed to be crowned. He now placed the government of Scotland in the hands of officers appointed by himself, and bearing the titles of his ministers. But by the month of May in the following year Scotland was again in flames. The leader of the insurrection now was the celebrated William Wallace. He and his countrymen had been excited to make this new attempt to effect their deliverance from a foreign domination, partly by the severities of their English governors, partly by the circumstances in which Edward was at this time involved. The expenses of his Scottish and French wars had pressed heavily upon the resources of the kingdom; and when he asked for more money, both clergy and laity refused him any farther grant without a redress of grievances and a confirmation of the several great national