A.D. 1491 Perkin Warbeck lands at Cork, and declares himself the Duke of York, son of Edward IV. 1405 July 3. Warbeck lands at Deal; the people rise against him; his adherents are sent to London; he escapes to Flanders. 1496 Warbeck is married in Scotland to Lady Catherine Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Huntley. King jo. invades England with Warbeck and an army of Scots, Germans, and Flemings; they retire. 1497 Sept. Warbeck lands at Whitsand Bay, Cornwall; assumes the title of Richard IV.; fails in his attempt, and surrenders. 1409 Nov. 16. Warbeck is tried for treason, convicted, and executed at Tyburn. 1501 Nov. 6. Prince Arthur is married to Catherine of Aragon. 1502 Jan. 29. The Princess Margaret is married by proxy in London to James of Scotland. April. Arthur, prince of Wales, dies at Ludlow. 1503 Henry, prince of Wales, is affianced to the widow of his brother Arthur. 1509 April 21. Henry dies at Richmond; is buried in his chapel at Westminster. Accession of Henry VIII. June 3. He is married to Catherine of Aragon, at Greenwich. 1513 June 30. Henry lands at Calais; marches to the siege of Terouenne; the Emperor Maximilian joins him; the battle of Spurs. Sept. 9. Battle of Flodden Field; James is slain. Oct. 21. Henry returns with his army to England. 1515 Wolsey is created a cardinal, and made chancellor and legate. 1520 May 31. Henry, the queen, and his retinue embark for Calais, to meet Francis I, and on June 7, the two kings meet at the Field of Cloth of Gold. 1521 May 17. Buckingham is beheaded for treason on Tower Hill. Henry's defence of the seven sacraments is sent to Leo X., who confers on him the title of Defender of the Faith. 1525 Henry attempts to levy money by benevolences for the conquest of France; it is refused; an insurrection is raised. 1527 Henry's marriage with Catherine of Aragon questioned; and Henry writes a treatise upon the unlawfulness of his marriage with Catherine. 1528 Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggio are authorised to determine the divorce. May. The sweating sickness breaks out in London. 1529 June 21. The king and queen both appear before the cardinals; the queen withdraws, and, refusing again to appear, is pronounced contumacious. July 23. Campeggio adjourns the cause. Oct. Wolsey has two bills filed against him in the Court of King's Bench, for exercising the functions of pope's legate, and he is deprived of the great seal. 1530 Nov. 4. He is arrested for high treason; is taken sick at Leicester; dies at Leicester Abbey, Nov. 20. The marriage of Henry is declared illegal by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 1531 Thomas Cromwell advises Henry to declare himself supreme head of the church. 1583 Jan. 4 or 25. Henry is married to Anne Boleyn, at Whitehall. Cranmer is made Archbishop of Canterbury. May 28. Cranmer declares to the clergy the marriage of Henry with Anne Boleyn, and confirms the same. Sept. 7. Anne is delivered of a girl, the Princess Elizabeth. 1534 Parliament prohibits every kind of payment or appeal to the pope; confirms Henry's title as supreme head of the church; vests in the king only the right of appoint. ing to all bishoprics; of deciding in all ecclesiastical causes. Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, are committed to the Tower, 1535 June 14. Interrogatories are administered to Sir Thomas More. June 18. Other Catholics are executed for denying the supremacy. June 22. Fisher, bishop of Rochester, is beheaded for denying the supremacy. July 6. More is also executed for the same. 1586 Jan. 8. Queen Catherine dies at Kimbolton.

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May 2. Anne Boleyn is arrested for treason and committed to the Tower, found
guilty, and beheaded, May 19.
May 20. Henry marries Jane Seymour.
The Bible is published in English.
Oct. 12. Queen Jane Seymour is delivered of a son.
Oct. 24. She dies; the prince is created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and
Earl of Chester; Edward Seymour is created Earl of Hereford.
Some of the larger monasteries are suppressed and the abbeys are seized by the king.
May 18. Six questions are proposed concerning the Eucharist and other matters for
the consideration of parliament; they are adopted and called the Six Articles, or
the Bloody Statute.
Dec. Ann of Cleves arrives at Dover; and on Jan. 5, 1540, she is married to Henry.
The remaining monasteries and other religious houses are suppressed; their lands
divided amongst courtiers and favourites.
Cromwell is created Earl of Essex.
June 10. Cromwell is arrested for treason, and attainted as a traitor and heretic.
July 9. Henry is divorced from Ann of Cleves.
July 28. Cromwell is beheaded on Tower Hill.
July 31. Dr. Barnes and five others are burnt for heresy.
Aug. 8. Catherine Howard, whom Henry had married a few days after his divorce, is
publicly acknowledged queen.
Aug. Catherine Howard is accused to the king.
Feb. 11. Catherine is attainted by parliament, with Lady Rochford, and they are both
beheaded in the Tower.
Feb. The English parliament restore the Princess Mary to her place in the succes-
July. Henry is married to Catherine Parr.
May 4. An English army land at Leith, which they plunder; the Scotch evacuate
Edinburgh; the Earl of Hertford attacks the castle; is defeated; burns the town
and lays waste the country; he retreats from Leith, burns the shipping, and re-
treats to Berwick.
Nov. Parliament grants Henry a subsidy and the disposal of all colleges, charities,
and hospitals.
Sept. The Earl of Hertford again marches into Scotland, and burns and destroys the
towns and villages.
Jan. 13. The Earl of Surrey is arraigned for treason at Guildhall for using the royal
arms of Edward the Confessor quartered with his own; is found guilty of an at-
tempt upon the throne, and is beheaded.
Jan 28. Henry VIII. dies.
Jan. 31. King Edward VI. enters London and proceeds to the Tower.
Feb. 1. The Earl of Hertford is appointed sole governor, and is made Duke of
Somerset is appointed sole governor of the king, and protector of the kingdom.
June. Lord Seymour, the Duke of Somerset's brother, marries Queen Catherine Parr.
July. The protector marches with an army for the invasion of Scotland.
Sept. 10. Battle of Pinkey, at Salt Preston; the Scotch army are routed.
Sept. 17. Leith is set on fire.
Sept. 29. The English army recross the Tweed.
Nov. 4. Parliament passes an act for the punishing of vagabonds and the relief of
poor and impotent persons.
Cranmer publishes a catechism in English.
Dec. The English are driven out of Scotland; the Scotch ravage the English border.
Feb. 19. The act allowing the marriage of the clergy, and another establishing the
use of the reformed liturgy, are passed.
March 26. Lord Admiral Seymour is beheaded on Tower Hill.
Oct. 14. Articles of impeachment are exhibited against the protector, who is sent to
the Tower.
Warwick is made lord high admiral and great master of the household.

A.D. 1550 April 10. The Duke of Somerset is again sworn in of the privy council. May 2. Joan of Kent is burned in Smithfield for heresy. 1551 Aug. The chief officers of the household of the Princess Mary are committed to the Tower. The chancellor and other members of the council confer with her respecting the mass, which she refuses to relinquish. Oct. 11. Warwick is created Duke of Northumberland. Oct. 16. The Duke of Somerset is arrested for conspiracy and treason. An indictment is presented and found against him, by the Grand Jury, at Guildhall. Dec. 1. The Duke of Somerset is tried in Westminster Hall, is found guilty of felony, and, on Jan. 22, 1552, is beheaded on Tower Hill. 1552 Jan. 23. Parliament meets; acts are passed for the enforcing the use of the books of Common Prayer; for amending the law of treason; for the relief of the poor; for legalising the marriage of priests, and for other purposes. 1553 May. Lord Guilford Dudley is married to Lady Jane Grey. June 11. The king requires the crown lawyers to draw a bill, entailing the crown on Lady Jane Grey. July 6. Edward VI. dies at Greenwich. July 8. The Lord Mayor of London, and others of the citizens, swear allegiance to Lady Jane Grey. July 19. The council proceed to Baynard's Castle, and declare for Mary. July 21. Northumberland is arrested for treason, and conveyed to the Tower. July 30. The Lady Elizabeth rides through London to meet Mary. Aug. 8. Queen Mary enters London. Aug. 18. The Duke of Northumberland, the Earl of Warwick, and the Marquis of Northampton are arraigned for treason in Westminster Hall; they are all condemned, and Northumberland is beheaded on the 22nd. Sept. 14. Cranmer is arrested and sent to the Tower. Oct. Gardiner assembles the convocation; the book of Common Prayer declared an abomination; they recommend the suppression of the reformed English Catechism. Nov. 13. Lady Jane Grey, her husband, and Lord Ambrose Dudley, with Cranmer, are tried and condemned for treason; Cranmer is respited, but detained for heresy. 1554 Jan. 14. The Chancellor Gardiner announces the queen's intended marriage with the Prince of Spain. Sir Thomas Wyatt raises a rebellion in Kent against the Spanish match. Feb. 12. Lady Jane Grey and her husband are beheaded. March 15. The Princess Elizabeth is arrested, and sent to the Tower. April 11. Sir Thomas Wyatt is beheaded. * April 14. Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, are questioned before the commissioners at Oxford. April 15. Sir Nicholas Throgmorton is tried and acquitted. 1555 Mary sends an embassy to the pope to confirm the reconciliation of England with the church. Feb. 9. Bishop Hooper is burned at Gloucester. Oct. 16. Ridley and Latimer are burned at Oxford. 1556 March 21. Cranmer is burned near Baliol College, Oxford. 1557 March. King Philip II. of Spain revisits England. June 7. Mary declares war against France. July 6. Philip departs from England. 1558 Jan. 1. The Duke of Guise commences the siege of Calais; it is assaulted and taken in a few days. April 24. Mary, Queen of Scots, is married to Francis, the eldest son of the King of France. Nov. 17. Queen Mary dies at St. James's. Queen Elizabeth's accession is acknowledged by both Houses of Parliament; she is proclaimed. Nov. 18. Sir William Cecil is appointed Secretary of State. 1559 Jan 12. The queen proceeds to the Tower before her coronation. Jan. 25. She meets the parliament; they restore the first-fruits and tenths to the

crown; they declare the queen supreme head of the church; the laws of Edward WI. relating to religion are restored; the book of Common Prayer re-established. 1559 Parliament exhort the queen to marry; she declares her intention to live and dia a virgin queen. May 30. The oath of supremacy is tendered to Bonner; he refuses to take it; he is deprived, as are others who refuse. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity are strictly enforced, and the Protestant religion established throughout England. July 10. Henry II. of France dies; is succeeded by Francis II., the husband of Mary, queen of Scots. They assume the titles of King and Queen of France, England, and Scotland. 1560 Feb. 27. Elizabeth concludes a treaty at Berwick with the Scottish reformers, for mutual defence, to last during the marriage of Mary with the French king. July 7. The treaty of Edinburgh, by which the government of Scotland was vested in a committee of noblemen. A separate peace is concluded between England and France, recognising Elizabeth's right to the crown of England. Aug. 1. The Scotch parliament declare that the authority of the Roman church is an usurpation; pass a declaration of faith, renouncing the tenets and dogmas of that church, and disowning the authority of the pope. Dec. 5. Francis II. of France dies, and is succeeded by Charles IX. 1561 Aug. 19. Queen Mary arrives at Leith; proceeds to Holyrood. John Knox has an interview with her. 1562 Oct. Elizabeth proposes Lord Robert Dudley as a husband for Queen Mary. 1563 Parliament meets: addresses the queen as to her marriage; the Duke of Würtemberg proposes for her hand. Sept. The plague rages in London. Sept. 29. Lord Robert Dudley is created Earl of Leicester. 1565 July 28. Darnley is married to Mary, Queen of Scots, and proclaimed king. 1566 March 9. Rizzio is murdered by Ruthven and other conspirators. June 10. Mary is delivered of a son, who is named James, Elizabeth being his godmother at the christening. 1567 Feb. 10. Darnley is murdered. April 12. Bothwell is arraigned for the murder of Darnley, and is acquitted. May 15. Bothwell is married to the queen. July 24. Mary resigns the crown to her son. July 29. Murray is appointed regent. 1568 May 2. Mary escapes from Lochleven Castle; an army is assembled for her defence. On the 14th takes place the battle of Langside; the queen's forces are defeated; she flies into England, is conducted to Carlisle, and detained as a prisoner. Ulster is vested in the English crown, and is colonised by English. July 16. Mary is removed to Bolton Castle. 1569 Feb. 3. Mary is placed in Tutbury Castle. Duke of Norfolk proposes to marry her. Oct. 2. Norfolk is arrested, and committed to the Tower. Nov. An insurrection breaks out in York, Durham, and Northumberland. The insurgents march to Durham, burn the Bible and Common Prayer-book, and celebrate mass in the cathedral. 1570 Jan. 22. The Regent Murray is shot at Linlithgow. 1571 April 2. Parliament meets; supplies are granted; it is declared to be high treason to claim a right to the succession of the crown during the queen's lifetime. 1572 Jan. 16. The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason, convicted, and beheaded June 2. Parliament declares the Queen of Scots incapable of succeeding to the English crown. Queen Mary is removed to Sheffield Castle. Aug. 23. The massacre of St. Bartholomew. 1573 Aug. Elizabeth sends aid to the Huguenots, and attempts the relief of Rochelle. 1577 Elizabeth, after rejecting the sovereignty of Holland and Zealand, sends aid to the Netherlands. 1578 James, after the execution of the Regent Morton, assumes the government of Scotland.

A.D. 1580 Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, arrives at Greenwich, as a suitor to Queen Elizabeth. 1581 Anjou returns to the Netherlands, the queen refusing to marry. 1584 The Throckmorton plot; Francis Throckmorton is executed at Tyburn. 1585 Elizabeth sends a large army into the Netherlands, under the command of Leicester; he is made governor-general of the Low Countries; he attacks Zutphen; is defeated. Sir Philip Sidney is killed. 1586 Babington's conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth is discovered; he is taken with many of his adherents. Some of them are condemned and executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, on Sept. 20. Elizabeth issues a commission for the trial of Queen Mary; who is removed to Fotheringay Castle. Oct. 11. Thirty-six English commissioners arrive at the castle; they announce to Mary that she is to be tried for being accessory to Babington's conspiracy, and other treasons. Oct. 14. The trial commences; is adjourned to the 25th, at the Star Chamber at Westminster. Oct. 25. Mary is pronounced guilty of treason, and sentenced to death. Oct. 29. Parliament assembles. Nov. 12. Both houses address the queen, imploring her to order the execution of Mary. Dec. 6. The order for her execution is proclaimed. 1587 Feb. 1. Elizabeth signs the warrant for her execution. Feb. 7. The Earl of Shrewsbury, earl marshal, attended by the Earls of Kent, Cumberland, and Derby, arrive at Fotheringay Castle, and read the warrant to Mary. Feb. 8. Queen Mary is beheaded in the great hall of the castle. Feb. 14. Davison, the secretary, is committed to the Tower; he is fined 10,000l. Sir Robert Carey is sent to make excuses to King James for the execution of Mary. April 19. Sir Francis Drake sails into Cadiz roads, and destroys thirty ships. He takes or destroys 100 Spanish vessels; captures a large ship in the Tagus; performs other brilliant exploits. Nov. Elizabeth summons a great council of war; Sir Walter Raleigh advises that the expected invasion of the Spaniards be met at sea; a great camp is formed at Tilbury Fort; the queen reviews the troops at Tilbury Fort. .588 May 29. The invincible armada, under the Duke of Medina Sidonia, sails from the Tagus; it is dispersed by a tempest off Cape Finisterre. July 20. It arrives in Channel. The battle commences, and is continued from the 20th to the 26th of July; the Duke of Medina Sidonia sails for Spain; many of his ships are wrecked at the Orkneys and the coast of Norway. Sept. 4. The Earl of Leicester dies. 1591 Essex goes to France with a small army to aid Henry IV. 1597 July. A large fleet is fitted out to attack the coast of Spain; Essex captures three Spanish ships; he returns, and is received by the queen with displeasure. 1598 June. The queen quarrels with Essex; he leaves the court. Aug. 4. Lord Burleigh dies. 1599 March. The Earl of Essex is appointed to command in Ireland; he leaves London with a large army; in September he returns to London, and appears at court without leave. 1601 Feb. 8. Essex, the Earls of Southampton and Rutland, and others attempt an insur. rection in London; they are sent to the Tower. Feb. 19. Essex and Southampton are tried and condemned. Feb. 25. Essex is executed privately in the Tower. 1603 March 21. The queen is confined to her bed. March 22. She names James WI., of Scotland, as her successor. March 24. She dies.


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