This effect must be so clearly evinced in pear trees, trained as he directs on one stem, as to render it an obstacle almost insurmountable to the producing a tree such as his plate represents at the age of six years.

And in his peach trees trained with two stems, this principle will operate as powerfully against his mode of providing fresh bearers by shortening every alternate one to one bud: the branches which are not shortened, or the buds near the stem, will take the principal flow of sap, and many of the stubs will not shoot at all.

By referring to the sketches of Forsyth and Knight, as well as Hitt, it will be seen, that they direct the shoots of one year old to be fixed in a precise horizontal position, or to be fastened in that position the first season, by degrees, as they grow; and they represent the point bud as forming the strongest shoots, and without this it is clear the trees could not be made to extend in the manner described by their figures, and to cover such a space in so short a time; but the fact will always prove to be as follows.

Whenever a young luxuriant branch is fixed in a precise horizontal position, the bud occupying the most vertical position at the base will form the strongest shoot, and the point bud the weakest, which indeed will scarcely grow at all.

When such a branch is fixed in a perpendicular position, the

sap will invariably flow to the extreme or point bud, which will be the most vertical, and

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there form the strongest shoot, leaving all below it in a diminutive state.

If it be fixed in a reclining position, on an angle of about 45 degrees, all the buds on the upper side, and the point bud, will push out and form branches of nearly the same strength.

But when a branch or stem is two, three, or more years old, the vessels are not so liable to injury from being forced out of their natural position; and after this age, that part which ha been kept free from buds may be bent with a gentle curve to almost any position, and the sap will continue to flow in its usual channels towards the extremities.

Forsyth's plan of training, either with one perpendicular stem and horizontal branches, or in the fan fashion, is very well calculated to bring a tree into an early state of bearing; but it is no better calculated to continue it in such a state than Hitt's.

By selecting and limiting the number of first shoots, and training them at full length, the sap is applied conformably to the third principle; but as trees furnish a much greater quantity of wood than can be properly disposed of in the space allowed by him, and are naturally inclined to attain a much greater height before they spread their branches, the greatest flow of sap will be up the perpendicular stem, and the strongest branches annually forming at the top, will leave the horizontals without the means of extension.


As fine fruit cannot be produced on weak branches, or on any of more than four or five years old, (which he acknowledges,) those horizontal branches will soon be worn out, and there will be no means of renewing them, but by heading back in the manner he directs for old trees.

I believe few who have adopted his plan have found themselves so fortunate in the result as to obtain such a quantity of pears as he represents to have been produced in so short a time after amputation *, and therefore will not be willing to repeat the experiment.

Any person who has trained trees on either of those plans must, after the first four or five years, have found an annual deficiency, instead of an increase, both in quality, number, and size of the fruit in every part of the tree; the extremes of the horizontals producing the best; and as the little sap supplied to them must be continually wasted in shoots near the stem, even those become smaller and weaker every year.

Forsyth directs the fore-right wood shoots on pear trees to be shortened at particular buds to about four inches; but this will inevitably produce other strong shoots from those buds, and by short

# Forsyth says,

66 On the 20th of June I headed several standards that were almost destroyed by the canker; some of them were so loaded with fruit the following year, that I was obliged to prop the branches, to prevent their being broken down by the weight of it."

ening these again and again, those bunches of stubs, which he and others so much deprecate, will be produced.

Although Knight's plan bears a little resemblance to Hitt's in the drawing, it will be found more exactly to resemble Forsyth’s in effect; but as neither he nor Forsyth has adopted Hitt's mode of serpentining the stems, in so much will both

prove inferior.

From the bending of the stem, the sap will always be more inclined to flow freely into the horizontals, and these in consequence may at all times be renewed with greater certainty ; but as the sap in an upright stem will always flow to its top, and there form the strongest branches, the horizontals will draw but a small quantity only of the sap; and in consequence they will, in a few years, be impoverished and worn out, as they cannot be renewed but by amputating the head of the tree, and commencing anew.

And further, by laying the first branches of a plant in a horizontal position, the first year, or as they grow from the bud, they may be prematurely brought to a fructiferous state, but they cannot attain strength or length after this: the flow of sap being, as before observed, in a vertical course, throws itself out in shoots near the base or stem; and these being cut out or fixed in the same horizontal position, the second season, the same effect is produced the third.

And in every succeeding year, as the branches

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must be more inclined to the perpendicular, the sap

will flow, and the branches form more towards the upper end each end each year;

and when near the centre, the strongest branches will form at the top, leaving the lower part naked. Hence it will

generally be seen that the lower part of a wall is covered with wood too weak and old to furnish fine fruit, or a renewal of young wood, while the middle is either naked or filled with old wood, or that which is too young and too gross to bear fruit, and all the finest wood growing at the top.

Even when a handsome selection of branches is made, in the manner Mr. Knight recommends, by cutting out the smallest and the largest, these are so changed from their natural and original destination, by being left to receive the whole of the sap in the following season, and the surface so much curtailed, that they are mostly incapable of producing fruit in its highest perfection, as they become mere vehicles for the same superfluous produce of branches the next season which those were that had been cut out the last.

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