those operations, are in other respects very great ; in many instances, of repairing casual losses and injuries, it is equal to anticipating the produce of a

future year.

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When it is required to bend large branches or limbs, they will be found to submit more readily in autumn, and if done a week or two before the fall of the leaf, there will be less danger of producing gum or canker, as the sap at this time is sufficiently in motion to restore trifling fractures, or the strains. of the bark and vessels.

This mode of training will be found more conformable to the third principle than any other; it will also be found to combine all the grand requisites, stated to be produced by the different authors I have referred to.

The stems, being two principal branches through which the sap will flow in equal portions from the root, to the length of three feet, before it is

permitted to form collaterals, the same effect will be produced as if the whole sap was to pass up the single stem of a standard of six feet, which is justly observed by Bradley, to make fruit branches in such plenty, that hardly any barren shoots are to be found upon them.

It also is conformable to the idea of Hales, that Light also, by freely entering the extended surfaces of leaves and flowers, contributes much to the ennobling the principles of vegetables.

By avoiding the precise horizontal position in which Hitt directs the branches to be fixed, the

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sap is more regularly and uniformly disposed of, and there will be no necessity for waste pipes, nor for cutting branches short to form studs for

producing bearers, nor to adopt the method recommended by Forsyth for furnishing bearers, that of repeatedly pinching off the tops, and shortening the leading shoots.

The whole of the sap will, by this mode, be expended in profitable and increasing production, and all the desirable effects which these authors describe to be attainable, will be produced in less time and with less difficulty.

By this mode also, it is possible to train a tree to its utmost extent, without ever using the knife for any other purpose

than for removing worn out branches, or old bearers, nor need a branch ever be shortened.

It will be found likewise to support Mr. Knight's ideas, is and expose a greater surface of leaf to the light," in the shortest possible time.

It will also “ promote an equal distribution of the circulating fluids ;and without cutting off the strongest and weakest branches, each annual shoot, as produced, will possess nearly an equal degree of vigour.

And as the horizontals will be formed of the most luxuriant shoots, they will find sufficient space to be trained in, and thus by proper treatment,' will, in due season, be found to have uniformly produced the finest possible bearing wood for the


succeeding year,” and this without pinching off shoots.

Thus also, the same square of walling will be furnished with more bearing wood, in the third and fourth years, than can possibly be done by any other mode or principles published, and than can be effected by the common mode of practice, is less than eight or ten years.

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Apricots, plums, cherries, &c. may be trained in the same manner as the preceding; but as these do not produce their young shoots with so much regularity as peaches and nectarines, and are more liable to injury from cutting and shortening; and also as they often bear fine fruit on buds growing from spurs of two or three years old, they do not require a renewal so often.

The young wood of those trees, therefore, must be allowed a greater space, and to run greater lengths, and to admit of this, the mode represented in Plate 2. is better calculated than the preceding.*

* By observations since made, I am convinced that the method recommended for the training peach trees, shewn by Plate 1. and described in the preceding chapter, is also the best plan for training pears, apricots, plums, cherries, &c.; for although it may be difficult to make those trees grow quite correct to the figures, it produces a more equal division of the

It will also be found to be the best mode of training dwarf pear trees, also for training apples and other fruits, as flat espaliers, varying the management of the bearers according to the nature of the tree.

This mode being founded in every respect upon the principles before explained, it will be observed, that the horizontals can only be raised with regularity, one on each side annually ; but as each one will have the supply of sap which in the other mode would be divided between two, they will grow double the length; and as the bearers also will fill a double space, the horizontals may be laid at double the distance, which will furnish wood sufficient to cover a wall of twelve feet high in five years, the same as the other mode, and from twenty to twenty-four feet in length.

When the height is under twelve feet, the distance may be proportionally increased between the trees.

By elevating or depressing the horizontal branches, they may be made to extend at all points, or to throw more strength to the branches at the base, intended for the young horizontals or bearers, as may appear needful ; and as all the bearers will be on the upper side of the horizontals, a clear and regular space will always be preserved.

sap, and a larger surface in a given space, than can be by any other method; but a proportionate space must be allowed, say from 16 to 20 feet between the trees, according to the soil, &c.

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