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do in five or six years, when cut back and stubbed in the usual manner.
Both currants and gooseberries bear their fruit on the last year's shoots, and on short natural studs or spurs.
The gooseberry will continue to bear on the same buds or spurs for many years, when the branches are kept free, and duly exposed; the only care, therefore, those will require, is, that the branches be so disposed that they may be suffered to grow their full length; and this may always be done by the assistance of a few stakes to confine the branches the first years of their growth. The collateral shoots must always be taken off close to the place from whence they spring, and this is done with the least trouble and the best effect by rubbing off the shoots when they are two or three inches long, perhaps in April or May.
The same buds which produce currants one year, do not always produce them the next, particularly those on the collaterals, as these are often without leaf or wood buds, for unless there is a leaf or wood bud on the branch, beyond the fruit, it will not come to perfection; the mode of pruning those, must therefore be something different from gooseberries.
The first formation of the currant bush must be regulated much in the same manner as the gooseberry; but as the branches grow more erect, they will require more attention, and be more benefited by the use of stakes to fix them in a reclining
position, and at sufficient distances from each
buds every year.
To make the most of both gooseberry and currant bushes, and to apply the whole produce of the roots to the formation of bearing branches and the finest fruit, and at the same time to keep them within a narrow compass and secure from accidental injuries, the most certain method will be to train them in the manner directed for spiral espaliers, as shewn in plate 3.
The stakes and tying will be an additional expence; but the additional produce, both in quantity and quality of the fruit, will more than overpay it, and with good profit.
BLIGHT AND DISEASES OF TREES,
COMMENTARY ON FORSYTH, KNIGHT, &c.
The injuries and diseases to which fruit trees are subject are various, and often difficult to be accounted for ; but unless in cases of obstruction or failure in their growth and produce, we can discover the cause, it will be to little purpose we attempt a remedy.
Blight is a term in very general use, but which is not easily defined.
Whenever a tree is obstructed in its growth, it matters not from what cause, it is said to be blighted; if the leaves, branches, blossoms, or fruit are cast off or destroyed by insects, it is said to be blighted; if it be checked or destroyed by frost, it is blighted; and if, from a stagnation of water about the roots, the trunk and branches become diseased, it is blighted; and, in fact, in all cases of failure, blight is the assigned cause; so that to attempt explaining a general remedy for, or preventive of blight, would be ridiculous and absurd
It will be seen that Bradley, Miller, Hitt, Forsyth, and Knight, have bestowed considerable attention on this subject, but evidently without producing much general benefit.
I am not so vain as to believe that I can give a just explanation of every obstruction, or describe the cause of every failure; but I flatter myself by pursuing the plan on which I grounded my ideas of training trees, that of resorting to elementary principles, and adhering to Nature, and demonstrable facts, I shall be able to develope a little of the mystery at present pending, and by directing the attention to the different objects, in a divided and separate point of view, more clearly explain the means of prevention and cure,
The diseases of trees originate either in the root, from the soil and situation being ill adapted, or from some external injury.
The habits and constitution of vegetables, like animals, are generally determined by their food, lodging, (or texture of the soil they grow in,) exposure to the various changes of the atmosphere, and to the injuries of insects and animals; I shall erefore arrange my observatic
observations and ideas under these four different heads.
First, as to food; having already explained the nature of this, I shall only further observe, that the food of plants being taken into the system in a state of liquid, the regularity of supply must depend upon the quantity of water furnished, and its quality, or the nature of what it holds in solution.
None of the fruit trees under our consideration can endure stagnant water; when placed under such influence, generally, the roots rot and decay by degrees, and the branches and trunk become equally affected; and when but partially so, or for a time very wet and then dry, the growth of the trees vary in the same degree, often throwing out strong and luxuriant branches during the spring and summer, which gum, canker, and die in the winter.
The peach tree, under those circumstances, is also subject to the disease called mildew, and the curled or distorted leaf and branch; and this will peculiarly prove to be the case with trees, when planted against walls, where the dripping of an extensive roof are thrown in times of rain on their roots, and which rapidly drains off.
Trees planted in beds or borders formed in the manner I have directed, and protected against such drippings, will seldom be found injured by these diseases.
An uniform supply of water, given from the surface downwards, will furnish an uniform supply of food, which will produce a healthy and fruitful tree.
It will be seen by the extracts I have made, that the gum and canker, or morbid exudation, have given rise to considerable debate among the learned, and particularly between Messrs. Knight and Forsyth ; the former considering those diseases as the effect of age, which is continued from the