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little clefts, occasioned by the contraction of the drying wood; and if drying oil, such as linseed, be used, it will prove more lasting and perfect in its effects.
By these means, disease and rottenness will be prevented; the old wood will continue sound and hard, and the surface being preserved smooth, the new wood will form close upon the old wood, and consequently wounds thus treated will never prove so detrimental to timber as when they are left exposed.
It might be observed that the soot, thus applied, will adhere to the surface, and in consequence, the new and old wood cannot unite or incorporate, “ but must remain perfectly separate and distinct from each other, without union or adhesion;" this, no doubt, will be the case; and, according to Mr. Knight, this has been explained by Dr. Anderson, as all the effect he believed to be produced by Mr. Forsyth's composition, and all that he or Mr. Forsyth meant to assert it had produced.
There are, no doubt, instances within the scope of every one's observations, of tall, straight, healthy stems growing upon or from old wounded ‘and hollow stumps, without the aid of art; but whenever it is desired to encourage and support the growth of trees in this manner, it is, as Mr. Forsyth observes, more effectually done by reducing all the branches to one, and from time to time removing all other shoots growing from the old trunk, and also all decayed or rotten wood, and
applying the covering recommended to the exposed and wounded parts; this, by excluding the air and moisture, will prevent decay and the waste of sap by putrefaction, and the future growth of the tree will consequently be better sustained.
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS
GROWING PEACHES IN POTS.
Being desirous of making some demonstrations as to the effect of different descriptions of soil and food, in the growth of peaches, nectarines, &c., it appeared to me that the most direct and decisive means would be to grow them in pots, and under glass, as thus circumstanced, they would be less exposed to casualty. I accordingly prepared a number of pots of about fourteen inches diameter and depth, and selected plants of peaches and nectarines, of one year's growth, from the bud; and as a basis for the soil or earth, in which these were to be planted, I took a strong black loam; this I divided into different portions; one portion I mixed with an equal quantity of the scrapings of a flint road ; another with one half as much of the same scrapings; another with one fourth ; and another portion I mixed with an equal quantity of brick rubbish, pounded as small as drift sand;
another with half the quantity of such rubbish ; and at the bottom of some of the pots, I placed, by way of substratum, a layer of about four inches of strong yellow clay ; to others a layer of four inches of chalk: having filled several pots with each of these preparations, I placed some of each of them under glass, in a conservatory; and others on a pavement in the open air. I also placed some pots in pans or dishes, and others on the bare ground. The next summer after planting, the difference in their growth was scarcely perceptible; but the spring following, a great difference appeared in the state of their health ; those plants in the pots which were placed in pans or dishes, were much diseased, and particularly those which had a substratum of clay and chalk; at last, one half of the young
branches of these were destroyed by the canker or livid mortification, and the blossom buds generally thrown off. One half of those pots containing the diseased plants I then removed out of the pans, and placed them on the surface of the earth; these the next year did not appear diseased, except those with the clay and chalk, which were but little benefited. I then turned those plants out of the pots, and removed the clay and chalk, and replacing them in the pots with the loam mixture only, kept them without pans, and they afterwards assumed a healthy and prolific appearance, and continued in such a state.
Those plants which grew in the mixture of one third brick rubbish, proved to be the most perfect
in every respect ; thence I conclude, that stagnant water is the cause of this destructive disease, and is also opposed to fructification.
After a season or two, observing my trees to decline in their growth, I commenced a course of experiments for manuring or feeding them; and to ascertain the best means of doing this, without disturbing the roots or the soil ; for this
I prepared decoctions of various dried vegetable substances, extracts of different dungs, sugar bakers' waste, &c., and the blood of animals.
From a variety of observations I was induced to believe, that the effect of food, being given at one season or time of the year, or period of growth of a plant, was very different to that which was produced when given at another; and that the different state of the food when administered, also produced different effects. Those trees which had been supplied with a libera quantity of the extract, of dung during the winter, and early in the spring, opened their wood buds, and extended their leaves before the blossoms, which subsequently declined, and fell off; those to which a strong decoction of sugar bakers' waste was given, were injured, and many destroyed by the roots rotting. Some plants were fed or supplied with a quantity of blood without separation, broken and mixed with a little water; these, with some of those which had been supplied in the winter with strong solutions of dung, were in the following spring affected very much with the blotched or blistered leaf and shoots. As a more