Woods Holl about 100 investigators are engaged each summer, a larger number of students of biology, probably, than will be found elsewhere in the world. Courses of instruction are also given. There are well-organized marine laboratories at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, and on the Bay of Monterey, California. The former is administered by the Brooklyn institute of arts and sciences and is under the direction of Dr. Charles B. Davenport. The latter is part of Stanford university and is directed by members of its faculty. There are at least three important freshwater biological stations conducted, respectively, by the University of Indiana, the University of Illinois and the Ohio state university. Numerous special laboratories have also been established, including stations in Bermuda and the Bahamas.

The establishment of a national board of health has often been recommended, but has not as yet been carried into effect. There are, however, numerous state and local boards which carry on important statistical and experimental investigations. We have as yet no well-endowed institutes of pathology or bacteriology, but special laboratories are being founded in connection with municipalities, hospitals and universities. A pathological laboratory has been established for New York state, and it may be expected that the near future will witness a great increase in institutes of experimental and preventative medicine.

There is no previous publication covering the ground of this monograph and in its preparation I have been especially indebted to the officers of societies and institutions who have supplied the information needed. The most useful publications of a general character have been: “Preliminary list of American learned and educational societies," in the report of the commissioner of education for 1893-94; “Catalogue of scientific and technical periodicals,” by Dr. H. Carrington Bolton, published by the Smithsonian institution; and “Minerva, Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt,” published at Strasburg.

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NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York





Principal of the Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama




I INTRODUCTION I could make no more fitting introduction to this monograph — dealing with a race which has grown from twenty native Africans imported into the country as chattel slaves in 1619, to fully 10,000,000 of free men, entitled under the federal constitution to all the rights, privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States, in 1899— than to reproduce here in part the eloquent remarks of President William McKinley, made at Chicago, October 9, 1899, showing in the fewest possible words the national growth in population, in territory and in material wealth, a growth which has no parallel in the various history of the human race, only comprehending, as it does, a little more than a century of national life. President McKinley said:

“On the reverse side of the great seal of the United States, authorized by congress, June 20, 1782, and adopted as the seal of the United States of America after its formation under the Federal constitution, is the pyramid, signifying strength and duration.

“ The eye over it and the motto allude to the many signal interpositions of Providence in favor of the American cause. The date underneath, 1776, is that of the declaration of independence, and the words under it signify the beginning of a new American era which commences from that date. It is impossible to trace our history since, without feeling that the Providence which was with us in the beginning, has continued to the nation His gracious interposition. When, unhappily, we have been engaged in war He has given us the victory.

“Fortunate, indeed, that it can be said we have had no clash of arms which has ended in defeat, and no responsibility resulting from war is tainted with dishonor. In peace we have been signally blessed, and our progress has gone

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