tion. A total rout ensued, and, homes, and in the course of about according to Sir Francis Head, a week, perfect tranquillity was “ Mr. M*Kenzie, in a state of the restored, and not a man was to be greatest agitation, ran away.” The seen in arms against the govern. Aag of the rebels, bearing the fol- ment in any part of the province, lowing inscription, “ Bidwell, and with the exception of the hostile the glorious minority;"_" 1837, aggression upon Navy Island, and a good beginning," fell into which will be presently noticed. the hands of the conquerors.

After the dispersion of his assoIn the meantime, the militia ciates, M'Kenzie fled in disguise poured in from all quarters. From to Buffalo in the State of New one district alone (Newcastle), York. Here he succeeded in ani. 2600 men, " with nothing but the mating the inhabitants with a clothes in which they stood,” strong desire to become the posmarched, in that inclement season, sessors of Upper Canada. Great towards the capital, though nearly numbers of men enlisted as soldiers, 100 miles from their homes. with the avowed object of invading

“From Niagara," says Sir that province, and establishing a Francis, "Gore, Lake Simcoe, provisional government. Public and from various other places, meetings were convened, volunbrave men, armed as well as un- teers called 'for (the very women armed, rushed forward unsolicited; inciting them to enlist), and arms, and according to the best reports amunition and provisions, openly I could collect, from 10,000 to contributed. Nor did the 80 12,000 simultaneously marched styled "sympathizers" rely entowards the capital, to support me tirely on the resources and the liin maintaining for the people of berality of private individuals. Upper Canada the British consti- The state arsenals were laid under tution. The numbers which were contribution, and whether obtained advancing towards me were so by stealth or by violence, artillery great, that the day after Mr. and munitions of war belonging to M'Kenzie's defeat, I found it ne- the American Government, were, cessary to print, and circulate a in the most public manner, and in public notice, announcing, that the face of the American authere existed no further occasion thorities, employed for the purfor the resort of militia to Toronto; pose of invading the British terri. and the following day, I was en- tory. abled to issue a general order, au- Those authorities did indeed, by thorizing the whole of the militia proclamations and a certain milithe

Bathurst, Johnstone, tary demonstration, affect to disOttawa and Eastern districts to go countenance these lawless proceedand lend their assistance to Lower ings. But their display of resistCanada."

ance was of no effect, nor were The success of the loyal militia any real impediments offered to the in the engagement at Montgo. movement. merie's, was not attended with the On the 13th of December, some loss of a single man. A large hundreds of American citizens, number of prisoners were, of course, under the command of a Mr. Van taken, but they were instantly re- Rensselear, took possession of a leased, and dismissed to their small wooded island in the Ni.


agara river, (about two miles from called Fort Schlosser, nearly oppothe falls) called Navy island, and site, but which consisted merely of forming part of Canada. They a solitary tavern, with a wharf atwere supplied from Buffalo and tached ; this house was a rendezthe adjacent country with stores vous for the “sympathisers," and, and provisions, and transported as such, a place of constant resort artillery, the property of the state, to the adventurers on Navy Island. to the island without interruption. On the 28th of December, Colonel Their force rapidly increased, and M'Nab received intelligence, that was variously stated at from 500 a small steamer, called the Caroto 1,500, of whom but a small line, had been hired by them for proportion were Canadian mal- their communication with the contents. They proceeded to main land. This vessel he rethrow up defences, and continually solved to destroy should he find menaced the opposite bank of the her so engaged. river.

Having ascertained that she had A body of militia was posted made repeated passages to the on the Canadian side, under the island, and had even transported a command of Colonel M'Nab, who piece of artillery from the shore, received orders to confine his oper- he despatched a party of militia in ations to the defensive, and to be boats to take or sink her. They especially careful to avoid any found the vessel moored to the violation of the American territory. wharf opposite the tavern above It was not long before the ma- mentioned, and strongly guarded by rauders in Navy Island opened a parties both on deck and on shore. fire of artillery upon the Canadian The militia boarded and carried shore, which in that part is thickly her after a short but desperate peopled; the distance from the struggle, and then setting her on island being about 600 yards, and fire, suffered her to drift in flames the populous village of Chippewa, down the falls of Niagara. In the within sight of it. However they conflict, according to the statement do not seem to have effected much of Commander Drew, R. N. who mischief.

led the boarding party, five or six This banditti drew the greater of the enemy were killed, and part of their supplies from a land- many of his own men severely ing place on the American shore, wounded. This transaction occa

sioned considerable excitement in

the United States, where the most Hand-bills, termed “proclamations of the provincial government,” werecir: exaggerated versions of it were at culated, whereby 300 acres of the most va

first circulated and eagerly accreluabe lands in Canada, and 100 dollars in dited ; and it was generally besilver " were promised to every volun. lieved, that the crew and passenteer who might join the patriot forces in Navy Island. A reward of 5001. was

gers of the Caroline, a peaceoffered for the apprehension of Sir able and unarmed party, men, and Francis Head; and it was stated, that women and children, had been 10,000,000 acres of land, fertile and fair, butchered under circumstances of would speedily be at the disposal of the the most unprovoked aggression. patriots, " with the other vast resources of a country more extensive and rich in

But after a short time, the real natural treasures than the United King- nature of the affair could not be dom or old France."

disguised; the Caroline seems to Vol. LXXX.


have been admitted on all sides to ostentatious preparations for rehave been a pirate vessel ; and the maining. But no sooner had some only question that remained would British troops made their appearhave turned upon the alleged vio- ance, on the 25th of February, with lation of the territory of the United a view to investing the island, than States; but this the government of they hurried away, leaving behind that common-wealth wisely ab- them some arms and a quantity of stained from agitating in a formal stores. Another band of brigands manner.

were collected at Sandusky Bay, in In the mean time, the Legisla- Ohio, and afterwards threw themture of Upper Canada assembled, selves into Point Pelé Island, in and was addressed by Sir Francis Lake Erie.

The troops and artil. Head in a speech of great length. lery employed to dislodge them, Two bills for suspending the under the command of Colonel Habeas Corpus act, and for trying Maitland, were marched from the foreigners taken in arms by courts- main-land_twenty miles over the martial, were passed without delay. ice of the Lake. On reaching the

A sufficient' force was soon col- land, they took up such a position as, lected to dislodge the freebooters for once, compelled the “patriots” on Navy Island, but they declined to fight. A sharp combut ensued, to await an assault, and decamped in which many of their party were on the night of the 14th of Janu- slain or taken prisoners. Nor did ary. Upon landing on the United the British escape some loss, two States territory, their leader, Van men being killed and thirty severely Rensselaer, was arrested and held wounded. In all these forays, with to bail by the American authori- the exception, perhaps, of the first ties, who, at the saine time, re- outbreak at Toronto, by far the gained possession of the arms and greater number of the marauding stores, of which they had permit- party was made up of American ted their arsenals to be despoiled. citizens.* It is possible that the The “patriots” now changed the government of the United States theatre of the war, and while some exerted its feeble authority, as far swarming at Detroit in Michigan, as it could discreetly, towards the and other places in the vicinity, repression of these and the like outmenaced the western extremity of


The President, and the the British possessions, others made Governors of certain of the States, a demonstration of attacking Kings, issued grave and argumentative ton, at the north-eastern end of proclamations † to forbid what was Lake Ontario. The latter party carried on before their eyes, and proceeded to take possession of a troops were brought up to the fronlittle isle about six miles from tier for the alleged purpose of vinKingston, but terrified by the ap- dicating the law of nations, while proach of a handful of militiamen, it was hourly violated within gunwho were advancing against them, they fled without any affectation of resistance. Nor did their confe- • It seems not to be exactly ascertained derates at Detroit display more he. what proportion of the inhabitants of roism. Having seized Fighting Is. Upper Canada were prepared to join

Mackenzie in the eveni of his obtaining land, a narrow strip of land op

a momentary success. posite Amherstburgh, they made + Appendix.

shot of their military posts. At resign the administration of the the same time the language, not government on the grounds stated merely of the journals, but of offi- in your Excellency's message. If cial men, was such as would lead your Excellency's measures and to the conclusion that the English, policy have not given satisfaction and not themselves, were the ag- to our most gracious Queen, we gressors. And some expected en- are driven to enquire in the most deavour, on the part of the haras- humble and solemn manner, what sed and exasperated inhabitants of course of policy is expected from Upper Canada, to retaliate on their her Majesty's representative in this lawless neighbours these violations province ?" Two days afterwards of neutral rights, was from time to his Excellency received addresses time made the theme of sullen me- from the two houses humbly praynace and invective. Had the Ca- ing him to transmit to them, so much nadians, indeed, taken into their of his correspondence with the Seown hands the vindication of pub- cretary of the colonies, as related lic law, and followed across the to his resignation of the government. border those plunderers, whose ra- To this he replied, that nothing pacity was unredeemed by a single could be more gratifying to his act of valour, they would only have feelings than to lay such correacted as, we may be quite sure, spondence before them, but that after Americans would have done, if the deliberate consideration, he had situation of the parties had been come to the conclusion, that the reversed.

publication of those documents On the 15th of January, Sir might embarrass his successor, and Francis Head informed the local be considered as a violation of offiparliament that, “having had the cial confidence. misfortune to differ from her Ma. The session of the Legislature jesty's Government on one or two was prorogued on the 6th of March. points of colonial policy," he felt it The farewell speech of Sir Francis his duty, on the 10th of September Head, upon this occasion, was long, last, to tender his resignation of and argumentative. It was prin. the office of Lieutenant Governor. cipally directed against the aggresAnd he announced Sir George Ar- sions of the people of the United thur as his successor. Both Houses States, and abounded in well meexpressed themselves in terms of rited eulogy of the brave people great regret at the removal of Sir whom he was addressing, and of Francis. " When this House," the institutions which they had so said the Assembly, " recalls to re- gallantly defended. *

.The Legiscollection the events of your Excellency's administration of the af

Among the various bills passed fairs of this province-the universal during thie

session by the local parliarespect and confidence with which ment, in reference to the insurrection,

we may, in particular, notice one, which you are regarded, arising from

gave rise to some important proceedings your Excellency’s firm and uncom

in the court of Queen's Bench at home. promising adherence to the princi- It enacted that upon the petition of any ples of the constitution, we cannot person charged with high treason prebut view with alarm the disclosure ferred to the Lieutenant-Governor, before

his arraignment, and praying to be parnow made, that your Excellency doned; the Lieutenant Governor in counhas felt yourself called upon to cil should be empowered to grant a parlature did not separate before both and they desire, that in future the houses had framed addresses to the person appointed to the government Queen, expressive of their devoted of these colonies should be “of high loyalty, though not without broadly rank and distinction as a public intimating their apprehensions, that man," with the title of “ Viceroy." the constitution was (as the Legis. With respect to the union of the lative council expressed itself) * in two provinces only, they say, that danger of being undermined by were it not that the British inhachanges assented to by the Colo-bitants of Lower Canada regard nial department, in a mistaken this project with much favour, spirit of concession." Two very " they should at once declare their voluminous reports on the state of unqualified dissent from it.” On the country, were also produced by the other hand, they demand the the committees, to which the Houses annexation of Montreal to the had respectively referred the sub- upper province, affirming, what is ject.

undeniable, that the division of the We are tempted to notice some provinces, which left Upper Caparticulars of the report of the nada “ without an independent committee of the Assembly, as outlet to the ocean, was a great conveying in distinct terms the political error." wishes of the Upper Canadians, “The people of Upper Canada," with respect to futurearrangements

. they proceed to say, are little inThey recommend, that all the Bric terested in the opinions entertained tish possessions in North America of them by such men as Hume should be incorporated under a and Roebuck, Leader and Moleslegislative union, which “would worth; they place them in the place them on a level with the same scale with Rolph, Mackenzie, most powerful nations.” At the and Duncombe, in morals and posame time, it is suggested, that the litics." provincial assemblies should retain They then advance some sugtheir authority in matters of purely gestions on certain more general local interest. In connexion with points of our colonial administrathis point, they remark, that the tion, which are entitled to much Queen could not afford more grate attention. In the first place, they ful evidence of her desire to per- state it as their opinion, “ that the petuate the allegiance of her sub- representation of the North Amejects, in that part of the empire, rican colonies in the House of “ than by incorporating in her Commons by members chosen by royal title the distinct claim of themselves, would be attended with sovereignty" over these possessions; numerous and incalculable advant


And they propose to limit don on such conditions as might appear

the representation of the colonies proper, and that in case any person

to two members from either Cashould be pardoned under that act, upon nada, Nova Scotia, and New condition of being transported from the Brunswick, respectively, and one province, if he should afterwards vo- from each of the islands of Newluntarily return, without lawful excuse

foundland and Cape Breton, to be contrary to the condition of his pardon, he should be deemed guilty of felony, elected “in joint assembly," by the and should suffer death as in cases of two Houses of each province, and felony,

to continue for six months after the

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