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dissolution of the assembly of the speak in very high terms of his colony for which they are returned. administration. This circumstance,

The second point on which they coupled with the success which attouch is of equally grave import. tended the experiment hazarded by ance—"the inefficiency imputed by that officer, when having dismissed a large class of the most intelligent his troops, he awaited, as he said, of their fellow subjects” to the "with folded arms,” the approach Colonial department in England. of a rebellion-makes it but an One of the chief causes of dissatis- ungracious office to offer any exfaction under this head they ascribe ceptions to his conduct. It cannot, to the frequent changes that take however, be disputed, that he a place in that department, and the little misconceived his duty, in necessary incoherency of system preferring the suppression of a rewhich such changes involve. Among volt to its prevention, and in making their concluding observations, is the peace of the province subordifound one which cannot be adverted nate to the illustration of a political to without great satisfaction. “Re- proposition. It was surely in itself cent events have shown how ar- a serious evil, that men of peaceful dently the 600,000 inhabitants of occupations, and valuable to the Upper and Lower Canada, of Britist. state and to their families, should, by origin, desire to continue subject to the withdrawal of the military, the British Crown." A remark be exposed to the evils of war. which is accompanied by a strong Whatever advantages may have ata expression of repugnance to the tended its successful repression, it institutions of the neighbouring was yet more to be desired, that republic.

an outbreak had never occurred, We cannot dismiss from our which not merely occasioned the attention this, in some repects, sacrifice of many lives, but has able state paper, without doing awakened a spirit of rapine in Sir Francis Head the justice to America, of which the inconveniadmit, that its authors, no lessence may long be felt. than the Legislature collectively,

REGISTER

,

CHAPTER II.

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Parliament re-assembles-Debates on Canada-- Address to the Throne

moved by Lord John Russell, who states the intentions of Government to send' out Lord Durham--Mr. Hume and Mr. Grote oppose the Address --Sir R. Peel-Lord Howick - Mr. Buller-Mr. Leader moves Adjournment Division thereon-Lord John Russell brings in the Bill for suspending the Lower Canadian Constitution-Mr. Warburton - Sir Hussey Vivian Mr. Hume's Eulogy on Mr. Mackenzie-Sir George Grey-Sir Robert Peel's Criticism of the Bill— Lord John Russell's Explanation-Mr. Grote's notice respect. ing Mr. Roebuck-House of Lords-Duke of Wellington-Lord Glenelg moves Address to Queen - Lord Brougham's attack on Ministers--Lord Melbourne - Duke of Wellington-- Lord Ripon Lord Lansdonne-Lord Durham declares his views Lord Glenelg's reply to Lord Brougham.

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THE state of affairs in Canada rishable monument of the justice

being such, as described in and profound wisdom of the comthe preceding chapter, Parliament mittee-an authentic testimonial reassembled on the 16th of Janu- of the reality of their grievances, ary. Lord John Russell met the and of the justice of their comHouse of Commons with a proposal plaints, faithfully interpreting their for a bill to suspend, for a certain wishes, and their wants.” Now it time, the existing constitution of might have been supposed, said his Lower Canada, and at the same Lordship, that after the people time, moved an address to the and the Government of this counthrone, pledging the House to try had proved themselves anxious assist her Majesty in restoring to perform-aye, more than pertranquillity to her Canadian domi- form, all that was asked for, and nions. After a recapitulation of that was indicated, by the report the principal events that had oc- of the committee, some satisfaction curred since the first connexion of would have been produced in the the colony with Great Britain, minds of the Canadians, and some down to the report of the commit- expression of cordiality towards the tee of 1828, he took up his ground British Government might have on that report, which the Assem- been elicited. But the reverse bly of Lower Canada had them- was the case, as he was about to selves characterized, as “an impe. shew. On the 6th of December, 1828, the House of Assembly re- the independence of the judges solved, That on tlie permanent was to be secured, certain provisettlement before mentioned being sions relating to the hereditary effected, it would be expedient to revenues of the Crown, and to the render the governor, lieutenant- establishment of a court of imgovernor, or person administering peachment for the judges. Now the government for the time being, the independence of the judges the judges and executive council- was simply, and of itself, a positive lors, independent of the annual vote good, and the annexation of perof that house, to the extent of plexing conditions was a pretty their present salaries.

good proof that it was not their That, amongst the questions not wish to rid themselves of the particularly mentioned on that grievance complained of. With occasion, that louse held, as most respect to the accountability of essential to the peace, welfare, and public officers, Lord Ripon had good government of the province, also proposed a measure, which the

- the independence of the judges, House of Assembly would not and their removal from the poli- allow to pass, though it was tical business of the colony; the planned with a view to secure the responsibility and accountability of most beneficial results. public officers; a greater independ- As regarded the subject, on ence of support from the public which the widest difference berevenues, and more intimate con- tween the Assembly and the Impenexion with the interests of the rial government had existed, no colony in the composition of the opposition had been offered to the legislative council; the application terms of the Assembly's resoluof the late property of the Jesuits tions. The judges were forthwith to the purposes of general educa- informed, that, with the exception tion ; à removal of the inconve- of the chief justice, it was no nience attendant upon the crown longer desirable that they should and clergy reserves; and a diligent sit in the legislative council; and inquiry into, and a ready redress a number of persons, for the most of all grievances and abuses that part of French extraction, were may be found to exist, or which added to that body, totally indemay have been petitioned against pendent of the crown, and giving by the subjects in the province. a great majority in the courcil to

Having adverted to these reso- those who were unconnected with lutions, Lord John Russell pro- the government. The Assembly ceeded to state, what had been might, indeed, say, that they were done in order to remedy the parti- none of them persons agreeable to cular grievances there set forth. their wishes, or acquainted with With respect to the independence their wants, but the question was, of the judges, Lord Ripon (then whether they were not independent colonial secretary) had fully con- of office, and closely connected curred in the reasonableness of the with the interests of the colony. proposal, and had himself suggested Of the forty members of the coun. a method for carrying it into effect. cil, not less than eighteen were But the House of Assembly, in- French Canadians ; many of the stead of following out that sug- members of English origin had gestion, tacked to the law by which quitted the province, and but seven remained in official connexion with other offices. This bill was rethe government. As to the pro-jected, on the ground, that these perty of the jesuits, it had actually propositions were tacked to a mobeen ordered to be applied to ney bill, which, therefore, as a educational purposes, and the only matter of supply, could not be grievance connected with that point passed in that shape. now remaining, was, that the

In 1834, continued the noble estates had been leased to persons Lord, the Assembly adopted a new other than those whom the Assem- course, which had led to the prebly desired to see in possession of sent difficulties. It passed ninetythem.

two resolutions, some of grievance, Another question related to the some of eulogy, some of vituperacrown and clergy reserves. Lord tion, and amounting, in the whole, Ripon had declared his readiness to a long and vehement remonto put an end to the old system, strance, and after spending an entire and only differed from the Assem- session in framing it, it separated bly, in wishing to prevent an undue without passing any supply bill facility from being afforded to poor whatever. At this period, the and improvident purchasers of the more able and respectable of the waste lands.

party in opposition detached themThe next grievance arose out of selves from their former associates, the much-contested question of the whose violent and aggressive policy duties, collected under the earlier disgusted them. Since that time, acts, and which the Crown had, no supplies had been voted. Sir according to law, the right of Robert Peel, in the meantime, beappropriating. The committee of came prime minister, and proposed 1828 had been of opinion, that to send out Lord Amherst, not these duties should be submit- merely as governor, but also as mitted to the appropriation of the commissioner to investigate and Assembly, but they recommended, redress grievances. That appointthat this measure should be accom- ment was defeated by the dissolupanied by a permanent settlement tion of the right hon. baronet's for the salary of the judges and administration. other functionaries. Government, After making mention of the aphowever, had, in 1831, carried a pointment of Lord Gosford's combill through the Imperial Parlia- mission by the present government, ment, which entirely repealed the Lord John went on to observe, that power of appropriation by this the demeanour of the House of Ascountry, and left it to the Assem- sembly remained unaltered, and dubly-without condition-without ring the years 1835, 1836, and 1837, stipulation, to dispose altogether of the supplies were refused, except on those duties.

one occasion of a vote for six They made but a poor return months, given in so objectionable for these concessions.

a manner, that it could not be 1833, a supply bill passed the sanctioned. House of Assembly, containing the The noble Lord then stated the most unusual conditions, and pro- strong objections which he felt to viding, that the persons holding an elective legislative council, certain offices should not be allowed which would only represent the salaries, unless they relinquished passions and violence already ex

In the year

isting in the assembly. The evils Mr. Hume followed in the de. which would attend the responsi- bate, and entered at some length bility of the executive council

, to into a recapitulation of the past the assembly were still greater, and present grievances of the Caand would at once derange the re- nadians. The blame of all that lation in which a colony should was now passing he laid upon the stand towards the imperial govern- government, and he expressed “ bis ment.

deep regret at the course which Lord John then gave an outline the noble Lord had proposed to of the intended bill, and proceeded the house.” In the course of his to state what sort of person, in his speech, the following remarkable opinion, should be sent out, in declaration escaped his lips“ it order to carry it into effect. “I was not the man who shed blood, think” said he, “it is most im- but the man who stimulated him to portant that the person to be sent shed it, who was the guilty parly. from this country should be one, After a few words from Sir whose conduct and character should James Carnac, Mr. Grote addressed be beyond exception, a person not the house. He could not, he conversant solely with matters of said, acquiesce in the proposed adadministration, but with the more dress, nor could he concur in the important affairs which are brought argument adduced to support it; before parliament. I think he for if that argument were good should also be conversant with the for anything, it gave conclusive affairs of the various states of Eu. proof of the wisdom of an early rope ; and moreover that it should

separation.

If the best system be implied by his nomination, that had been pursued in the governwe were not at all opposed to ment of the colony, if so much opinions the most liberal, and that had been done, and there was we were favourable to popular nothing to mend nor to improve, feelings and popular rights. Having what hope could they have for the said thus much, I know not why future, when, even in the most faI should refrain from adding, that vourable circumstances, matters her Majesty has been pleased to had become worse and worse, till intrust the conduct of this affair to they terminated in open revolt ? one, whom her advisers think in But he was not driven to this every respect fitted for the charge, conclusion, since he thought there namely, the Earl of Durham-and was much to blame in our system that noble Lord having accepted of colonial government, both in Cathe office, will proceed, in due time,

nada and elsewhere. The respons to perform its important duties." sibility of the failure of the mea

Lord J. Russell concluded by sures which had been taken to ad. declaring, that although, in his just the financial disputes, he threw opinion, a time might arrive when on Lord Ripon. Not content with he would not be indisposed “to advancing a claim to the appropri, give the 1,400,000 of our presentation of the casual and territorial fellow subjects, who are living in revenues to the purposes of civil the provinces of North America, a government without the consent participation in the perfect freedom of the House of Assembly--a claim enjoyed by the mother country," made by former governors—that he thought that the day for sepa- noble Lord had thought fit to propose ration was still at a distance, to make them over to the clergy ;

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