to be done, concerning the constitu- Canadas, having a representative tion of the assembly in question, character. It now appeared, that would be contained in the instruc- nothing more was intended than to tions. With respect to the framing give instructions to the governor, of the assembly, he further stated, by the exercise of the royal prerothat the governor would not be gative, to call a certain number of empowered to nominate the mem- gentlemen together, to advise with bers, but merely to call together him. If that were all, there could the" committee of advice” for the be no objection ; but what he did purpose of considering the subject. object to was, any step on the part Should the governor find, what of Parliament, giving a formal was not likely to be the case, that and authoritative character to such great excitement continued to pre- a committee. vail in the province, and that the Lord John Russell replied, that convention would but aggravate the preamble of the bill would reexisting evils, then it would become cite, that such instructions were his duty to withhold his sanction given to the Governor ; any clause from its assembling. On the other in the bill authorizing the meahand, if, in the exercise of his dis- sure, would be, he considered, cretion, he should think fit to con- superfluous. vene this body, it would, of course, On the same evening, Mr. Grote be impossible to allow the assembly presented a petition from Mr. Roeof Lower Canada to depute mem- buck, (who it will be remembers to it. The noble lord, however, bered was no longer a member of still thought that adequate pro- Parliament,) praying that he might vision should be made and devised be heard at the bar, in defence for choosing this body, and that of the House of Assembly of Lower elections should take place, in which Canada, and in opposition to the persons could be chosen to repre- ministerial bill. The petition set sent Lower Canada.” Such a body, out resolutions of the Assembly if convened, after the existing dis- appointing Mr. Roebuck agent of putes had been terminated, would the province. Mr. Grote also supbe able amply to deliberate on the ported the application by precedents. matters submitted to their .consi. Lord John Russell thought, that deration, and the result of their the house should be allowed time labours would naturally have great to consider the precedents. With weight with Parliament and the respect to the agency of Mr. Roecountry. Before he sat down, buck, he did not then wish to give Lord John Russell expressed the an opinion ; [here Mr. Grote refullest approbation of Lord Gos- marked, that he had been appointed ford's conduct in the administra- by the Assembly. ] but instructions tion of the government.

liad been sent by the Secretary of Sir Robert Peel, in explanation, State in this country, for the inremarked, that he could not ima- troduction of a bill, by which the gine, that there were ten men in House of Assembly, with the asthe house, who had not inferred, sent of the legislative council and from the first speech of the noble the Governor might appoint an Lord, that the proposed bill went agent. No such bill

, however, was to authorize the governor to call passed. He left the matter with together a committee from both the house. After some further With respect

conversation, in which Sir Robert upon them by the constitution. Peel expressed himself in favour Their leaders had the advantage of of the motion, Mr. Grote gave fighting for obsolete notions, with notice that he should call the 'al- the weapons of popular institutention of the house to the sub- tions; while those, who were faject, on the 22nd. instant.

vourable to real improvement, and There had been some preliminary combined wealth with intelligence, skirmishing, on the 16th., in the were compelled to resort to the House of Lords, relative to Cana- aristocratic party, and were driven dian affairs, in the course of which to the use of weapons which did not the Duke of Wellington, after suit them. He contended that the expressing his hopes, that ministers proper course to be taken by this would call upon Parliament for country was, to act in a mediatothe means of bringing the war to rial capacity between the contenda certain and speedy conclusion, ing parties. emphatically observed that, “a His Lordship then adverted to great country, like this, could have the intended bill. no such thing as a little war.” On to ulterior arrangements, he saw the 18th. Lord Glenelg brought great difficulties in the way of a the subject before the house, by legislative union between the two moving an appropriate address to provinces, but thought that consithe Queen. The noble Lord seemed derable advantage might be made of to consider that the main cause of a federal union. Upon the charge the disturbances, which prevailed advanced against government, that in Lower Canada, might be found they had an inadequate force in in the division of the two races Canada, he observed, that he was not which inhabited the province-a prepared to admit the fact of that division which circumstances had inadequacy, since the insurrection, not mellowed but embittered, and had been suppressed by the existing which had given rise to more heart- force. In March last, he had anburnings than any political events nounced to Lord Gosford the intenof the time. The numerical ma- tion of governnient to send out two jority, about 400,000, returned a more regiments to Canada, and in preponderating proportion of the a subsequent month, he informed members of the Assembly; and him, that such intention had been the consequence was, that the pre- abandoned. But in the same despatch dominant race excluded the other. was contained a letter for the goverIt might be fairly said, that the en- nor of Nova Scotia, requiring him to tire Assembly, thus composed, were furnish Lord Gosford with what attached to the obsolete notions of troops he might require. The former times. They were unfriendly charge, then, was simply this, into commerce and to education; and stead of sending out troops direct, therefore not very friendly to the they were drawn from the other prevailing characteristics of the provinces. Lord Gosford, after English race. The leaders of that communicating with Sir John Col. body acted with little responsibility borne, had declined to avail himself to their constituents, who, though of this power. Three months an amiable and virtuous race, were afterwards he had course to it, yet very ignorant and little fitted to the extent of one regiment only, to appreciate the blessings bestowed and late in November, he applied

for a farther addition. From this he may be told what he shall do! Lord Glenelg argued that till the Look, again, to the provinces commonth of November there was no mitted to his care.

If you will necessity for troops, beyond those have dominions in every clime-if which, in the neighbouring pro- you will rule subjects, by millions, vinces, were within the reach of on the opposite sides of this globe the government. Besides, he thought -if you will undertake to admithat it would have been most im- nister a government that stretches politic, and an admission of conscious itself over both hemispheres, it is severity, to have accompanied the well-I ask pot whether its fruits resolutions of March by an over- be auspicious or baneful-I stop whelming force.

not to enquire, nor do I raise the Lord Brougham followed Lord question, whether to the distant Glenelg with a speech, which, for millions, over whom you thus its impetuosity, its classical elabo

assume dominion, this mighty and ration of diction, and above all, its remote sceptre be a blessing or a fierce and merciless sarcasm, is curse. But of one thing I am perhaps exceeded by none of his absolutely certain, that, at all former efforts. He began with the events, this resolution to retain so most unsparing ridicule of Lord vast an empire imposes on you Glenelg's despatches, which, it the paramount duty of wakefulness must be owned, were a little over its concerns—it prescribes the open to it. “My Lords,” said he, condition that you shall be alive to (speaking of the situation in which its administration that you shall Lord Glenelg's epistolary delin- not slumber over it, neither sleep, quencies placed Lord Gosford) nor like the sluggard, fold the "mark, I beseech you, in what a hands to sleep, as if your orders position he is left. Sent to the were issued in a kingdom, where advanced posts of the empire, at a they could be executed on the spot, distance from the seat of govern- and in the manner in which they ment-far removed from the wis- were conceived and framed. That dom, the vigour, the resources of is the condition upon which such those councils, which rule our mighty empires must be holdenaffairs-unprovided with any but that is the difficulty which exists the ordinary force of the colony, in the tenure-hard to grapple with, to meet a crisis brought on by his perilous to be possessed of—not employers-mark, I say, the help- wholesome, it may be, either for the less position of this noble person, colony or the parent state, should sounaided by any adequate resources, they long remain knit together.” so surrounded by perils, and instead in another part of this animated of being instructed how he is to act, speech, after directing the most told by those who first created those glowing invectives against the mivery dangers, and at the same time nisterial policy which had provoked refused him help to meet them the Canadians by outrage, and yet —that at a future day he shall taken no step, by way of precaution be informed how he is to com- against the inevitable effect of the port himself ; that for the present outrage offered, he exclaimed, he is to know nothing; and that "Tyranny and oppression have here he may be making up his mind by appeared stript of their instinctive guess work how he shall act, when apprehension, and habitual circumVOL. LXXX.


spection. Compared with the con. the people was all they meant to duct which we are now called on give---if under pretence of calling to contemplate, the most vacillating them to their aid, they excluded and imbecile, the most inconsistent the men of the people's choice, and and impotent rulers rise into some only took counsel of creatures of station commanding respect. King their own, such an intolerable John, or Richard Cromwell himself, mockery would avail them nothing. become wise, politic and vigorous Lord Melbourne spoke of Lord princes."

Brougham, as having poured forth “It would, indeed," continued a most laboured and extreme conthe noble and learned Lord, “seem, centration of bitterness.” Having that just about this time some made some comments on that part wonderful change had come over of the argument which related to the minds of the ministers, depriving the despatches, he came to the them of their memory, and lulling point, which he admitted to be the even their senses to repose. Could most pressing in the whole case, this have arisen from the deep viz.; that it was the duty of migrief into which my noble friend nisters to have provided against the und his colleagues were known to possibility of an outbreak, by inhave been plunged by the decease creasing the military force of the of their kind and generous master? colony. It certainly was a difficult No doubt that feeling must have question which they had, at the had its day-or its hour-but it is time, to decide. By not reinforcing not in the nature of grief to endure the troops they ran the hazard of for ever. Then how came it to what had in fact occurred; but on pass that the trance continued ? the other hand, had a considerable Oh, doubtless its pleasing endurance force been sent out, there would must have been caused by the ele- have been an end to all chance of vation of their late master's illus. an amicable termination of the distrious successor, prolonging the putes ; it would have been instantly suspension of the faculties which said, that we were filling Canada grief had brought on, but changing with troops, and thus manifesting it into that state inexpressibly a fixed intention of putting down delicious, which was directed to public opinion by main force. the circumstances, so interesting, "My Lords," said his Lordship, of the new reign.” After this out- I have fairly stated both sides of burst of metaphor, the noble and the question, and there is no point learned Lord went on warmly to in the case which imposed upon advocate the cause of the Canadians, me a greater ditticulty than this expressed his desire to see an intricate question. We decided amicable separation, and protested according to the best of our judgagainst coercive measures. He ment; and I do most sincerely took the same view of the proposed trust that no irreparable mischief ' representative' convention, that is likely to occur from the determihad been put forward by Sir Robert nation we came to.” Peel, contending that it must The Duke of Wellington took either be composed of men exactly the objection of form, which Sir similar to those who constituted R. Peel had pressed in the other the majority of the Assembly; or house, and thought that the prothat, if a semblance of consulting ceedings should have originated in

a message from the throne. His been fulfilled; and he would conGrace proceeded to state that be fess that, on that occasion, he was almost the only individual, (Lord Ripon) had acted more or who, in 1831, voted against the less under the influence of an imbill fur surrendering uncondition. prudent confidence. That confially the duties of 1774. His dence had been betrayed by the opinion then was, that the bill House of Assembly in

Lower ought to have contained a clause Canada. Not that he could assert, providing for its repeal in case that, in so many words, they had provision were not made by the made a pledge, but taking men's House of Assembly for granting meaning as to the course they the civil list, and for the mainten- would pursue from the language ance of the civil government, and they used, no man of honour and he now believed, that the omission honesty, after reading the resolu. of such a clause was the cause of tions and addresses adopted by the all that had happened, from that House of Assembly from time to time to the present. With respect time, could doubt that they did to the military force, the Duke ob. lead Government to believe that, served, that he must do ministers when once in possession of the the justice to say, that he could not royal revenues, they would provide blame them for not having taken for a civil list. How had Upper more active measures ; for he hap- Canada acted ? At that monient, pened to know several persons, parti. that province was in the enjoyment cularly officers, well acquainted with of its share of the royal revenues, these provinces, and who had been and the governor, the secretaries, concerned in their government, and and the judges, of the colony, he might safely assert, in his place were in the enjoyment of an inin parliament, that he had received come quite independent of the the opinions of those officers, that annual vote of the House of Asthere was not, in the preceding sembly. With respect to the consummer, the smallest reason to duct of Government, he felt obliged apprehend anything like insurrec- to condemn it; he thought that tion in Lower Canada. But at they had neglected to take proper the same time, he was bound to precautions, in not having on the say, that he could not understand spot a military force sufficient at why, when ministers had found it once to crush any rebellion. expedient to move troops from No- The Marquess of Lansdowne va Scotia, and New Brunswick applauded the candid terms in into Canada, they did not despatch which the Duke of Wellington, in fresh troops to supply the vacancy a way which did him infinite hothereby occasioned.

nour, and in the spirit in which · It was admitted by Lord Ripon, he was always desirous to give the next speaker, and who was the efficient support to government in author of the bill of 1831, that such emergencies, had expressed the Duke of Wellington had, his opinion on the military part of when that measure was proposed, the question. He remarked, that predicted, that the legislature of Lord Brougham had not once, in Lower Canada would readily ac- the course of his three-hour speech, cept the boon, but would withhold adverted to what constituted the a civil list. That prediction had gist of the matter-namely, that

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