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On the 28th of May, Sir George tained various salutary provisions Grey proposed and carried a reso- giving further protection to the lution which virtually rescinded apprentices, and enforcing such that of Sir Eardley Wilmot, by de regulations of the former act as claring that, in the opinion of the had been disregarded by the plant. House, it was not advisable to The other empowered Her adopt any proceeding for the pur. Majesty in council (or with respect pose of giving effect to the resolu- to the prisons of each colony, the tion of the 22nd of the month. Governor and council of such co

The numbers on the division were lony), to make rules for the goayes 250 ; noes 173 ; majority vernment of the prisons in the 72.

West Indies, and likewise to apTwo important bills, connected point inspectors of prisons; to diswith this subject, passed the Legis- miss or suspend officers; and to lature this session. The one enti- determine the unfitness of any tled “ An Act to amend the Act place to be used for purposes of for the abolition of slavery," con- penal confinement.

CHAPTER VI.

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House of Lords Lord Roden's motion on the state of Ireland Lord

Mulgrave's Defence-Earl of Donoughmore-Address of the Tipperary Magistrates to the Lords Justices, Duke of WellingtonLord Mulgrave in explanation-Lords Melbourne and BroughamDebates on Colonel Verner's motion concerning the Battle of the Diamond, in the House of Commons-Bishop of Exeter and the Roman Catholic oath-Case of the Roman Catholic Bishop of MaltaDr. M Hale's assumption of the title of Archbishop of Tuam - Prospect of a settlement of the three great Irish questions-Declarations of the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel— Debates on the Irish Poor-law Bill in the House of Commons-Opposition of Mr. O'Connell-Lord John Russell's Speech in support of the

- Mr. Shaw agrees with Mr. O'Connell - Mr. Shaw's Amendment, limiting Relief to the Aged, Impotent, &c.Messrs. O`Brien, Lucas, Redington, Litton, Barron, and Young, support the Bill-Mr. Q. Gore, Mr. Gibson, and Sir F. Trench oppose itDivision in favour of the Bill-House in Committee-Lord Clements

-Sir E. SugdenSir F. BurdettDivision on the first Clause-Mr. Shan's Amendment to the 35th Clause-Lord Morpeth_Colonel Conolly-Mr. Wrightson-Mr. O'Connell supports the Amendment-Division-Remarks on Mr. O'Connell's conduct with respect to the Bill-Unpopularity of the measure in Ireland-Bill read a third time-Negotiations between Sir R. Peel and Lord John Rus

sell, with respect to the Irish Questions - Declarations of the parties.

measure

2

HE disproportioned space been reluctant to allow for these

of land have of late years filled in our cupation of our pages ; feeling that parliamentary discussions, is a suffie with another generation they will cient indication, if such were want- lose even the little interest which ing, of the disordered condition and they retain with the sober-minded complicated politics of that un- and dispassionate of the present. happy country. In this respect, On the 27th of November, 1837, the mere length of them may have the Earl of Roden, having moved, its significance. Otherwise we have in the House of Lords, that the Vol. LXXX.

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third paragraph of the Queen's Lordship concluded by moving for speech, which averred the existence papers connected with the state of of “internal peace and domestic crime in Ireland. tranquillity," should be read, pro- Lord Mulgrave replied to Lord ceeded to bring the state of Ireland Roden in a speech of great ability, under consideration. His Lord- in which he undertook to show, by ship's purpose was to show that, calculations founded on official reso far from the state of that coun- turns, that crime was proceeding try being more tranquil under in a decreasing ratio in Ireland. Lord Mulgrave's administration, He selected two periods for com

was alleged, for a long time parison — from October 1832 to before, there were districts in which March 1833, and from October property, life, and the exercise of 1836 to March 1837. The former the Protestant religion, had never being the six months previous to been in greater danger than at the coercion bill. The sum total that moment. And certainly the of outrages committed during this details of his speech convey a most period was 6,355, while the melancholy picture. By the pro.. amount of similar offences during clamations of the Lord-lieutenant, the latter six months was only it appeared that no less than thir- 2,385. He then put the case in teen murders had been committed another point of view. He had a in different parts of Ireland during return of the number of crimes rethe last six weeks. Houses were pórted to have been committed for attacked for arms—attempts made the first nine months of 1832, to assassinate--people were cruelly 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, and 1837. beaten-no sort of outrage was The number of outrages in the omitied. In twenty-five counties first nine inonths of 1832 was crimes of this description were 7,460; in 1833 they were dimiin the course of hourly perpetra- pished to 6,547 ; in 1834, to 6,016; tion. Lord Roden went on to in 1835 they rose to 6,645 ; in produce facts in support of his al- 1836 they were reduced to 5,384 ; legations; and a more revolting and, in the first nine months of the catalogue of murders could not be present year, they fell as low as enumerated, than his Lordship 3,784. stated on this occasion-murders His lordship then took up a new in which no circumstance of barba- position, and went on to consider rity was omitted. He spoke of the proportion between the crimes facts notorious to all the world, perpetrated, and the committals, of men whose brains were pounded and between the committals and out with stones on the high road - of the convictions. He shewed, that others beaten to death with blud. in 1832, there were 772 comgeons, though the measure of the mittals, and 203 convictions. In infliction was so calculated as to 1833, 826 committals and 303 leave the victims to linger, bound convictions; in 1834, 520 commitand blindfold, in solitary places, till tals and 315 convictions; in 1835, death released them — of others 922 committals and 409 convicwho were murdered in the public tions; in 1836, 843 committals streets of Dublin-or slain and and 425 convictions; in 1837, 347 savagely mu lated before their fa- committals and 229 convictions. milies at their own doors. Uis Thus, in the course of five years, the committals had progressively guilty of setting a bad exampleincreased, and the present (1837) it was a matter of notoriety that was the first in which they had voters, supposed to be unfavouradiminished. He conceived, that, ble to them, had been forcibly deaccording to the greater efficiency tained, and even constrained by with which the law is adminis- violence, to vote against their party. tered, the greater would be the No wonder, if people of an inferior number of offences prosecuted ; station, influenced by this example, and that the increased number of in the first place, and hurried becommittals and convictions is per- yond it by their passions, were befectly compatible with the actual trayed into the commission of decrease of crimes. His lordship crimes of greater violence. then entered upon a comparison After noticing the silence which between England and Ireland in prevailed respecting the repeal of this respect, and calculated, that the Union, as a token of the imthe convictions in England and proved state of public feeling in Wales were 14,000, and in Ireland Ireland, and having hinted that 10,000, giving, in proportion to the landlords of Ireland were not population, one conviction for entirely guiltless of provoking the every 1000 in the former country, peasantry to acts of violence by and one for every 800 in the latter. their own harshness and rigour; He then proceeded to shew, that Lord Mulgrave entered at some considerable misconceptions as to length upon an exposition of the the precise nature of the state of principles which animated his own crime in Ireland, arise from the policy in administering the governmanner in which murder and man- ment. He adopted the sentiments slaughter are frequently confound- expressed by Lord Chesterfield, ed with one another. Thus, of when engaged in the discharge of 340 persons committed for murder, the same functions. That nobleonly 22 had been convicted and man had said, in reference to cersentenced.

tain strictures upon his adminisAdverting to the list of outrages tration, that whilst he had endeu. enumerated by Lord Roden, he voured to govern with all humanity, denied that these murders had he had invariably enforced the any connexion with religion. He laws without reference to religion had the authority of many, who or party, and was determined to had attended the assizes, for stating proscribe no set of persons whatthat, according to their belief, no ever, and to be governed by none. such thing in Ireland takes place It had been stated by those who as the murder of a man on account should have known better, that of his religion. A man happens Mr. O'Connell had all the patronto be murdered as a part of that age of Ireland. He denied the dreadful system of combination, truth of that statement utterly and which exists in Ireland with regard indignantly. That gentleman, like to the tenure of land. It is merely any other member of Parliament, a coincidence that he happens to had several communications with be a Protestant.

Government, but his applications With respect to electioneering had been fewer than those of any violence, the Conservatives were other member, nor had he been, more than any other, consulted are in possession of considerable in any one appointment made by quantities of unlicensed arms, and the Irish government.

they requested that the 5 and 6 The Earl of Donoughmore made William 4th, c. 48, might be put in a statement of facts which went force. * far to impugn the ministerial re- His lordship then went on to presentations concerning Irish tran- read a few details from the general quillity. At the last Tipperary statement of crime in the barony, assizes, there were, he said, 1,131 in corroboration of the report of cases of all classes for trial. Of the magistrates. To repress the that number of prisoners, 166 were outrages of an armed and organized convicted, and 25 condemned to peasantry, the common law was death. Six of these had been insufficient, and he called upon actually executed; the sentences Lord Mulgrave to demand addi. of the remainder were commuted tional powers, without which, he for transportation for life. In addi- said, it would be found impossible tion to these chief offenders, there to disarm the people. were 66 others sentenced to various Lord Mulgrave said, that he terms of transportation. In the had, the day before only, received following October ten individuals the document referred to by Lord had been murdered. Ten others Donoughmore, but he had read had been beaten so badly in the through the whole of the police same month, some having their reports on which it was founded. sculls fractured, some their legs It was no new thing that there and arms broken, some their eyes should be banditti in that district, knocked out, that they still lin- but he found that the outrages in gered without hope. His lordship, question arose from a desire to after some further remarks, read a obtain, or to keep possession of document signed by eighteen Tip- lands, or from quarrels between perary magistrates, at a public farm servants. meeting, convened for the purpose The Duke of Wellington said, of taking into consideration the that it was idle to talk of political state of one barony_Clanwilliam tranquillity in any part of Ireland. -in that county. They said, that Lord Mulgrave had affirmed, that they considered it their duty to lay the agrarian disturbances in that before the Lords Justices a state- country were not attributable to ment of the crimes committed in political agitation. But “one of that barony between the 1st of the greatest authorities that ever October, and the 20th of November appeared in that or any other as appended ; and they called their country,” his relation, the Marquess lordships

' attention to the number Wellesley, had given it as his opiof crimes of all descriptions which nion, that agrarian disturbances in had been committed in the short Ireland were to be ascribed, as period stated, including murders strictly and exclusively, to political of the most atrocious nature, as well as attacks on houses and property in general.” They declared and more speedy punishment of offences

• " An Act for the better prevention, their belief, that the lawless por- endangering the public peace in Iretion of the peasantry of the county land,"

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