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Labor Turn-Over in Manufacturing, Mining, and Public Utilities, October 1946
THE October 1946 factory quit rate of 46 per 1,000 employees, while still 5 times greater than October 1939, was the lowest October in 5 years. The hiring rate of 67 per 1,000, like the quit rate, was considerably above prewar levels. Relatively high quit and accession rates are characteristic of periods of full employment.
Although the hiring rate in October was lower than in September, increases were reported in 5 major groups. The highest accession rate, 360 per 1,000 persons, was reported by the meat-products industry of the food group, reflecting the expansion in activity after the removal of price controls.
The hiring rate for women remained higher than for men for the fifth month in the last half year. Women were hired at a greater rate in all the soft goods groups and in all heavy industry groups except transportation equipment and lumber. Total separation rates also continued higher for women, reflecting higher quits but somewhat lower lay-offs than for men.
Material shortages and labor unrest were largely responsible for increased lay-off rates in 10 of the 19 major industrial groups. The rate of 34 per 1,000 reported in the automobile group was largely a result of labor disputes in supplier plants.
Lumber and furniture continued to have the highest quit rates of any of the major groups-78 and 69 per 1,000, respectively. Next ranked apparel, food, and automobiles, with quit rates above 50 per 1,000.
TABLE 1.-Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in manufacturing industries 1
Class of turn-over and year
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1 Month-to-month employment changes as indicated by labor turn-over rates are not precisely comparable to those shown by the Bureau's employment and pay-roll reports, as the former are based on data for the entire month while the latter refer, for the most part, to a one-week period, ending nearest the middle of the month. In addition, labor turn-over data, beginning in January 1943, refer to all employees, whereas the employment and pay-roll reports relate only to production workers. The turn-over sample is not so extensive as that of the employment and pay-roll survey-proportionately fewer small plants are included; printing and publishing, and certain seasonal industries, such as canning and preserving, are not covered. For the month of September rates are based on reports from 6,900 establishinents, employing 4,432,000 workers.
3 Including temporary (of more that 7 days' duration), indeterminate, and permanent lay-offs. Miscellaneous separations comprise not more than 0.1 in these figures. In 1939 these data were included with quits.
TABLE 2.-Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in selected groups and industries,1 October 1946 2
TABLE 2.—Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in selected groups and industries,1 October 1946 —Continued
TABLE 2.—Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in selected groups and industries,1 October 1946 2-Continued
1 Since January 1943 manufacturing firms
labor turn-over have
been assigned industry codes
on the basis of current products. Most plants in the employment and pay-roll sample comprising those which were in operation in 1939 are classified according to their major activity at that time, regardless of any subsequent change in major products.
Less than 0.05.
'Rates for mining industries are based on reports from 500 establishments employing 235,000 persons.
TABLE 3.-Monthly labor turn-over rates for men and women in all manufacturing and selected groups,1 October 1946 2
1 These figures are based on a slightly smaller sample than that for all employees, inasmuch as some firms do not report separate data for women. Rates for September are based on 6,850 reports covering 4,192,000 employees.
2 Preliminary figures.