and shifts of workers from the high-paid war industries to the lowerpaid consumer-goods industries.

Gross hourly earnings in all manufacturing averaged 113.0 cents in October 1946-78.8 percent above the average in January 1939, 65.4 percent above January 1941, and 26.5 percent above October 1942. Straight-time average hourly earnings, as shown in columns 7 to 9, are weighted by man-hours of employment in the major divisions of manufacturing for January 1941. These earnings are estimated to exclude premium pay at time and a half for work in excess of 40 hours. However, the effect of extra pay for work on supplementary shifts and on holidays is included. For all manufacturing, the straight-time average in October 1946 was 109.5 cents per hour; this was 70.8 percent higher than in January 1939, 64.9 percent above January 1941, and 35.7 percent above October 1942.

Earnings of factory workers in selected months, 1939 to October 1946

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1 The method of estimating straight-time average hourly earnings makes no allowance for special rates of pay for work done on major holidays. Estimates for the months of January, July, September, and November, therefore, may not be precisely comparable with those for the other months, in which important holidays are seldom included in the pay periods for which manufacturing establishments report to the Bureau. This characteristic of the data does not appear to invalidate the comparability of the figures for January 1941 with those for the preceding and following months.


Recent Publications of Labor Interest

January 1947

Cooperative Movement

Labor and the cooperatives: What's wrong? By Albert Rees. (In Antioch Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, Yellow Springs, Ohio, fall 1946, pp. 327-340; also reprinted.) Defining the "labor co-op" as one the sociological base of which is the labor union, the author reviews the cooperatives of which this is true and concludes that "labor co-ops are weakest exactly where labor is strongest in the larger cities." The remainder of the article contains a thoughtful analysis of why this is so, and presents suggestions for remedying the situation.

The war on malnutrition and poverty: The role of consumer cooperatives. By J. Murray Luck. New York, Harper & Bros., 1946. 203 pp., bibliography, charts. $2.50.

In the opinion of the author, the role of consumers' cooperatives, in the prevention of malnutrition, is that of prevention of the poverty which results in inability to provide subsistence. With this approach, he gives a brief history of the cooperative movement since its early beginnings, describes a number of cooperative associations which illustrate bis thesis, and shows how credit unions also tend to raise the income level and economic well-being. One chapter is devoted to the cooperative movement in Nova Scotia.

1945 annual report of operations, Federal credit unions. Washington, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1946. 22 pp., charts; processed.

Detailed statistics of operations of credit unions chartered under the Federal Credit Union Act.

Credit unions in Canada, 1945. By J. E. O'Meara. Ottawa, Department of Agriculture, Economics Division, Marketing Service, 1946. 9 pp., map; processed.

The cooperative movement in the colonies. Despatches dated March 20, 1946, and April 23, 1946, from the Secretary of State for the Colonies to colonial governments. London, Colonial Office, 1946. 36 pp. (Colonial No. 199.) ls. net.

Discusses the advantages of various types of cooperatives in helping to solve the economic problems of colonial peoples, and recommends that colonial authorities take steps to assist in the formation and supervision of such associations where they do not now exist. Contains drafts of a model law for cooperatives and of regulations.

Cost and Standards of Living

Husholdningsregnskaber i aaret, April 1, 1939-March 29, 1940 og i 4 ugers perioden, April 11-May 8, 1942. Copenhagen, Statistiske Departement, 1944. 292 pp. (Statistiske meddelelser, 4. række, 122. bind, 1. hæfte.) Kr. 1.50. Supplementshefte, 1944, 322 pp.

Study of family incomes and expenditures in Denmark. In Danish with French translations of table of contents, foreword, and table heads.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Correspondence regarding the publications to which reference is made in this list should be addressed to the respective publishing agencies mentioned. Where data on prices were readily available, they have been shown with the title entries.

Living and office-operating costs in Mexico. By Katherine E. Rice. Washington, U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1946. 10 pp. (International Reference Service, Vol. 3, No. 47.) 5 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington. Intended for United States firms' representatives who are planning to travel or reside in Mexico, the price data are for goods and services customarily desired by such persons.

Other Latin-American countries covered by similar reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce in 1946 include Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Panama, El Salvador, and Venezuela.

Enquiry into the cost of living and the control of the cost of living in the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. London, Colonial Office, 1946. 225 pp., pasters. (Colonial No. 204.) 3s. 6d. net, H. M. Stationery Office, London.

Economic and Social Problems

For this we fought: Guide lines to America's future as reported to the Twentieth Century Fund. By Stuart Chase. New York, Twentieth Century Fund, 1946. 123 pp.


Deals with immediate and long-term problems. Sixth of a series of reports written for the Twentieth Century Fund by the same author "to give the general reader a dynamic understanding of the great issues of postwar America." Communism in America. By Buel W. Patch. Washington (1205 19th Street NW.), Editorial Research Reports, 1946. 20 pp. (Vol. II, 1946, No. 20.) $1. Examines the background of and the basis for concern over communist infiltration in the United States, methods of the Communist Party, and communist infiltration in labor unions.

New 560 pp., charts.

Measuring business cycles. By Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell.
York, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 1946.
(Studies in business cycles, No. 2.) $5.

This volume, a highly technical analysis of cyclical behavior, is an outgrowth of work which was outlined in "Business cycles, the problem and its setting," published in 1927 by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The data analyzed relate to Great Britain, France, and Germany as well as the United States.

Chances de l'économie française. By Alfred Sauvy. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1946. 254 pp.

Consideration of various possibilities for rebuilding the French economy, stressing three systems from which choice might be made-free competition, collectivism, or a combination of collectivism and private property. Includes chapters on full employment and unemployment, food supply, prices, national planning, social security, and nationalization of industry.


Employment statistics in the planning of a full-employment program. By Charles Stewart and Loring Wood.. (In Journal of the American Statistical Association, Menasha, Wis., September 1946, pp. 313-321.)

Employment and pay rolls in Washington State, by area and by industry, 1945industries covered by the Unemployment Compensation Act. Olympia, Office of Unemployment Compensation and Placement, 1946. 21 pp.; processed.

Guaranteed Wage

Annual wage and employment guarantee plans. By F. Beatrice Brower. New York, National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., 1946. 53 pp. (Studies in personnel policy, No. 76.)

Report of a survey by the National Industrial Conference Board of 125 guaranteed wage or employment plans. The study analyzes the various types of current and discontinued plans, and includes a tabular digest of leading features of guaranty provisions incorporated in union agremeents.

Will the guaranteed annual wage work? New York, National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., 1946. 44 pp., bibliography. (Studies in business economics, No. 5.)

Round-table discussion in which 15 economists appraise the "consequences, implications, and repercussions" of the guaranteed annual wage.

Handicapped Workers

Aid to physically handicapped. Report from Subcommittee on Aid to Physically Handicapped, Committee on Labor, House of Representatives, 79th Congress, 2d session, pursuant to H. Res. 45 * * *. Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1946.

20 pp:

Findings and recommendations of the subcommittee, after 2 years of work (including extensive hearings). Aid now given by Federal, State, and local governments, and by private agencies, to the physically handicapped was held to be inadequate, haphazard, and unevenly diffused in extent and character, and Federal responsibility piecemeal and fractional. The first step in remedying the situation, the report suggests, would be to centralize, in a single department, the administration of Government programs for the physically handicapped. Vocational rehabilitation for civilians—a public service to restore the disabled to paid jobs through medical service, counsel and guidance, training, job finding. Washington, Federal Security Agency, Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, [1946?]. 21 pp. Free.

Health and Industrial Hygiene

Longevity at record high in industrial population. (In Statistical Bulletin, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York, August 1946, pp. 1-3.)

Expectation of life (at birth) reached an all-time high of almost 65 years among the industrial policyholders of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in 1945, representing an increase of a half year over 1944 and 11⁄2 years over 1941, the last prewar year.


Sickness absenteeism among male and female industrial workers during 1945 * * By W. M. Gafafer. (In Public Health Reports, Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, Washington, November 8, 1946, pp. 1620-1630, bibliography, charts. 10 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.)

In industries studied by the U. S. Public Health Service, the male absence rate for sickness and nonindustrial injuries resulting in disablement for 8 days or longer in 1945 was 147 per thousand men, or 35 percent above the 10-year mean, 193645, and 5 percent above the 1944 average. For females, the rate was 258 per thousand women, or 48 percent above the 10-year mean and 17 percent above the 1944 rate. Absences due to illnesses falling in several broad cause groups are

also analyzed. Industrial ophthalmology as of 1946. By Hedwig S. Kuhn, M.D. (In Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago, November 30, 1946, pp. 772-777, charts. 25 cents.)

Outlines authoritative technical and procedural aids for eye services in industry. Radium dial painting-medical status of workers. By Irving R. Tabershaw, M.D. (In Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Baltimore, September 1946, pp. 212-216, bibliography. $1.25.)

Recommendations for continued careful attention to the control of radium hazards, and for health education of the workers, follow from this recent study of 52 radium-dial painters employed a minimum of 18 months.

Tuberculosis control in industry, results from 1941 to 1945. By Charles R. Allison, M.D. (In Occupational Medicine, Chicago, September 1946, pp. 207-213, charts. 75 cents.)

A total of 26,500 employees of the Eastman Kodak Co. were given repeated roentgenograms of the chest during the 5-year period 1941-45. Only 18 had developed active pulmonary tuberculosis, and of these, 11 had returned to work, at the end of the observation period.



Annual report of Federal savings and loan associations, for the year ended December 31, 1945. Washington, Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, [1946]. 84 pp., charts; processed.

Statistics of operation, by States and by individual associations. The report also gives combined tables showing the condition of the savings (formerly building) and loan associations throughout the United States.

Principles of planning small houses. Washington, U. S. National Housing Agency, Federal Housing Administration, 1946. 44 pp., plans, illus. (Technical bull. No. 4.)

Prepared to stimulate and encourage the designing of homes at reduced cost without sacrificing comfort or sound construction.

Reading list on housing. Washington, U. S. National Housing Agency, Information Service, [August 1946]. 15 pp.; processed. Free. Housing in Canada—a factual summary, October 1946. Ottawa, General Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Economic Research Division, 1946. 58 pp., bibliography, charts. 25 cents.

First issue of a new publication (to be issued quarterly beginning in 1947) designed to furnish as complete a picture as possible of the housing situation in Canada. Insofar as available, this number presents information by year, 1919– 45, and by month, 1945 and 1946. It covers not only volume of production but related subjects such as production and wholesale prices (indexes) of building materials, employment and wages (indexes), and training of workers in construction trades.

Manpower and material requirements for a housing program in Canada. Ottawa, Department of Reconstruction and Supply, 1946. 137 pp., map, charts.

50 cents.

Industrial Accidents and Workmen's Compensation

Air-line answers. By James M. Brown and Raymond T. Bartnett. (In Safety Engineering, New York, October 1946, pp. 60, 62, et seq., illus. 25 cents.) Describes unusual adaptations of air-line respirators and masks to the hazards connected with production of fissionable materials.

Annual statistical number, Accident Prevention Magazine, Portland Cement Association. Chicago, August 1946. 15 pp., charts.

Detailed report on accident experience of the cement industry (including quarries, mines, and clay fields) in 1945, with summary data for the 5-year period from 1941 to 1945.

It's all in the training. (In Safety Bulletin, Federal Security Agency, Bureau

of Employees' Compensation, Washington, September 1946, pp. 6-8, illus.) Outline of the program for teaching safety in the operation of the fork-lift truck in naval establishments.

Use cold chisels safely. Washington, U. S. Department of Labor, Division of Labor Standards, 1946. (Industrial safety charts, series Ú). 5 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

Compensated cases closed in 1945 by New York State Workmen's Compensation Board). New York, Workmen's Compensation Board, 1946. 51 pp., charts. (Research and statistics bull. No. 1.)

Contains a wide variety of statistical information on the more than 100,000 industrial-accident and occupational-disease cases closed in 1945 with awards of compensation to claimants. Deaths resulting from industrial injury declined, but permanent partial disabilities increased to 30 percent of the total cases closed. Women accounted for nearly one-fifth of all claimants. Accidents were highest among the semiskilled. Legal services were retained in 8 percent of the cases. Workmen's compensation and the protection of seamen. Washington, U. S. Bureau

of Labor Statistics, 1946. 93 pp. (Bull. No. 869.) 20 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

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