stores. The attorney-general, who to that meritorious class. It was proposed this measure, observed, that desirable also that the rank which as the King's shipping lay in the the marine corps should take, when river Tamar, which divided the coun- landed and co-operating, with the ties of Devon and Cornwall, facilities troops of the line, should be fixed. of escape were by that circumstance Lastly, he observed, that at each diafforded, against which it was highly vision of the marines the senior capnecessary to provide, in consequence tains were appointed pay-captains, of the number of the offenders, and and actually kept the accounts of the extent of the depredations. With 2000 men without any increase of this view the bill advised the consti- pay or remuneration whatever. Mr tution of a local police, or board of Ward replied, the marine artillery magistrates, who should be in con- could not be increased without in. stant attendance ; and having a cer- creasing the force altogether, and tain proportion of both counties sub- converting it into a land army; and ject to their authority, might be en- as for adding to the number of field abled to guard against the evil. officers, it ought to be remembered,

When the marine mu. that most of the marines were enga, Mar. 14. tiny bill was brought in, ged on board ship, where they were

Sir Charles Pole took that not commanded by field opportunity to say a few words on officers. When this mu- Mar. 16. this valuable corps, the situation and tiny bill came again beimportance of which, he observed, fore the House, Mr Ward replied to were scarcely known to the House, the other parts of Sir Charles Pole's though it now amounted to 32,000 speech. The deductions from the men. He asked, whether it was in- pay of marine officers, he said, were tended to continue the stoppage of applied to Chelsea hospital, and the one day's pay from them for Chelsea same benefits resulted to the officers hospital? He complained that the of marines as to the officers of the Royal Marine Artillery was in a very army from such application; the de. neglected state : a corps of this na. ductions from the pay of the privates ture had been established in 1804 ; went to Greenwich hospital, and they it ought to be augmented, and every were benefited by it in the same mansquadron on foreign stations should ner as the navy. With respect to be furnished with a company of this the pay.captains, the persons selected artillery, men and officers. The corps for such situations were generally was not sufficiently instructed in the men who were unfit for other service; use of field artillery, and he recom- it was not required that they should mended that a certain number of serve afloat ; and the only case in young men destined for it should be which their attendance was required admitted to take their education at on board, was whenever courts-marWoolwich. Next he adverted to the tial took place. Sir Charles answerslow progress of promotion in the ed, he was highly satisfied respectmarines : there were officers now ser. ing the deduction; but his opinion ving as captains, who had entered

as to the pay-captains remained unthe service in the American war, and altered. They had a regular ledger he conceived an increase of field of account to keep with every man and ficers necessary, as an encouragement boy in the marine service, for which

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they had no remuneration, although resolved itself into a comthe captains of marine artillery, for mittee upon the bill, Sir May 31, only paying their own companies, had Charles objected to it on two shillings per day additional pay. account of the discontent excited Besides, those old officers, in any among seamen by the deductions from branch of the service, would have their pay, first for their slops, sebeen entitled to majorities, and many condly for the allotments to their of them would have been old field wives and children, in consequence of officers. Any advantage, therefore, which it often happened that at the which could be given them without end of a long voyage they had not great expence to the public, ought more than forty shillings to receive ; not to be withheld from a brave class a hardship which should be contrastof men, whose existence was scarcely ed with the case of militia-men, whose known to their country except by wives and children were provided for their services in her cause.

by their parishes, and which was the Upon this Mr Wellesley Pole beg- frequent ground of complaint. At ged leave to refer Sir Charles to a the very moment when old seamen petition presented by those very pay- were called on to set out for another captains to the Admiralty when the voyage, without a shilling in their honourable baronet was at that board, pockets, they saw volunteers, inferior praying for this very allowance which seamen, and even landsmen who had he was now seeking to obtain for never served an hour, receiving large them. The answer then given to bounties for entering on board, and their petition was, that the birth was were often so piqued as to desert their a pretty good one, and it was very ships. Mr Wellesley Pole replied, desirable it should continue to exist ; it was considered as an indulgence to but if they did not like it with full seamen to enable them to allot part pay, and exemption from all other of their earnings to their wives and duty, they might take their turns of children, and save them the necessity service. Ever since they had been of applying to the parish : this bill pretty well satisfied to remain as they extended the principle, and enabled were. Sir Charles Pole denied any them to allot part to their parents recollection of such an application. also, which by law they could not At all events, he said, he was per. do before ; and the allotment was fectly certain that, during the whole altogether optional on their part, time he was at the Admiralty, he not compulsory. Sir Charles then never gave an offensive answer to any remarked, that the bill was very faapplication made either by an indi. vourable to the parishes, but not to vidual, or by any description of per- the navy: he would not, however, Sons. There was nothing which he divide the House upon it. considered as more disgraceful than When it was read a third June 7. such conduct on the part of any man time, this baronet proposed in office.

a clause, by way of rider, enabling a A bill was brought in seaman to revoke his allotment if he May 15. by Mr Rose respecting thought fit; because, as the bill then

the payment of wages and stood, he could not, if he should prize-money, and the allotment of marry, make any allowance to his wages in the pavy. When the Housewife. A clause providing for this

would lessen the evil, he said ; but it while at sea, asthe means of maintaining would not do away the objection of a social intercourse with their officers, increasing the labour and responsi- andof knowing them. He who should bility of the captains or commanders. venture to break through that good On the contrary, it imposed severe custom, however urged by strong nefines and penalties, independent of the cessity, would not only sacrifice a articles of war or naval instructions ; great portion of his respectability, it augmented their already too much but would also lessen that happy conloaded accounts ; it increased their nective influence, which generated risk and responsibility, and strength. regard, cemented the various links in ened their claims for an increase of the service, and tended so greatly to pay or other remuneration. The bill regularity and discipline. Submit. was then passed.

ting this most humbly to the Lords It is remarkable that no allusion Commissioners of the Admiralty, was made by Sir Charles Pole, in any should they not be pardoned if they of these debates, to a circumstance asked, how, in the present times, and which, early in the year, excited con- with all the accumulated expence of siderable interest in the navy. A live-stock at sea, and unavoidable number of captains and commanders waste of every other article beyond petitioned for an increase of pay, what it would be on shore, with all stating, that it was impossible for practical economy-how this could them to support that respectability be done without involving the whole of appearance, without which the of a captain's pay for his table-alone, service could not be carried on, others and forcing him to borrow for the wise than by a continual and heavy rest of his expenditure? The rise of expenditure of the private fortunes of servants' wages was one of the many the few who had any, or by a ruinous increased expences which might be accumulation of debt upon the ma- enumerated. Stationary had greatly jority who had none. The income increased in price, while the consump: tax, the increased price of every arti- tion had been greatly enlarged ; and cle of consumption and every inci- frequently, on his arrival from sea, a dental expence, naturally, they said, captain had an enormous postage to called for a corresponding increase of pay for letters written by the wives salaries in general. In addition to or parents of sailors, to solicit tidings these drawbacks, they had suffered a of their husbands or sons. The rise most material diminution of their ac- of almost every article in life had customed emolument, by the late do- alone reduced the value of their pay duction from their share of prize. to half of what it once was; and, money; the only source, however preat as they already were by these precarious and uncertain, from which circumstances, when the income tax they had heretofore hoped for relief. came, it fell upon the great majoTo this petition a general negative rity, who had no private fortune, was returned; in consequence of which with a force that was almost destructhey presented another, wherein they tive, the effects of which could only entered more fully into the nature of be palliated for a while by incurring their difficulties :-“ Long custom,” debts and living upon hope. There they said, “ 'made it imperative upon was a time, indeed, when that hope the captains to keep a constant table was not without foundation : an oc.

casional prize did, in former days, mature deliberation, to be just, and not unfrequently reward the toils of nothing had since occurred to induce a few fortunate individuals. But al. their lordships to think it expedient though they rejoiced that naval gal. to recommend a farther increase of lantry had swept the seas of the foes pay to the captains and commanders. of Britain, even this success, so happy The reply concluded in these harsh for their country, was to them, who terms to the port admiral : “ I have were the instrument of that happi- their lordships' further commands to ness, an additional cause of pecuniary acquaint you, that they regret that distress. The diminution of their an application of this nature should shares, and the droits of Admiralty, have been preferred so recently after they did not presume to canvass ; his Majesty had extended his gracious yet perhaps they might be suffered bounty to all ranks in the navy, and to add, that when a prize was taken, that you should have been the chan(an event which was well nigh as nel through which a memorial so illrare as a prize in the lottery,) the timed and inadmissible has been transcaptain found a heavy defalcation from mitted.” The captains did not subwhat was formerly considered as his mit to this unmerited rebuke without due, not only for the long and per. appealing against it. They begged severing service which had brought leave, with proper respect to their him to his rank, not only as a ne- lordships, both personally and from cessary means to assist in the sup- their office, to express their grief and port of that rank,mbut because, in surprise that their memorial, couchthe case of the detention and non- ed as it was in respectful language, condemnation of a vessel, he alone and the matter being undeniable, was the responsible individual. They should be considered wholly inadmisalso humbly entreated that the pecu- sible ; and farther, that it should be niary insignificance and embarrass- stated to have been preferred so re. ment to which they were consigned cently after the extension of his Ma. when their services were no longer jesty's gracious bounty,-insinuating required, might be taken into consi. thereby that it was indecorous. They deration, and that an augmentation thought it right respectfully to ob. might be made to their half-pay, serve, that the gracious bounty of his proportioned to the time they had Majesty was in fact putting into one served, the rank they respectively hand what was taken out of the other bore, and the value of what it was by the income-tax; and that a charge worth, in reference to the price of of five per cent. had been made on all the articles of life when it was their prize-money for Greenwich, and first established.”

ultimately a third of it taken away To this Mr W. Wellesley Pole re- altogether since that bounty was explied, by order of the Lords Com- tended to them. missioners, that, upon a full exami. Immediately after this corresponnation of the memorial, the prayer dence, the commander-in-chief at therein contained was considered to Portsmouth was dismissed from his be wholly inadmissible. The pay of command, for no other reason, it was all ranks in the navy was, in the year said, than that he had forwarded 1806, increased in such proportions these petitions to the Admiralty. as were considered, after the most These circumstances occasioned some letters to Lord Mulgrave, in which who chose it should be entitled to his his military character was not for- discharge, for one-and-twenty years gotten. He had been taken, the wri- service is as much as any government ter said, from his own profession to ought to require from its subjects. be put at the head of another, and A portion of life would then be left there could be no reason to believe for enjoyment, and when it became that he had any predilection for naval apparent to all men that a certain and men, or talents for naval offices. Some comfortable provision was to be obof the renionstrances addressed to the tained in the service of their country, First Lord of the Admiralty on this it would no longer be necessary to subject were so intemperate, and so man our fleets by violence, or recruit nearly libellous, that they injured the our army by delusion. These are cause which they were designed to the reforms that are needful and pracserve. The petition of the captains ticable, and not less easy than desira. certainly deserved a different answer: ble. Did statesmen think more wisely the facts which they alleged were un. and more favourably of human naanswerable, and the inadequacy of ture, they would know, that the hope their pay, and its disproportion to of good' is a far more powerful imits real value a century ago, are pulse than the fear of evil, and that glaring and notorious. Had Lord the better they thought of mankind, Melville continued at the head of the better they would find them and the Admiralty, what he did for the the better they would make them. navy gave reason to believe that he The perfectability of man has been would have improved the condition made a word of ridicule by philosoof all ranks in it. This might be phists on one side, who fancied themeffected upon two principles, as sim- selves perfect, and philosophicides on ple as they are just; by appoint- the other, whose worse error it was, ing an increase of pay correspondent that no farther improvement in human to length of service, and securing to society is possible. But when these every man who had served a certain truths shall be acknowledged and number of years a provision sufficient become the ground-work of policy, for all the comforts of life, according the main step will then be taken toto his relative rank. This term might wards that amelioration of humankind, be fixed at one-and-twenty years af. which history and true philosophy ter the age of twenty. Many would, alike encourage us to expect; to no doubt, be tempted after that term which we have been commanded to to continue in the service, by the press on by Him, who said unto his prospect of advantage in that lottery disciples, Be ye perfect!” and which, which it holds out, or by inclination in fact, is one great purpose of revela. and inveterate habits; but every man tion itself.

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