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jects he had in view. Having, then, contest. They had trusted the Brie received from him a taunt as to an tish character and honour on the rot. unprotected part of our dominions, ten plank of the Spanish government let us take the hint, and by an act and the inquisition ! The absurdity of our own render a repetition of the of acting on the divine right of kings taunt unnecessary. It had been said, had been the misfortune of this reign, that beat a fool in a mortar with a -in support of it we had made an pestle, he would never quit his folly:- unavailing waste of blood and treawe have been beat in a mortar for sure, but we had never yet embarkmany years, but what had we got ed in any legitimate object. It suitbut disgrace?"

ed administration now to say, that Sir Francis then proceeded to the internal government a country speak of the affairs of Spain. "If we should not be interfered with. How were to assist the Spaniards,” he said, did this doctrine accord with the “it was the duty of ministers to have idea of that contest in which, for the seen that there was a rational hope last fifteen years, we had been enof attaining our end: if they had gaged with the French, simply beproceeded upon light grounds, they cause they chose to alter their interhad been guilty of a crime of the nal form of government ? Instead of deepest magnitude. After having a monument to the memory of the obtained accurate information as to minister who involved us in such a the real state of public feeling in war, he deserved to have lost his that country, they should have seen head on a scaffold.-The House is that there were 300,000 men in arms; called on for an address of thanks. that all the passes were secured ; I, for one,” said Sir Francis, “have that a British army would be able no thanks to bestow : kings are to fight with every advantage ; that too much exposed to have adulation the soldiers would not be subject to poured into their ears, and this has the want of food; and that they been the cause of the overthrow of would only have to fall, if they did too many of the thrones of Europe. fall, in the field of glory. If these We have not heard that any of the things. could not be insured, it was kings who have of late years fallen their duty not to have landed a single under the dominion of Buonaparte man, but to have supplied the Spa- were in want of courtiers. It is fit niards with arms and other necessa- that the king of England should ocries, which might have prolonged the casionally hear the truth from his war. And with respect to sending Commons, and no better opportunity money to them, it would well have than the present can possibly prebecome the ministry, before they call. sent itself.—Mr Canning has objected for a supply from the exhausted ed to the thought of this being a pockets of the people, to have resto- sinking country :- he himself may be red the millions of which Spain some rising, but the country is sinking ; years ago had been so unjustly pilla- and there is too much ground to be. ged by the government of this coun- lieve that it will sink still lower, if try, and which had gone to his Ma- a reform does not speedily take place.” jesty, under the name of droits of ad- Lord Henry Petty applauded the miralty.—But there was no ration- speech. “In the principal parts of its al expectation of success in such a sentiments,--sentiments,” he said, “ which were delivered with such an the House, whether such an imputaeloquence as could not soon be for- tion was applicable to him ? whether gotten,-he cordially concurred; and the course which he had pursued that there was no man in whose sentiments night, as he had uniformly done, in he would be more happy to feel it reprobating the abuses that prevailed consistent with his opinions to con- in the administration of government, cur than Sir Francis Burdett.” Mr could be fairly deemed inconsistent Canning could not help expressing his with the profound veneration which astonishment and regret at hearing he felt for the genuine constitution this. “To the talents of Sir Francis, of the country? Upon this Mr Canhe said, “ and to his sincerity also, ning replied, that he referred to the no man was more willing to do jus- phrase of “ absurdly contending for tice than he was ; but without mean- loyalty,” which the baronet had ining any thing disrespectful to thattroduced in his speech. Sir Francis honourable baronet, he must say that explained his meaning to be, that the he was grieved to hear the noble lord, argument respecting loyalty in Spain who was naturally to be ranked among was pushed to an extremity inconsis. the great men of the country, and tent with the freedom of any nation, who was to be looked to as one of and particularly with the constitution its probable governors, declare such of England. "But though this an entire concurrence in sentiments so ticular phrase might thus be fairly dangerous in their nature and charac- explained, and nothing fell from him ter. If the evils which Sir Francis , in this speech contrary to that veneBardett deplored were so grievous, ration which he expressed for the why did he not bring them forward constitution, it is not the less certain in some distinct and tangible form, that, during the whole of the Spanish and not fasten a general declamation revolution, Sir Francis Burdett and upon a question of this nature? why his partizans have shewn a callousnot propose some practical remedy, ness of feeling toward the patriots, such a remedy as any minister could and an indifference toward the best apply, and not continue to repeat his interests of mankind, which were not doctrine, that the whole frame of the to have been expected from any true government was not worth preser- lovers of liberty.

Mr Whitbread found himself too There was a cry of No! No! Mis-- weak to divide the House upon his representation from the opposition amendment, and the address, as oribenches at this part of Mr Canning's ginally moved, was carried without a speech; and Sir Francis appealed to division.

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CHAP. II.

Vote of Thanks to Sir Arthur Wellesley and his Army. Debate upon the

Campaign in Portugal, and the Convention of Cintra.

The campaigns in Portugal and utterly disclaimed all right to thanks Spain were concluded, but they were which he felt he had not earned. to be fought over again in Parlia- This assertion did not preclude a re

ment. A vote of thanks petition of the same arJan. 23. was moved to Sir Arthur guments in the House of Jan. 25.

Wellesley, for the battle Commons, by Lord Folke. of Vimiera. Earl Moira protested stone and Mr Whitbread. General against it, because Sir Harry Burrard Stewart replied, that no man could was not included. “ That general,” have a higher respect for Sir Harry he said, “ had approved of the dispo- than he had; but he could not help sitions made by Sir Arthur for the observing, that if the thanks of Parbattle, and thereby made himself re- liament were to be voted him, it sponsible for those dispositions. He would be impossible to make the had the command; he was present, for army understand for what ; for the a great part of the time, in the hottest soldiers had seen the activity of Sir of the engagement; and he controuled Arthur Wellesley, and knew that the opinion of Sir Arthur respecting Sir Harry Burrard did nothing more the advance to Torras Vedras. Had than come into the field. the army been defeated, he must have On these questions no division took participated in the shame of the de- place, all parties being agreed that feat: surely, then, justice required that the services of Sir Arthur Welleshe should partake of the triumph of ley and the army under his .com the victory, especially as, after what mand deserved the thanks of their had transpired in the Court of In- country: The question upon the quiry, to leave his name out of the convention of Cintra was a trial of vote of thanks would be, in fact, to strength. Lord Henry Petty moved pass the severest censure upon him.” two resolutions, stating This inference was totally denied by that it had disappointed Feb. 21. the ministry. Lord Mulgrave said the hopes and expectahe knew Sir Harry Burrard well, tions of the country, and that the knew his sentiments upon the sub- causes and circumstances which led ject, and that that gallant general to it had in a great measure ariser the

from the misconduct and negligence of resolved to send a force to assist the bis Majesty's ministers. These reso- Spanish patriots: Sir Arthur Welles. lutions were introduced by a speech ley was appointed to the command ; of considerable length. Lord Henry and the ultimate destination of the exbegan by saying, that " no proceed. pedition was Portugal. There was ings which had yet taken place upon nothing in the possession of Portugal this subject were of a nature to pre. itself,—nothing in the possession of clude the expediency and necessity of the port of Lisbon, as a source of a parliamentary investigation; for the immediate succour to the Spaniards, Board of Inquiry was a tribunal in. --nothing connected with the real competent to give satisfaction to the interests of our faithful ally the Queen country, and irreconcileable with all of Portugal, or of her subjects, that the received principles of law and could point out, much less justify equity ;-Opening its doors to the that destination ; for of all the capublic, calling upon very parties lamities that can be inflicted upon a to give their testimony, and drawing country, the conquest of it by a power from them information by which not able to retain it is the greatest ; they were to be subjected to criminal because it is thereby exposed to all prosecution, it was calculated rather the calamities and horrors of two reto defeat than to promote the ends of volutions. It subjects a country to justice.

calamities, of which the immediate “ It is not my intention,” he pur. evil inflicted by the conqueror is the sued, “ to discuss the extent of the least ; for it draws out all the lurkinsurrections which broke out in ing vices that are concealed in the Spain; but if they afforded any room bosom of society, and brings all those for military exertion on our part, dormant bad qualities into play, which government could not have been never fail to accompany and aggra. found more fortunately situated with vate the convulsions of a country. regard to military means than it was. These evils are inflicted even by a There was at that time a consider- change from good to better ; but able expedition prepared for distant how much more must they be in. service, there was another force increased when the change is from bad the Mediterranean, under General to worse! Such an assistance this Spencer : it had been sent to take country could not be called upon to possession of Ceuta, but when it ar- afford, neither was Portugal inclined rived, the attack upon Ceuta was to require it ; and such was the only found impracticable.

Soon after- assistance we could give to Portugal, wards a new prospect of vigorous independent of Spain. But we now exertion opened upon Lord Castle. have been taught that it is not on reagh, and a third army was sent upon the Tagus that Buonaparte was to a voyage of discovery and observa- be restrained in his pursuits. In the tion, to look for an expedition in the progress of his unlimited schemes of Baltic. Thus, then, when govern- ambition, it is not to momentary trimnent was called upon to co-operate umphs, to the eclat of public rewith Spain, it had in actual readiness joicings, or to the firing of Park three distinct masses of disposable guns, that his exertions are directed. force. Lord Castlereagh was actu- Because he aims at ultimate advanally rich in his own failures. It was tage, and hopes for ultimate success

un

and ultimate glory, he looks with was essentially necessary to insure its utter contempt at Portugal, whilst success. But the shores of Portugal he presses without cessation upon the were not the first object of the expeprovinces of Spain. Do I say, how. dition. It Auctuated between the ever, that there were no objects in northern and southern coasts of Spain; Portugal which claimed our atten- and the suggestion of carrying it to tion? By no means. There was in Portugal, far from having been foundthat country a French army, and in ed upon any previous original deterits port a Russian fleet. The cap- mination, was taken up in forty-eight ture of that army and the possession hours, upon the suggestion of the of that fleet were of the highest im- Spanish deputies. portance; and we stood not only our- “ Spain was the original destina. selves, but beheld the enemy in such tion of this army; and, on the 21st of a relative situation as we had never June, Lord Castlereagh says, in his before the good fortune to witness. letter to Sir Arthur, that it was We saw a French army in a position better to bring the whole force to. in which it was cut off from all means gether than to trust to a junction on of assistance, situated in an the coast of Spain : but from that friendly country,--deprived of every moment every thing was trusted to a succour by sea and land. Every junction there. Sir Arthur's expe. man who looked to it might say, dition sailed separately, the cavalry that, whatever should be the fate of belonging to it sailed separately, the other armies of Buonaparte, what. General Moore's expedition sailed ever views of aggrandisement they separately, General Auckland's exmight be the means of promoting, pedition sailed separately,—the whole here at least was an army cut off of the ordnance sailed separately,from all possibility of relief--an army and the junction of all these forces that must be forced to pay the tri- and equipments was left to be effect. bute due to British valour, and sub- ed on the coast of Spain. On the mit, by British exertions, to confusion 28th one letter was written to Ad. and defeat:

This expedition, how. miral Purvis, directing him to send ever, required several important and intelligence to Sir Arthur, on the necessary considerations to be at. north coast of Spain; and another to tended to most particularly. It re- General Spencer, telling him that Sir quired that the most positive and Arthur was to co-operate with him ; clear instructions should be given to $0 that the machinery by which the the officer who was to have the con- expedition was to be worked was, duct of it. Being intended to act in that Admiral Purvis, who was off different situations, according to dif. Cadiz, was to send requisites to Sir ferent circumstances, it was, above Arthur Wellesley, who was in the all things, necessary that it should north of Spain, which were to induce be properly equipped for the service; Sir Arthur to send orders to General that the commander should at least Spencer, who was in the south. Two have had the opportunity afforded days afterwards the whole plan is him of chocsing his own ground; altered, in consequence of an opinion that after such discretion was con- given by the Spanish deputies in fided to him, he should at least be London ; and in opposition to all the continued in his command. This previous plans, Sir Arthur is instruct

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