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Mr Jackson retired from the city of danger : and Mr Jackson found it

Washington to New York, indispensable for his own safety, and Nov. 13. first expressing, through that of his family and the gentlemen

Mr Oakley, the secretary of attached to the mission, to call upon legation, his regret that he should be the American government

for special compelled to do so. The charge, passports or safeguards; this, he said, however, at which offence had been was the more necessary, because taken he again repeated and justified. some of the newspapers of the United “One of the facts alluded to,” Mr States were daily using language, of Oakley said, “ has been admitted by which the only tendency could be to the secretary of state himself, namely, excite the people to commit violence that the three conditions forming the upon his person. Fortunately for substance of Mr Erskine's original Mr Jackson, his personal safety was instructions, were submitted to him by secured by the known power of Great that gentleman. The other, namely, Britain, for otherwise the conduct of that that instruction is the only one the government was such as seemed to in which the conditions were pre- afford him little security. scribed to Mr Erskine for the con. The president, at the open. Nov. 27. clusion of an arrangement on the ing of Congress, brought matter, is known to Mr Jackson by a direct charge against England

of the instructions which he has himself breach of faith in disavowing Mr Erreceived. In stating these facts, and skine's arrangement; and in referring in adhering to them as his duty im. to the affair of the Chesapeake, call. periously enjoined him to do, he could ed it a murderous aggression,-a not imagine that offence could be phrase which Mr Smith also used taken at it by the American govern- about the same time, in one of his ment, as most certainly none could published dispatches to the American be intended on his part; but having minister at London. Resolutions now been informed that no farther were brought into the House of Re. communication will be received from presentatives, that the executive gohim, he has no alternative, consistent vernment, in breaking off all commuwith what is due to the King's dig- nication with Mr Jackson, had manity, but to withdraw from the seat of nifested a just regard to its own dig. the American government, and wait nity and honour, as well as to the the arrival of his Majesty's commands character and interests of the Ameupon the unlooked-for turn which rican people, and the Congress sohas been given to his affairs in this lemnly pledged itself to stand by and country'

support the executive government At this time the insolence of the upon this point, and, if necessary, to French faction, encouraged by the call into action' the whole force of apparent probability of those direct the nation to repel such insults as hostilities between the two countries, had been offered by the British miwhich it was their object to provoke, nister. An act was also brought in, exdisplayed itself in open violence. Se. pressly levelled at Mr Jackson, under veral' óf our officers, who had offered the title of “A Bill to prevent the no provocation, were insulted in the Abuse of the Privileges and Immunitown of Hampton, and violently as. tiesenjoyed by Foreign Ministers while saulted, so as to be put in imminent in the United States.” It empower. ed the president, upon any just occa- tion, “Liberty of Navigation for sion given, to issue a warrant for én- Neutrals, or War with England;"> forcing the departure of any ambassa- and in the hall where they dined, dor, minister, or other person, taking France and America were represented due precautions to avoid improper or as reposing together in the Temple unnecessary violence in executing of Peace, with England at their feet: such warrant.

the American ambassador and lega. The difference of the president's tion being present, and sanctioning feelings towards Buonaparte and Eng- these insults to Great Britain. The land was strongly marked in the man- French government did not fail to ner in which he mentioned France, in profit by the disavowal of Mr Er- . that same speech wherein he spoke skine's arrangement; they renewed of our murderous aggressions. With their negociations with General ArmFrance,” he said, “ the other bellige- strong, urging him to accede to the rent, whose trespasses on their com system by which France was aiming mercial rights had long been the sub- to recover the liberty of the seas. ject of just remonstrance, the posture But however desirous the more inof their relations did not correspond fatuated, or more corrupt, partizans with the measures taken on the part of Buonaparte in the United States of the United States to effect a fa- might be of instigating their country vourable change.” The French Ad. to hostilities against Great Britain, miral Willaumez, indeed, had forci. this was a measure too obviously bly taken four French deserters out ruinous to be ventured upon at preof an American ship,—the fact was sent, even by the existing government, related in the American newspapers, and there was yet a numerous party and yet it was not even complained in the Northern States who under. of, nor once alluded to among the stood their real interest. Resolutions trespasses which were the subject of were past by the legislature of Masremonstrance. American subjectssachusetts, condemning the conduct seized under the Berlin decree were of the executive general government starving in French prisons. General with respect to Mr Jackson, showArmstrong, then ambassador at Pa. ing that the object of France was, ris, regretted that he could do no- by instigating a war between Engthing for them at present, and assu. land and America, to recover posred them that he would lose no op- session of Canada, and declaring their portunity of restoring them to their own persuasion that no just cause excountry. This was all the redress isted for a rupture with Great Bri. they could obtain from him, and tain ; but that they deemed it their their captivity and sufferings were duty to use all the means in their never enumerated by their govern. power for allaying the existing irri. ment among the trespasses which tations, and preparing the way for were the subject of remonstrance. the restoration of a friendly interThe Americans at Paris were equally course between two nations, whose ininsensible to all outrages and acts of terests were in so many points essentyranny on the part of Buonaparte. ially united. At their anniversary of the indepen- 'The immediate object of France, in dence of the United States, a stand. exciting America to hostilities with ard was carried, bearing this inscrip. England, was clearly seen by the

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New-Englanders, and they saw also unsettled state. He assured him at that it was the design of that insa- the same time, that no minister would tiable government, after it had used be received from Joseph Buonaparte. the United States as a means of reco- Had there been nothing more in this vering Canada, then to add the coun- than the avowal that America, retry of their allies to their empire. The gardless of all other rights, waited to views by which the American go acknowledge the right of the stronge vernment could be bribed to a conduct est, it would have been sufficiently so inconsistent with its own real inter- disgraceful to her rulers. The events est, were not so apparent; but they of the ensuing year discovered that began to develope themselves. A there was a secret understanding beminister was sent from Spain to tween her and France upon this America in the name of Ferdinand point, and that while the president 7th., and the president refused to ac- thus affected impartiality, he was, in knowledge him, saying, he could re- fact, making arrangements for secuceive no minister from Spain while ring a part of the colonial spoils of that country remained in its present Spain.

CHAP. XVI.

Affairs of the Baltic. Revolution in Sweden. Peace between Sweden and

Russia and Denmark., Proceedings of the English Squadron in the Baltic. Conduct of England towards Iceland and the Feroe Islands. The Prince of Augustenburg elected Crown Prince of Sweden.

The north of Europe presented but different. Mortified that the plans a mournful prospect at the beginning which they had formed in concert of the year. The people of Den- with Buonaparte against this country mark, however strongly and indig- had been frustrated, taking advannantly they must have resented the tage too of the manner in which this attack upon Copenhagen, felt far had been done, to justify themselves, more fear and hatred of their tyran. perhaps even to their own hearts, for nical allies than of the English, their the preposterous and ruinous policy unwilling enemies. The contrast be- in which they were involved, they tween the Spanish and French troops pursued the war with a spirit of who had been quartered upon them inveterate enmity that scrupled at produced a striking effect. The Spa- no hostile act, however disgraceful. niards cheerfully paid for whatever Hence Denmark was the first power they desired to have beyond the or. to acknowledge the intruder Joseph dinary allowance, and never behaved as King of Spain, and even engaged arrogantly towards the men nor im. in hostilities against Romana's army, properly towards the women ; while and detained such of his troops in the French, carrying their system of prison as could not effect their escape. free quarters into whatever country Hence also the court entered eagerly was cursed with their presence, rioted into all the schemes of France for at the expence of their hosts, and in- ruining our commerce. The king sulted the wives and daughters of the complained both to the French and Danes before their eyes with gross Dutch governments, that vessels were indecency. The people, therefore, in the practice of clearing from Rus. dreaded nothing so much as these sia, and passing the Sound under allies, and they looked on with me- Dutch colours, though they were nolancholy forebodings to the conse- toriously bound for England; and quences of the unnatural connection these governments, less scrupulous between Denmark and France. But than the American ministry, because the temper of the court was altogether they were sincere in their intentior, of cutting off the intercourse which these islands as dependencies upon they prohibited, required him to seize Swedish Finland, now, so Alexander the ships so offending, and to impri. foolishly supposed, irrevocably anson the crews. Our trade suffered a nexed to Russia. Buxhovden col. more serious annoyance from that lected ice-boats, as if he designed to kind of warfare which gun-boats and transport troops from thence to Swe. privateers carry on to such advantage den, the distance to the nearest coast in narrow seas. The Swedes won- being little more than thirty miles. dered that we did not give some check These things, the Danes were assu. to this, by taking possession of the red, had so alarmed Gustavus, who islands of Bornholm and Ertholmen, had experienced the inutility of his nests from whence these enemies an- alliance with England, that in his noyed the Baltic more than from any despair he was about to go to Petersother station, and which might have burgh, either thinking it possible to been made the rendezvous for all ves. produce some change in the mind of sels bound to or from the ports in the czar by personal conference, or those seas. This would have been meaning to throw himself upon his advisable ; but the bolder and better generosity. policy would have been, to have once There was more truth in the remore attacked Copenhagen, and have ports circulated at Copenhagen, that added Zealand to the dominions of the French party was becoming formi. Great Britain.

dable in Sweden, and that Gustavus The Danish ministry, extending himself was in danger. The King of its hostility to Sweden as well as Denmark did not scruple to foment England, affected to make prepara. the treasonable spirit which was begintions for invading that country. Sur. ning to manifest itself; balloons with geons were called upon to give in proclamations exciting the Swedes to their names, and hold themselves in revolt, and join the continental powers readiness to accompany the expedi- against Great Britain, were launched tion; and it was rumoured that the from the Danish shore; some of them king would take the command in per- fell near Helsingburg, and were care son. In Denmark it was reported ried by the peasantry who found that the threatened invasion greatly them to the magistrates. The Swealarmed the Swedes ; so much so, dish peasantry, indeed, were uncor. that on the coast of Scania their rupted ; but they were hopeless, and troops spent the night in the open their sufferings at this time were such air, notwithstanding the severity of that anything which promised change the season. It was said also, that seemed to offer alleviation. The sea. measures were taken for the defence

son was severer than any within reof Stockholm, the winter having set membrance ; it set in early in Noin so rigorously that the court of vember, and in the middle of March Sweden apprehended it might be the whole surface of the country, practicable for their assailants to land, lakes, rivers, and the sea itself, march across the Gulph of Bothnia. were still covered with ice and snow. The Russians, in fact, did cross the The last crop had failed, and, to ag. ice from Abo, and take possession of gravate the evil, the herrings, which the isles of Aland, where they forti- of late years had arrived in decreafied themselves, meaning to retain sing numbers, during the last entirely

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