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peace, friendship, and good under- long intercourse, neighbourhood, and standing between the King of Swe- reciprocal wants, rendered almost in. den and the Emperor of all the Rus- dispensable, the Swędes and Fin. sias, and that it should be their chief landers were to be permitted to trade study to maintain perfect harmony as usual, with the reservation of such between themselves, their states, and restrictions as the political relations subjects, and carefully to avoid what. of the two states might render necesever might tend to disturb the union sary. The King of Sweden was also so happily re-established. For the allowed to purchase annually, from Czar Alexander, and the usurper the Russian ports in the Baltic, Charles XIII., this might be per- 50,000 tschetwerts of corn, free from fectly reasonable, being, as they both the export duty, proof being shewn were, the miserable instruments of that the purchase was made on his Buonaparte, and acting blindly in account, or by virtue of his authorifurtherance of his designs upon their ty. Years of scarcity were excepted, respective kingdoms; but friendship but the quantity which, in consequence between Russia and Sweden was not of such an exception, might be in arlikely to be established by a peace rear, should be made up when the which, after a war commenced by the prohibition was no longer necessary. former, without provocation or ex- The Emperor of all the Russias, cuse, and carried on without mercy, it was farther said, having manifested ceded to the unjust and cruel invader an invariable resolution not to sepa. the richest provinces belonging to rate his interests from those of his the Swedish crown. The govern- allies, his Swedish Majesty, wishing ments of Kymmenegard, Nyland, and on his part, in favour of his subjects; Tawastland, Abo, and Biorneborg, to extend as far as possible the ad. with the isles of Aland, Savolax, vantages of peace, engaged to neglect Carelia, Wasa, and Uleaborg, with nothing which might bring to a happart of West Bothnia extending to py conclusion the negociations alrea. the river Tornea, with all the inha- dy commenced with France and bitants, towns, ports, fortresses, vil. Denmark; and, that he might give lages, and islands, dependencies, pre- an undoubted proof of his desire to rogatives, rights, and emoluments, renew the most intimate relations were ceded in full property and so- with the august allies of Russia, he vereignty to Russia, to be incorpo. promised to adhere to the continent. rated with the Russian empire, Charles al system, and engaged to close the XIII. renouncing all right to them ports of Sweden both to the ships of for himself, his successors, and the war and merchantmen of Great Brikingdom of Sweden, and engaging tain, reserving, nevertheless, the imin the most solemn manner, for him. portation of salt and colonial proself and them, never to make any duce, which habit had made necessaclaim hereafter, direct or indirect, up- ry to the Swedes.-The losses which on the territories thus ceded. But Sweden had sustained in the war because these territories, which were were computed at a fourth of her now incorporated with Russia, were whole territory, and a sixth of her connected with Sweden by commer. whole population ; but the wisdom cial relations, which, (so it was con- of entering into this war is not to be fessed in the words of the treaty) judged of according to the event: had

the continental powers, who took served to divide his force, and opearms against France, displayed the rating thus as a diversion in favour spirit and the constancy of Gusta- of Russia, it occasioned the loss of vus, Buonaparte would long ere this Finland. While it lasted it occahave closed his career, and France sioned great privations in Norway. have been reduced to that state of The industrious and unoffending weakness which alone is compatible people of that country, whom it with the safety and tranquillity of might have been thought their cliEurope.

Upon his own constancy mate, their mountains, and their disGustavus could calculate, and upon tance from the scenes of revolution, the farmness of England, and with would have preserved in peace even England for her ally, Sweden was amidst this universal convulsion, were secure against France, if Russia had cut off from all commerce, though not interfered. The conduct of it was upon commerce that they in Alexander could not have been fore- great measure depended both for seen,—foresight may be as effectual. food and cloathing. No British arly baffled by the capriciousness of ticles were permitted to enter the folly, as by the deepest schemes of country; the consequence was, that political wisdom. This besotted not a new coat was to be procured prince announced to his subjects, that, for the men in any part of the kingafter a war which had covered the dom, and that the women were ac. Russian arıns with immortal glory, tually in want of pins and needles. he had concluded a treaty of eternal Tobacco became scarce, and the failpeace with Sweden. Te Deum wasure of this luxury was more loudly performed upon this occasion in all complained of than any other privathe churches of the Russian domi- tion. Corn was sold on the coast at nions, and Romanzoff, who had ne- an extravagant price ; in the interior gociated the peace, was made field. it was not to be purchased. When marshal-general, and chancellor of our government understood the disthe empire, which is the first civil tress of the Norwegians, with a hudignity of the state.

manity which might put the enemies The negociations between Sweden of Great Britain to shame, it permit. and Denmark were soon terminated. ted vessels laden with provisions to

Neither party was in a si- pass, and after Sweden and Denmark Dec. 10. tuation to annoy the other; had concluded peace, granted licences

and things being precisely for Swedish ships trading to Norway. as they were before the war, nothing This was not the only instance in more was required than to draw up which England mitigated as far as articles in form, declaring that they possible the evils of a state of war- , were to continue so, and decreeing fare. An English privateer comperpetual peace between the Kings manded by Baron Hompesch, (a of Denmark and Sweden. Thus ter- man who had more than once fur. minated a war by which Denmark nished matter for a court of justice had neither lost nor gained; but by his actions) landed upon one of which, by the mispolicy of Gusta- the Feroe Islands, and committed us, had proved most injurious to some depredations upon the poor in. v weden; for by alluring him to at. habitants. The crew of another pri. tempt the conquest of Norway, it vateer took possession of Iceland, de.

claring the governor and garrison by name Dupuis, ballet-master at prisoners. The governor came to Copenhagen, who gave her lessons in England, and the English ministry, singing. The intrigue was suspected, as soon as they received authentic in- and spies were set, who watched him telligence of what had been done, into her apartment at a late hour of issued a proclamation, in which, not. the night, and out of it at four in the withstanding the war with Denmark, morning. An express was immedithey declared that the Feroe Islands, ately dispatched to the hereditary Iceland, and the Danish settlements prince, who was absent at the time; in Greenland, were to be considered the guilt was manifest, and the prinas holding the same relations to this cess did not attempt to deny it ; it country as before the war. Their is said that, for the sake of saving her intercourse with the mother country paramour, she declared that she had was not to be molested, and they been the seducer. More mercy was were only required to distinguish shown than had been displayed at their vessels by a red lion in the Da. the same court upon a former occamish flag

sion, when justice might boldly have Before our ships retired, upon the been challenged by the victims of a approach of winter, from the Baltic, foul conspiracy. The Frenchmar they had in the course of the year was merely banished from Denmark, captured 90 Russian vessels, and 340 and ordered never to return on pain Danes. Thus did Denmark expe- of death. With this sentence he was rience the power as well as the gene- escorted to Lubec, and then left at rosity of Great Britain. In the ca- liberty to teach music wherever he pital itself, the ordinary supply for pleased, and boast of his adventures the shambles fell so short, that horses at Copenhagen. The princess was were regularly slaughtered, and their sent under a guard to Nyborgh; her flesh sold in the market at four pence family were informed of her guilt, and five pence per pound. The Da- and measures taken for divorcing her. nish court, meantime, received a The negociations between France pregnant hint of the ultimate designs and Sweden were protracted till the of their ally; they were called up- ensuing year ; but this excited no on to supply trigonometrical sur- uneasiness, for the latter power had veys of Sleiswick and Holstein to already conceded every thing in her the war depot at Paris ; the requisi. treaty with Russia which Buona. rion was complied with, and that un. parte could require. Switzerland fortunate court furnished information was chosen for the abode of Gusta. to be one day used by France against vus, now called Count Gottorp, and themselves. They discovered also in towards the end of December he and the royal family itself a melancholy his family were liberated from their example of the effect of those French confinement at Gripsholm. The armanners, which, wherever they have rangements for their departure were prevailed, have poisoned the very made with such secresy, that nothing sources of private and public virtue. was known concerning it an hour The wife of the hereditary prince (a before it took place. Relays of six. daughter of the Duke of Mecklen. teen horses had been ordered at every burgh,) was detected in an adulter- stage as far as Carlscrona, in the our intercourse with a Frenchman, name of General Skoldebrand, and the coach which carried the King, Queen, dual feelings of friendship towards and their son, travelled night and him, but also because this outrage is day : the princesses were not hurried a fresh application of principles dein this manner, no danger being ap- structive of all authority, and subprehended from them. Gustavus, it versive of all social order." was said, had lately appeared impa- The Prince of Augustenburg, tient of confinement, and shown marks whom the conspirators had chosen to of much dejection. He was landed be the founder of a new dynasty, arat Stralsund, and from thence proceed- rived in Sweden soon after the de. ed toward Switzerland. During his parture of the deposed King. He imprisonment a letter of consolation was welcomed at Gottenburg with was addressed to him by the head of illuminations, and as much external the Bourbon family. “I never,” rejoicing as if the revolution which said that prince, “ felt the weight of had been effected had given any real my own misfortunes press so sorely cause of joy to the Swedes. But the upon me as on this occasion, when, prospect of affairs was gloomy. in the absence of all power, I find Charles XIII, was seized towards myself reduced to express my senti- the end of November with what was ments in ardent but ineffectual wishes. said to be a cramp and giddiness in Still I have not lost the hope that the head, but believed to be apoplexy: that Providence to whom your Ma. he recovered ; still his health was jesty addressed yourself from the be- precarious, and in case of his death ginning, will display itself in the re- the new crown prince had but a poor lief of you and your family, and at security for the succession, The betthat moment I know the power to ter part of the Swedes desired to see pardon will be the first of the attri- the son of Gustavus restored to his butes of the crown which you will rights: and the unthinking multitude, think of exercising. Awaiting that not having experienced the immediate happy day, I protest, as a King, benefit from change which they exagainst the violence offered to the pected, began to be dissatisfied with, sacred person of Gustavus IV., not a revolution that had disappointed only on account of my own indivi. their impossible hopes.

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CHAP. XVII.

War between Russia and Turkey. Retrospective View of the Revolutions at

Constantinople since the Expedition to the Dardanelles. State of Servia. Rise of Czerni George. Views of Russia and of France upon the Prouinces of European Turkey. Events at Cataro. Mispolicy of this Country towards Greece. Fall of Mustapha Bairacter. Campaign on the Drena and the Danube.

The Czar Alexander boasted of his fell short of one ; and the exchange gains in the war with Sweden ; he on Hamburgh, which had Auctuated had gained also by the peace of Til. from 23 to 24, fell in 1808 to 15 and sit, which made over to him part of 16. There was, in fact, pa part of the spoils of Prussia as his reward for Europe where the preposterous meadeserting the King of Prussia, to sures of the Corsican for destroying whom he had sworn eternal friendship the trade of Great Britain produced upon

the tomb of Frederick. Duped greater evil. The exports of Russia as he was by French flattery and consisted in great part of perishable French intrigue, it never occurred to commodities, and when England was him that all his acquisitions, whether not allowed to purchase them, they in Finland or Poland, were only held lay rotting in the warehouses. It by him as tenant at will under Buo. was a common saying among the ponaparte ; his weak understanding was pulace at Petersburg, that their taldazzled by the apparent success of low would find its way to England his new system of policy, and that in spite of the government, because success consoled him for the breach it turned into maggots, and they were of faith which he had committed, thrown into the sea. the good name which he had irrepa- Alexander, however, acted in subrably forfeited, and the injury which servience to the Corsican as zealously not only his subjects but his own re- as if, instead of ruining the mercantile venue also sustained from the inter- part of his subjects, he had been en. diction of commerce with England. couraging industry and promoting In 1807, the custom-house dues at the civilization of his empire. The Petersburg and Croustadt amounted custom-house officers at the various to 4,982, 160 roubles; in 1808, only ports were removed on suspicion of fa918,055. The ships trading to youring the trade with England, and Russian ports exceeded 5000 in 1805; their places filled by men whom the after the war with England, they agents of France recommended as

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