the entrenchments which the enemy Meantime the most vigorous means had thrown up at four positions, dric were used by the Porte to strengthen ving them back upon the Jeser. The its armies. In Russia, also, a ukase next day they were again attacked, was issued for recruiting the army and driven under the guns of Evera- and navy, with one male out of every baca on the Drina ; that fortress ena- hundred throughout the whole embled them to make a stand, and they pire. Prince Bagrathion, who had were thus enabled to retire into Bos. now the command upon the Danube, nia without farther molestation. Col- prosecuted the advantages which had lecting fresh forces there, they re- already been obtained. 20,000 Turks, entered Servia, and at their first in- under the Seraskier Gorrew Pasha, road were successful. Nenadowitsch were defeated with a loss which, if it followed, and again put them to the be not greatly exaggerated, proves rout, after a battle in which both how resolutely they defended themsides suffered considerable loss. The selves. A fourth part of their whole Pashaof Zwowick

was made prisoner. number is said to have fallen in the The Turkish artillery in all these ac. field, 15 cannon were taken and 30 tions was well served, under the di. standards, among which were the ban rection of French officers, who, it is ners of the Seraskier. They who eshighly probable, acted with the se- caped Aed in disorder to Kutsgun and cret permission of their own govern. Silistria ; the former fortress speedily ment. It is perfectly consistent with surrendered to the conquerors, and the policy of Buonaparte to provide they soon possessed themselves of the Turks with engineers, while he Kesterdschi and Magolia was in strict alliance with Russia. on the Black Sea. Short. Sept. 14. On the other side, the Servians were ly afterwards Ismael sur. less successful ; the enemy obtained rendered. The massacre which that possession of all that part upon the strange barbarian Suvarrof suffered Morava which extends from Passa. his soldiers to commit there on its forrowitz to Takis and Nagodin, and mer capture, has made this place re. part of the army from the Drina was markable. Its fall was now scarcely detached to make head against them heard of ; in fact, the whole war ex. on the left bank of the river. After cited no interest in the civilized parts the victories which Nenadowitsch of Europe ; a few brief notices, alhad gained, they could be spared from most as dry and uncircumstantial as that quarter ; and Czerni George ex. the sentences of a monkish chronicler, pected at this time to have found suf. when he comprized the events from ficient employment for the Turks in Adam to his own days in the blank Bosnia, by an insurrection which had leaf of a missal, are all the materials been concerted with the Greeks in for the annalist in this portion of his that country. Unfortunately,—for task. For a war equally unimportevery failure of a christian people to ant in its cause and its consequences throw off the mussulman yoke must they are sufficient ; but concerning be considered unfortunate, the plan Servia, it is to be wished that the dowas discovered, and the Turks pu. cuments were more ample. That nished it with those devilish cruelties country offers something for our ad. which from the earliest agęs have ren- miration and our hope. dered their history hateful.

The Russians proceeded against

Silistria and Mangata : the loss of vidual vengeance against the cruel the latter place would distress Con- usurpers of his country. On the 22d stantinople, which draws from thence of October they attacked the bea supply of salt, and of many other sieging army, and a desperate action articles of necessity; and the court ensued; both armies came to the gazette of Petersburgh announced, sword, and the battle continued till that both fortresses were to be eva- night, when the arrival of a body of cuated as soon as the troops appeared Albanian cavalry decided the vic. before them. The success of Prince tory for the Turks. The Russians Bagrathion, who defeated a body of effected a retreat to their entrenched 5000 cavalry attempting to pass from camp: a second action took place, Rudschuck' to Silistria, and who in in which they were again defeated, another action pursued the Turks to and the loss which they sustained was the walls of that place, seemed to such that they found it necessary to justify this confidence. He encamp- recross the Danube. Both parties ed before it, and sent a detachment, were now too much exhausted for which took possession of Mangata any operations of importance during without resistance. But the Porte the winter. The Servians obtained at this time displayed more vigour another armistice, and carried on ne. than Alexander expected. The great. gociations which it was not possible er part of the troops which were act- could terminate in peace ; but the ing against the Servians were divert. interval was to their advantage, beed to meet the more pressing danger, cause they acted wholly upon the dethus affording an opportunity to fensive, and the time thus gained was Çzerni George and his brave coun- employed in new preparations for detrymen to strengthen themselves and fence. repair their losses, and all the rein

Caulincourt, (the man who arrestforcements which the severest mea. ed the Duc d'Enghien,) at this time sures could assemble were expedited minister at Constantinople, persua. towards Silistria, under the grand ded Alexander that English agents, vizir. The second in command was in Moldavia, Wallachia, and Servia, a native of Lithuania, by name Gleyz- were plotting in favour of the Turks, sor, who had fought under Kosci. and that dispatches of the greatest usco, and like him fallen into the importance had been intercepted on hands of the Russians. It is grie. their way to England by means of vous to think of the fate of those Dutch smugglers and fishing boats. men, who adventured so generously The fact, that Alexander should have and so heroically in that righteous believed this, is worthy of notice for cause : when so many have been the absurdity of the supposition. He made the victims, and, still more un- might as reasonably have imputed to happily, the instruments of Buona. us a revolt of the Circassians, which parte's accursed ambition, the Pole broke out during the summer of this must be considered as comparatively year. These barbarians, among whom fortunate who, while he is employed it is the pride of the higher classes in no worse service than that of the when they are not employed in war, Turks, had an opportunity afforded or in hunting, or in drinking, to sit him of gratifying at least his indi- still, say little, and do nothing, cross

* Tavernier.

ed the river Cuban in great numbers, ed the villages. The marquis then and, pouring into the plains, began to issued a proclamation, requiring the plunder the country. The govern. inhabitants to submit, and denounment of New Russia, where the Duc cing the most dreadful vengeance if de Richelieu held the command, was they continued in rebellion. No far. threatened by this invasion. Fortu- ther proceedings were heard of: the nately for the Russians they had a Circassians probably did not chuse to squadron, under the Marquis de Tra- expose themselves again against reverse, then in the Black Sea, and he gular troops, and Russia was too determined immediately to attack the much employed to think of punishing town of Anapa. For this purpose them for what had past. he disembarked a body of troops to

This movement in Circassia was approach it on the land side, and at- ascribed to the influence of the Turks, tacked it with the ships from the sea. and it operated as a diversion in their They won the town, and, pursuing favour. On the side of Syria also their success, dispersed such bodies the Porte received favourable intelliof the Circassians as ventured to make gence. The Pasha of Damascus rehead against them, and sent out two duced Tripoli to obedience, which detachments, which ventured as far as for many years had thrown off its they durst into the country, and burn. allegiance,


Spain. Retreat of the Central Army: Castanos deprived of the Command,

which devolves on Lapena. The Duke del Infantado appointed Commander. Retreat of the Count de Alache's Division, which rejoins the Remains of the Army at Cuenca. State of the Central Provinces. Proceedings in Estremadura. The French pass the Tagus. Cuesta appointed to command the Army of Estremadura.


E events which have already been the greater part of the right wing, recorded in this volume would in which consisted of Aragoneze and former times have been thought to Valencians, and some of the central make the year remarkable in history; division also, dispersed, and escaping but its most important transactions how they could from the field, asare yet to be related. These minor sembled again at Zaragoza, where revolutions and ordinary wars may they were destined to close their ca. lead hereafter to consequencesof more reer most

disastrously, yet most glomoment than can now be foreseen ; riously. The first and third divisions and, be that as it may, it is the duty were at Tarazona when of an annalist diligently to perform the battle was fought. Nov. 23. his office in all its parts. We come The fourth, which was 1808. now to matters of higher import: the the reserve, repelled rewar of the peninsula, like the great peated attacks of the enemy at Cascontest between Greece and Persia, cante till after the darkness had cloinvolves the dearest interests of hu- sed; then it retreated and joined the manity, and its story must therefore others at Tarazona : the second also for ever continue to affect and to in- arrived there. This division had been fuence mankind.

ordered to support the fourth ; but The defeat of all the Spanish ar- though it received these orders at mies, the betrayal of Madrid, the noon, and the distance which it had flight of Sir John Moore, and the to march was only two leagues, either embarkation of the British army,

were from incapacity or treason in some of the melancholy events with which the its leaders, it did not arrive till night, annals of the preceding year conclu. when its assistance was no longer ded. It is necessary to go back a useful. As soon as these four di. few weeks, and trace the movements visions were collected, Castanos or. of the army under Castanos after its dered them immediately to begin their defeat. When the fate of the day march by way of Borja to Calatayud. at Tudela was manifestly hopeless, It was now midnight, and at the mo

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ment when they were setting forward, certain as its defeat. Ney's rapacity a chapel, which had served as a ma. frustrated the expectations of his tygazine for ammunition, blew up: Ma- rant master. The people of Soria, ay shells went off after the explosion. forgetful of the memorable example This occasioned an opinion that an which the Numantines had set them enemy's battery might be playing upon that very ground, opened their upon them; and the royal carabineers, gates to the enemy. This however undismayed in the midst of the con- did not save them from being plunfusion, presented themselves sword in dered. Their church and their rich hand to charge the chapel, fancying wool factors afforded a rich booty it was occupied by the French. Pre- to the French ; and it was for the sently a cry of treason was set up, sake of this pillage, and of extorting and it spread rapidly through the all he could from the inhabitants, that ranks, because the troops, being ig- Ney remained there three days ; not norant of the calamitous result of the because he had overmarched his men, battle, were surprised at the order to and they were unable to proceed, as retreat; for in the morning what they he reported to Buonaparte, and as had seen of the action on the left of was repeated in the bulletins.+ This the line from the heights, had been in delay enabled Castanos with the wreck favour of the patriots, the action in of his army to reach Calatayud. They fact having commenced on that side had thus escaped the danger of the to their advantage; the men, there- immediate pursuit, but there were no fore, could not understand why they magazines or stores here ; the system were ordered to retreat, and at so of supplying the troops, incompleteinauspicious an hour ;-a general dis- ly organized as it had always been, trust prevailed, some corps dispersed, was at an end, and the military chest, and they who remained together were which contained two millions of reales, in a state of perilous insubordination. had been conveyed to Zaragoza. DesHowever, they retreated as they were perate with sufferings and hunger, ordered, through Borja and Riela, the men broke through all restraint, without stopping in either place, and and the inhabitants åed from their on the night of the 25th reached houses, equally terrified at the outCalatayud.

rages of their own soldiers and at On that same day the French ge- the vicinity of the French. The neral Mathieu entered Borja in pur. muleteers attached to the baggage suit, too late, however, to make any and artillery, who could neither obprisoners.* Ney arrived on the day tain payment for the use of their following. He had been ordered to beasts, nor food either for the animals reach Agreda with his division on or themselves, cursed their unhappy the 23d, that he might cut off the fortune ; such as could find an opretreat of this army, whose total de portunity threw away the baggage, struction Buonaparte considered as mounted their beasts, and rode away;

* The account in the 10th bulletin, that he took 37 pieces of cannon and 5000 prisoners there, all troops of the line, (for they boasted that they gave no quarter to the armed peasantry,) was totally false.

+ In the preceding volume (p. 424,) the falsehood of the bulletin was followed. Buller and more authentic accounts have enabled me now to correct it.

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