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ente del Cardinal, or the Cardinals. miel. Galluzo also stationed his reWith his present feeble and ineffi. serve at Jaraicejo, under Brigadier cient force® Galluzo had no other Don Josef Vlazquez Somosa, and means of protecting Estremadura sent another field officer to Truxillo than by breaking down, or defending to collect and organize all the stragthese bridges ; if he could effect this glers who might either voluntarily the province would be secure from join him, or be detained by the paan attack on the side of Talavera. troles. While the general made these Almaraz was the most important of dispositions for the defence of the these points ; here he planted ten province, the junta of Badajoz made pieces of cannon and two mortars, • the greatest exertions to supply the and stationed 5000 men. The more wants of this new army, and its efsurely to prevent the enemy from forts were well seconded by the Es. winning the passage he mined the tremaduran people. Half a million bridge, but so firmly had this noble of reales was raised in loans and free pile been built, that when the mine gifts within a week; all the cloth of was fired, the explosion only served Torremocha and of other clothing to injure it without rendering it im. towns was applied to the use of the passable. Don Francisco Trias army, no other work was carried

was sent with 850 men to on in the monastery of Guadaloupe Dec. 15. the Puente del Arzobis- than that of making earthen vessels 1808. po; on his way he met the for their cookery, and commissaries

engineer, who had pre- were sent to the sixteen villages viously been dispatched to break it nearest the bridge of Almaraz to see down, but who had been prevented that rations of bread for 5000 men from attempting it by the enemy, so were daily delivered there. These that this bridge was already in their measures were so effectual, that the power. Trias, therefore, took his troops were soon comfortably clothed, position with the view of curbing the and after the first day they had no incursions of the French on this side, want of any thing. and ordered Don Antonio Puig, with It was, however, scarcely to be such assistants as he could procure hoped that so small and ill-compact. from the magistrates of Talavera la ed a force could maintain its ground, Vieja, to destroy the Puente del in a country which offered them no Conde, and provide for the defence of advantages for defence against such that point, and of three fords upon an army as the French had assembled the same part of the river. When in Talavera. After some skirmishes this officer arrived he had neither a with the advanced guard at Almaraz, single soldier under his command, nor and some slight attacks upon the arms for the peasantry; this latter Puente del Conde, which were de. want was soon supplied; the peasan- signed chiefly to keep the Spaniards try were zealous, and some of the on the alarm, and divert their attenstragglers joined him.

tion from the side where the real atThe bridge of the Cardinal was as- tack was intended, Sebastiani crost signed to the keeping of a battalion the Puente del Arzobispo on the of Walloon Guards and a squadron 24th of December, and attacked of the volunteers of Estremadura, un- Trias in front and on his right flank der Brigadier Don Francisco Duras. with very superior numbers. The

patriots did not yield to this superiority out of his sight, than they cut the till after a vigorous resistance; being traces, and fled with their beasts, overpowered, they retreated, taking imitating the conduct of some infanthe road by the Sierra to Castanar de try who now took to fight. The Ibor. On the same day, about two enemy soon made themselves masters hours after noon, the Puente del Conde of the bridge and the battery, and was attacked, and the fords. The secured some prisoners,-though but bridge was bravely defended by Don few, for before the French could lay Pablo Murillo, who now made those planks over the broken bridge and talents known by which he afterwards pass in sufficient number, most of signalized himself so conspicuously the Spaniards effected their escape, in Galicia. Puig guarded the fords, and afterwards rejoined the general and they repelled the enemy every at Miajadas. where till night, when, being inform- Galluzo's first thought was to ed of the defeat of Trias, and that make a stand at Jaraicejo, and with Sebastiani had proceeded by Pera- this intent he dispatched orders to lera de Garbin and Bohonal towards General Henestrosa to join him from Almaraz, Puig perceived that he Truxillo with all the troops which must inevitably be taken in the rear he had collected, and requested the if he continued in his present position; junta to supply him with as large a he retreated to Peralera de Garbin force of armed peasantry as possible. behind the French, and from thence But no sooner did he learn that the to Castanar de Ibor.

bridge of Almaraz was forced, than The news of these disasters reach. he gave up this purpose, and resolved ed Galluzo about ten at night. Im- to fall back upon Truxillo, appremediately he apprehended that the hending that the enemy might interobject of the enemy, who were cept his retreat. His apprehension marching by Valdecasa, Valdecanas, degenerated into panic, when false and other points, to Romangordo and intelligence was brought him that Miravete, was to cut off the retreat of the French had entered Deleitosa, a his whole division. To prevent this village something less than eight miles he ordered all the artillery, except to the south-east. This intelligence four pieces, which formed a battery was followed by other reports equally on the left of the bridge, to retire false and more alarming, which the with the main force to Jaraicejo, for knavish and the traitorous invented, which place he himself set off at and the fearful and the suspicious midnight with his aid-de-camps and easily believed. The retreat had been the cavalry, leaving three companies begun in perfect order, but before in charge of the remaining battery the army reached Truxillo it was in under Captain Don Xavier de Hore. a state of total disorganization. GalThis officer was attacked on the fol- luzo, confounded at the first aplowing morning by the French; the proach of danger, (for if he had de battery was ill.placed, and Hore liberately resolved to attempt resist. perceived that the ammunition carts ance, the pass of Mirevete would were within reach of the enemy's fire. have been the place which he would He ordered them to be removed be- have chosen, after the bridge was hind a bank which would shelter forced,) called a council of war, and them ;-the muleteers were no sooner it was agreed that the defence of Estremadura was no longer possible, order. He set forward from Casta. and that he should retreat into An- nar for Fresnedoso, and when within dalusia. A chapel, which had been a mile of the place, learnt that the converted into a powder magazine, French were there, having won the was now blown up, that it might not bridge of Almaraz. He had now fall into the hands of the enemy. to tread back his steps, and endeavour This explosion, and the preparations to reach Jaraicejo. After a day's which were made for further flight, march he found that the French excited the utmost terror in the inha- were there also, and making for bitants of Truxillo, and their lamen- Truxillo, again discovered the enetations increased the confusion and my in possession of the place to which alarm of the soldiers. It now be- he was bound. Nevertheless he precame a rout;-most of the troops de served discipline in his little troop, serted, plundering the towns and and that preserved confidence ; invillages through which they passed. stead of losing his men by desertion, Those who still followed the gene. he collected stragglers as he went, ral were now under no restraint ; and arrived at Zalamea with a larger they went through Miajadas, Medel. force than Galluzo himself had lin, and Quintania, and in four days brought there. reached Žalamea, .above 100 miles Before the incapacity of Galluzo from Jaraicejo. Here it had been was thus decidedly manifested, it had appointed to halt, and here Galluzo been in agitation to remove him from found himself with not more than the command, and appoint Cuesta in 1000 men. Nothing could be worse his place. This general had been than the conduct of the men during put under arrest for his violent contheir flight,-some sold their mus- duct toward Valdes, the deputy for quets,--some threw them away, Leon, and, as an arrested person, fol. houses were broken open, and upon lowed the junta on their fight from one individual a piece of church plate Aranjuez. It so happened, that was found,-a species of robbery while he was at Merida, some solwhichexcites peculiar horror in Spain. diers belonging to the scattered army The officers, instead of endeavouring of Estremadura gathered together in to restrain these excesses, were some that city, and the owner of the house of them active themselves in pillage ; in which Cuesta lodged persuaded it is probable, indeed, that had they them to demand him for their leader, done their duty, the men would have as it were by acclamation. The jundischarged theirs, for those officers ta of Merida upon this sent up a reto whom the more difficult task of presentation to the central junta rebringing off the artillery had been questing that Cuesta might be apentrusted, and who were therefore pointed to the command. It was repicked men, effected their object : plied, that this qught not to be done though without an escort they lost without the approbation of the junta only two pieces of cannon, and car- of Badajoz, which had made such ried 17 to Miajadas,- from whence signal exertions in the patriotic cause, part were sent to Badajoz, the rest and that junta was not willing to followed Galluzo to Zalamea. Trias supersede Galluzo whom they had also effected a far more dangerous appointed. But now, after this disretreat than his commander in good orderly Hight, he was immediately deprived of the command, and put un. dalusia on that side. These means der arrest, and Cuesta was then no. of defence would have been as inefminated to succeed him. This was fectual as they were feeble, if Buean imprudent choice after the battle naparte had not thought it of more of Rio Seco, and the subsequent con- importance at this time to drive the duct of this general ; but at a time English out of Spain, than to pursue when the cry of treachery once raised his victories in the south. He reagainst a commander was sufficient called a large proportion of the troops to break up an army, it was an ob- from that quarter, to bring them ject of considerable importance to against Sir John Moore, and the die find a leader in whom the men would version which was thus occasioned have confidence ; and as they called enabled the Spaniards to form anofor Cuesta, that circumstance in ther army, and recover Estremadura. some degree justifies the government Calamitous as the retreat of the Engfor giving him the command. At lish was, it produced this good. Forthis moment the whole of Estrema- tunately, too, for the character of dura to the very walls of Badajoz Great Britain, the British governwas open to the enemy, and the cen- ment entertained more generous hopes tral junta trembled for Seville. Bri- and acted upon wiser views than its gadier Don Josef Serrano Valdene. general, and at the very time when bro was sent with as many men as he it might have appeared by his move. could collect to guard Santa Olaya ment

that Spain was to be abandon. and El Ronquillo, in the western ed to its fate, a treaty of alliance was passes of the Sierra Morena, and co- concluded with the Spanish nation operate with Cuesta in covering An.

CHAP. XIX.

Treaty with Spain. Affairs in that country after the Embarkation of the

English. Coruna and Ferrol surrendered to the French. Alarm at Lisbon. Excellent Conduct of Sir Robert Wilson. Morla's Intrigues at Cadiz. Firmness of the Supreme Junta. They send Deputies into the Provinces. Siege and Capture of Rosas by the Enemy.

Happily for the interests of Eng: course of the late wars in which they land, and for its honour, which of all had been engaged against each other. interests is the most momentous, the His Britannic Majesty engaged to ministry entertained wiser opinions, continue to assist the Spanish nation and better feelings, with regard to in their struggle to the utmost of his Spain, than either Sir John Moore power, and promised not to acknowor the opposition. At the very time ledge any other King of Spain, and when the Spaniards had sustained the of the Indies thereunto appertaining, heaviest losses, and our own army than Ferdinand VII., his heirs, or was known to be in full retreat, a such lawful successor as the Spanish treaty was signed at London between nation should acknowledge ; and the Great Britain and the Spanish na- Spanish government engaged, on the tion acting in the name of Ferdi. behalf of Ferdinand, never, in any nand. It proclaimed, in the name of case, to cede to France any portion the most holy and undivided Trinity, of the territories or possessions of the a Christian, stable, and inviolable Spanish monarchy in any part of the peace between the two countries, a world. The contracting parties bound perpetual and sincere amity, and a themselves to make common cause strict alliance during the war with against France, and not to make France; and it pronounced an entire peace except by common consent. and lasting oblivion * of all acts of It was agreed by an additional artihostility done on either side in the cle, that as the existing circumstances

* “ This," said Mr Canning, (dispatch to Marquis Wellesley of June 27, 1809,) " though an ordinary stipulation in treaties of peace, was peculiarly desirable in this. from the remembrance and resentment which were understood to be cherished by some of the leading statesmen in Spain with respect to the manner in which the last war was begun ;-a transaction entirely justifiable under its circumstances, but of which, in the actual relation of the two countries, it was undoubtedly more advisable to avoid the discusssion, than to establish the ety.”- In quoting this extract, the writer of these annals must not be understood as in any degree assenting 10 Mr Canning's opinion of the transaction alluded to.

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