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stancy and ardent patriotism : That up, relating the most heroic circumevery officer employed in the siege stances of the two sieges, and a meshould be promoted one step, and dal be struck in its honour, as a tesevery private soldier enjoy the rank timony of national gratitude for such and the pay of serjeant : That all eminent services. Finally, the junta the defenders of Zaragoza, and its promised the same honours and priinhabitants, and their heirs, should vileges to every city which should enjoy personal nobility: That pen- resist a like siege with like constansions, conformable to their rank and cy, and proposed rewards for the best circumstances, should be granted to poem and best discourse upon this the widows and orphans of all who memorable event; the object being had perished there : That the having not only to hold up the virtues of been within the walls during the siege the Zaragozans to the present geneshould be considered as a claim in ration and to posterity, but to infuture pretensions : That Zaragoza flame the hearts of the Spaniards with should be exempt from all contribu. the same ardent patriotism, the same tions for ten years, from the time love of freedom, and the same abwhen peace should be established; horrence of tyranny." and that at that time the rebuilding « The narrative of these two sieof the public edifices, with all possi, ges," says our eloquent Wordsworth, ble magnificence, should be begun at should be the manual of every Spa. the expence of the state, and a mo- niard; he may add to it the ancient nument erected in the square of the stories of Numantia and Saguntum : city, in perpetual memory of the va. Let him sleep upon the book as a lour of the inhabitants and their glo- pillow; and, if he be a devout adherious defence : That in the squares rent to the religion of his country, of all the cities of the kingdom an let him wear it in his bosom, for his inscription should forthwith be set crucifix to rest upon.”

CHAP. XXI.

Proceedings of Buonaparte at Madrid and Valladolid. The Intruder enters

the Capital. The Central Army retires into Valencia. Advance of Cuesta in Estremadura. Cruelty and horrible Crimes of the French. State of Affairs at Cadiz; Discussions concerning the Admission of British Troops.

BEFORE Buonaparte left Madrid to mities. I have accomplished what I march against Sir John Moore, an owed to myself and my nation. Venaddress, framed by the traitors of geance has had its due. It has fallen that city, in the name of the magi- upon ten of the principal culprits ; stracy and citizens, was presented to all the rest have entire and absolute him by the corregidor. In the ab- forgiveness.” Doubtless Spain will ject language of submission and ser- preserve the names of these men, who vility they thanked him for his gra- signalized themselves in her cause so cious clemency, for thinking, in the as to be selected for martyrdom by midst of conquest, of the safety and the murderous Corsican, and deemed welfare of the conquered inhabitants, worthy of his invectives,—the best and for his forgiveness of all that had eulogium of a Spaniard's virtue. Then occurred during the absence of their he enumerated the reforms by which king, Joseph ; and they intreated him he hoped to reconcile the nation to that it might please him to grant them a foreign yoke : “ I have preserved the favour of seeing King Joseph in the spiritual orders, but with a lie Madrid, that under his laws Madrid, mitation of the number of monks. with all the places under its immédi. Those of them who are influenced by ate jurisdiction, and the whole of a divine call shall remain in their Spain, might at length enjoy that cloisters ; with regard to those whose tranquillity and happiness which they call was doubtful, or influenced by expected from the benevolence of their worldly considerations, I have fixed new sovereign's character.

their condition in the order of secular To this address the tyrant replied priests. Out of the surplus of the by one of his characteristic harangues. monastic property I have provided “'I am pleased,” he said, " with the for the maintenance of the pastors, sentiments of the city of Madrid. I thát important and useful class of the regret the injuries she has suffered, clergy. I have abolished that court and am particularly happy that, un- which was a subject of complaint to der existing circumstances, I have Europe and the present age: Priests been able to effect her deliverance, may guide the minds of men, but and to protect her from great cala- must exercise no temporal or corporal jurisdiction over the citizens. I the king be not assured of their athave abolished those privileges which tachment and fidelity. The Bour. the grandees usurped during times of bons can no longer reign in Europe. civil war. I have abolished the feu. The divisions of the royal family dal rights, and henceforth every one. were contrived by the English. It may set up inns, ovens, mills, employ was not the dethronement of King himself in fishing and rabbit-hunting, Charles and of the favourite, that the and give free scope to his industry, Duke del Infantado, that tool of provided he respects the laws and England, had in view. The intenregulations of the police. The sel- tion was, to establish the predomifishness, wealth, and prosperity of a nant influence of England in Spain ; small number of individuals were more a senseless project, the result of which injurious to your agriculture than the would have been a perpetual contiheat of the Dog-days. All peculiar nental war, that would have caused jurisdictions were usurpations, and at torrents of blood. No power under variance with the rights of the na- the influence of England can exist on tion. I have abolished them. As the continent. If there be any that there is but one God, so should there entertain such a wish, their wish is be in a state but one judicial power.” absurd, and will sooner or later occaThis is not the whole of the deduc- sion their fall. It would be easy for tion which the tyrant would make me; should I be compelled to adopt from the unity of that God, whose that measure, to govern Spain, by name he never utters but to outrage, establishing as many viceroys in it as and whose vengeance, sooner or later, there are provinces. Nevertheless, I will overtake him. There is but one do not refuse to abdicate my rights God, and Napoleon is his representa- of conquest in favour of the king, tive; this is the creed which this and to establish him in Madrid, as political Mahommed hints at himself, soon as the 30,000 citizens which this and suffers his infidel bishops and his capital contains, the clergy, nobility, Aatterers to proclaim. Fool that he merchants, and lawyers shall have deis ! to be omniscient is the necessary clared their sentiments and their fidecondition of omnipotence, and the lity, set an example to the provinces, Spaniards, who had proved him fal- enlightened the people, and made the lible, had already set limits to his nation sensible that their existence power.

and prosperity essentially depend up“ There is no obstacle," he conti- on a king and a free constitution, fanued, " which can long resist the vourable to the people, and hostile execution of my resolutions. But only to the egotism and haughty what transcends my power is this, to passions of the grandees. consolidate the Spaniards as one na

" If such be the sentiments of the tion, under the sway of the king, inhabitants of the city of Madrid, let should they continue to be affected the 30,000 citizens assemble in the with those principles of hatred to churches ; let them, in the presence France which the partizans of Eng- of the holy Sacrament, take an oath, land and the enemies of the continent not only with their mouths, but also have infused into the bosom of Spain. with their hearts, and without any I can establish no nation, no king, jesuitical equivocation, that they pro no independence of the Spaniards, if mise support, attachment, and fidelity VOL. II. PART 1.

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to their king ; let the priests in the been burnt, in the bones which were confessional and the pulpit, the mer. bleaching upon the mountains of Bis. cantile class in their correspondence, cay, and in the bodies, French and the men of law in their writings and Spaniard, which were at that hour speeches, infuse these sentiments into floating down the tainted Ebro! Here, the people :—then shall I surrender in Madrid, their choice had been my right of conquest, place the king recorded ; the thousands who had upon the throne, and make it my been swept down by grape-shot in its pleasing task to conduct myself as a streets, or bayonetted in the houses, true friend of the Spaniards. The they who had fallen in the heat of present generation may differ in their battle before its gates, and they who opinions; the passions have been too in cold blood had been sent in drover much brought into action ; but your to execution, alike had borne witness grand-children will bless me as their to that choice, and confirmed it with renovator; they will reckon the day their lives, and rejoiced in it with when I appeared among you among their dying breath. And this tyrant their memorable festivals; and from called upon the people of Madrių that day will the happiness of Spain now to make their choice, now that date its commencement.

their armies were dispersed, and they “ Thus,” he concluded, address- themselves, betrayed and disarmed, ing himself to the corregidor, "Fou were surrounded by his legions!_Re are informed of the whole of my de. gisters were opened in every quarter, termination. Consult with your fel. and, if the French accounts could be low citizens, and consider what part believed, 30,000 fathers of families you will chuse ; but whatever it be, rushed thither in crowds, and signed make your choice with sincerity, and a supplication to the conqueror, entell me only your genuine sentiments.” treating him to put an end to their There was something more prepos- misfortunes, by granting them his terous, more detestable, in this affec. august brother Joseph for their king. tation of candour and generosity than if this impossible eagerness had really in his open and insolent violence. been manifested, it could admit of no “ Consult! and consider what part other solution than that the people you will chuse, and make your choice of Madrid, bitterly as they detested with sincerity!"-The tyrant might and heartily as they despised Joseph have known that the Spanish nation Buonaparte, yet thought it a less evil had made their choice; they had made to be governed by him than by the it at Baylen and at Reynosa, at Cadiz tyrant himself,—for this was the aland at Madrid, at Valencia and at ternative which was held up in terror. Zaragoza; for life or for death, delibe. But a census of this kind, as it is rately, and yet as if with one impulse, called, like those which coloured Buowith enthusiasm, and yet calmly, had naparte's assumption, first of the conthat poble nation nobly, and wisely, sulship for life, and then of an hereand religiously made their heroic ditary throne, was easily procured, choice. They had written it in blood, when neither threats, nor persuasions, their own and their oppressors' ; its nor fraud, nor violence were spared. proofs were to be seen in deserted. While this mockery of election was houses and depopulated towns, in the going on, Buonaparte departed from Blackened walls of hamlets which had Madrid to proceed against the Eng. lish. A formidable army was left to either to the pursuing army, under overawe the metropolis, consisting of Soult, or to the divisions at Madrid.. the corps of Marshals Lefebvre and Here he received dispatchVictor, (Dukes of Dantzic and Bel. es, and addresses from all Jan. 16.luno,) and three divisions of cavalry; the councils, orders, and in the whole not less than 50,000 corporate bodies of the metropolis, men, subject to the orders of Joseph, couched in abject terms, and all soliwho had not however yet entered citing that they might be favoured that city. The votes, as they were with the presence of their king. From denominated, were collected with in the commencement of the revolution, solent formality, and oppression was the higher ranks in Madrid had shewn aggravated by impiety; the host was themselves as deficient in public as, elevated in all the churches, and the they had long been in private virtue. priests compelled to receive from their Not an individual in the capital who countrymen at the altar a compulsory was distinguished for rank, or power, cath of allegiance to the intruder. Yet or riches, had stood forward in the even under these circumstances a body patriotic cause ; sq fallacious is the of the people assembled, when they opinion that those persons will be were called upon to swear, and asked most zealous in the defence of their whether they were to swear to Ferdi- country who have what is called the nand; for to him they had taken the largest stake in it. The council of oaths, and to none but him would they state, by a deputy, expressed its hoswear allegiance. It was judged more mage of thanks for the generous, cle.. politic to let this display of patriotic mency of the conqueror. “ What. feeling pass unnoticed, than to give gratitude," said he,“ does it not owe: it publicity by punishment. The ce- you for having snatched Spain from

remony of voting was de- the influence of those destructive counDec. 23. layed till Buonaparte's de- cils which fifty years of misfortune

parture, “because,” said had prepared for it; for having rid the French journalists, " a suspicion it of the English armies, who threatof fear might else have attached to ened to fix upon its territories the it; the act was now the more noble, theatre of continental war, and to in. as being entirely free, as being con- fict upon it the disorders and the firmed by the most weighty consider. ravages which are usually in its train; ations by which a people can be in- grateful for all these benefits, the fluenced, their interest, their happi- council of state has still another supness, and their glory.” Such was plication to lay at the feet of your the absurd language by which, while majesty.. Deign, sire, to commit to all authentic information was prohi, our loyalty your august brother, our bited, the better part of the French lord and king. Permit him to renation were insulted, and the unre. enter Madrid, and to take into his lecting deceived.

hands the reins of government ; so Having seen the English general that under the benevolent sway of this abandon the defence of Galicia, and august prince, whose mildness, wisturn his army into a rout, Buonaparte dom, and justice are known to all turned back from Astorga to Valla. Europe, our widowed and desolate dolid, a well-chosen station, from monarchy may find a father in the where he might send reinforcements best of kings." D. Bernardo Yriarte

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