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excite suspicions of Great Britain. thorities at Cadiz. They recalled Under the influence of this feeling, Sir George Smith, and assured the they obstinately opposed a measure junta that no such separate or secret whích they did not think otherwise commission, as they apprehended to objectionable, but which they oppo. have been given to him, ever had sed the more firmly because they did been, or ever would be, entrusted to not perceive that it was in any

officer
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person ; and that gree necessary. The English minis- it never could be in the contemplatry on their part wanted a point of tion of the English government to defence against the opposition, who, select any other channel of commu. as they omitted no means of wound. nication than the King's accredited ing the pride and calumniating the minister, in a transaction of such imcharacter of the Spaniards, were con- portance, much less to engage in such tinually saying that they did not de-a transaction without the entire consire our assistance, and that they had sent and concurrence of the Spanish ao confidence in us. It was against government. They dispatched orthis party at home that Cadiz was ders after General Sherbrooke, diwanted as a point of defence, not as recting him to proceed to Lisbon ina point of retreat upon a coast where stead of Cadiz ; and, as the plans prowe possessed Gibraltar, and where posed by the junta for the employ. also we were sure of the disposition ment of the British troops were not of the people in Cadiz itself, what. deemed advisable, government having ever might be the conduct of its go. uniformly refused to parcel out their vernor. The governor at Coruna army into small detachments, to be had failed in his duty, but still the annexed to the different Spanish arembarkation of the English was pro- mies, and to act under Spanish genetected by that fortress.

rals, they determined to augment the Mr Frere concluded this unplea- force in Portugal to an amount suffi. sant transaction according to his own cient for the protection of that counjudgement. He had the satisfaction try, the defence of which was so esof finding that the ministry perfectly sential to the safety of the whole pe. accorded with him. They sent him ninsula. Nevertheless, if at any time Sir George Smith's instructions, au- the junta should require a British thorising him, if he thought proper, force for the actual garrison of Cato communicate them to the supreme diz, Mr Frere was authorised to send junta, that they might see the step to Lisbon for that purpose, and the which that officer had taken was not commanding officer there was ordered to have been taken except at the di- to comply with his requisition. rect solicitation of the Spanish au

CHAP. XXII.

Disturbances at Cadiz. State of the War in Catalonia. Death of Reding,

Miquelets. Success of the Duke of Albuquerque. Cuesta defeated at Medellin. Exertions of the Junta after that Defeat.

While the question of admitting wanted defenders, it could by none be English troops into Cadiz was dis- so faithfully defended as by its own cussed at Seville, Cadiz itself be- children, determined to oppose both came the scene of an insurrection, in these measures by force of arms, and which the popular feeling in favour on the morning of the 22d of Februof the English was unequivocally ex. ary they broke out in insurrection. pressed. The people of this great Their first act of violence was to city were dissatisfied with the con- seize a courier charged with dispatch. duct of the central junta ; they com- es from the junta to the Marquis of plained that, instead of informing Villel, a member of that body, and them of the true state of affairs, their its representative in this important government affected to keep them in fortress. The marquis had rendered ignorance ; and having been so villain- himself suspected by setting many ously deceived by Morla, the slightest persons at liberty who were confined circumstance sufficed to make them on account of their supposed attachsuspect any one who had the means ment to the French, and by imposing of betraying them. A corps of fo. some injudicious restrictions upon the reign troops had enlisted into the Spa- public amusements, which, by allunish service from the prisoners taken sions to the existing state of things, at Baylen; they consisted chiefly of and by calling forth popular applause Poles and Germans, men who in ge. and acclamation at patriotic sentineral would assuredly fight with a ments, contributed to keep up the better heart against Buonaparte than public spirit. The Spanish governfor him, but who in this instance were ment dreaded these ebullitions of ge. more suspicious than if they had de- nerous feeling; their hatred of the serted from the French armies, be. French was counteracted by their fear cause they had enlisted to escape con- of jacobinism, and rather than permit finement. This corps was now ordered the outward and visible signs of lito do garrison duty at Cadiz ; while, berty, it seemed as if they would at the same time, the volunteers of more willingly have extinguished the that city and of Port St Mary's were inward and spiritual grace. Acting to be drafted to other parts. But upon this system, the Marquis of the people, thinking that if Cadiz Villel had proceeded, it is said, with

such unwarrantable severity, that he sence of the governor and the prinhad even committed some women of cipal capuchin friars, distinctly derespectable rank to the house of in- clared, that the British troops would dustry, and threatened others with the by no means interfere in any thing same scandalous punishment. This that related to the domestic and in. circumstance excited the highest in- ternal concerns of the people, but dignation in the people; they seized that they were ready to assist in dehim, and were dragging him to the fending the town against the common public jail, where, if he had arrived enemy to the last extremity. This alive, it is little probable that he would was repeated to the people, and it long have been protected from popu- seemed for a time to allay their agilar fury. Fortunately P. Moguer, tation. In the course of a few hours, a capuchin friar, possessed influence however, they again became tumultuenough with the people to save him. ous; still an opinion prevailed that He persuaded them to commit him they were betrayed, and that meato the capuchin convent, where he sures were secretly arranged by the might be securely guarded, and pled. persons at the head of affairs for de. ged himself to produce his person to livering up Cadiz to the French. suffer condign punishment, if any They called for the dismissal of those proofs of treason, discovered either whom they most vehemently suspect. among his papers or by any other ed, and they required that two Bri. means, should be brought home to tish officers should be appointed to him.

inspect the fortifications, jointly with • As soon as General Mackenzie was two Spanish officers, and to superininformed of the tumult, he sent or- tend and direct the preparations for ders to the ships, forbidding all offi- defence. As soon as this was reportcers who were on board to come on ed to General Mackenzie, he immeshore, and all who were already in diately deputed two officers for that the town were directed not to inter- purpose ; and all those of his staff fere in any manner with the people. accompanied the most active and poLuckily the confidence of the peo. pular of the friars to a balcony, from ple was possessed by the governor, which they harangued the people, Don Felix Jones, and in a still great- assuring them of the co-operation of er degree by the guardian of the ca. the British troops and the support puchins, Fr. Mariano de Sevilla. The of the British nation, and 'frequently former represented to Gen. Macken- appealing to the British officers to zie, that it would tend greatly to the confirm by their own voices the pledre-establishment of tranquillity if a ges given in their name and in their distinct assurance were given that the presence. This perfectly satisfied the English would take no part in the populace, and they dispersed with loud tumult; for they had been called huzzas, in honour of King George upon by the people to land and assist and King Ferdinand. them against the traitors who were On the following morning the goplotting against the cause of both vernor issued a proclamation, in which, countries. Accordingly the British considering the discontents which had general sent his aid-de-camp, with been manifested and the disturbances some other officers who could speak which had taken place, “ and keepthe language, and they, in the pre-ing in mind,” he said, “ the loyalty

and patriotism of the inhabitants at them on to excesses which might be all tinies, but particularly under the represented as a disgrace to the papresent circumstances, and the good triotic cause. General Caraffa, who and signal services which they had had been second in command of the done and daily were doing, at the Spanish troops in Portugal, was conhazard of their lives and fortunes, in fined in the castle of Catalina, under support of the good cause, he dis- a charge of misconduct or treachery, missed from their office four persons with the viceroy of Mexico and other whose discharge had been loudly de- prisoners, who had been sent home manded; and declared also, that if from New Spain. The mob prothe people wished to have the junta ceeded there, and demanded the priof Cadiz suppressed, their desire soners, that they might put them to should immediately be fulfilled. He death. Colonel Roche, who had just assured them that no foreign troops arrived from Seville with another Engshould be admitted ; but that officers lish officer, interposed, addressed the of their intimate and faithful ally the people, and succeeded in dissuading British nation were invited to exa. them from their purpose. But shortly mine the posts and works of the city afterwards they fell in with Don Joand its dependencies, and that every seph de Heredia, a particular object thing necessary for its defence should of their suspicion, who that very day be concerted with them. He pro. had at their demand been dismissed mised also that the papers of the from his office of collector of the Marquis de Villel should be regu- public rents. He was stepping into larly examined without delay; that a boat to make his escape to Port St there should be no longer any cause Mary's: the attempt at flight cost of complaint respecting the ignorance him his life, and he was killed upon in which the people were kept of the spot. The popular fury seemed public affairs, for that whatever oc- now to have spent itself, and the curred should punctually and faith- clergy and the friars, who throughfully be made public ; that the en- out the whole insurrection had indelistment of the inhabitants for the fatigably exerted themselves in en. provincial regiment of Ciudad Rodri- deavouring to pacify the people, and go should cease till further consider- protect the victims who were threatation ; and that no part of the volun- ened, succeeded in 'restoring peace. teers, the light troops, and companies To have attempted to quell the mob of artillery should be ordered away." by force would have occasioned great Notwithstanding the popularity of bloodshed, for they had got posses. Don Felix Jones, it was thought ad. sion of arms and of the park of arvisable that this proclamation should tillery. be countersigned by the guardian of Fifty of the mob, who had been the capuching.

most conspicuous for their violence, Still the tumult continued. It is were seized by the volunteers of Ca. said, and the thing itself is every way diz, and imprisoned. The central probable, that the French had emis- junta addressed a proclamation to the saries in the town ready to excite people of that city, reprehending insurrection, for the purpose of over- them with dignified severity for the throwing the existing government, manner in which they had manifested to aggravate the people, and instigate their patriotic zeal. « It was ab

surd,” they said, “ to apprehend dan- The junta then warned them to be. ger in so populous, so loyal, so brave ware of the insidious arts of the enea city from a single battalion of fo. my. “ It is not,” said they, “ the reigners, even if there could be any traitors who Aed with the French and reason to doubt the fidelity of Poles returned with them who do most inand Germans, who had been forcibly jury to their country ; but it is the dragged into Spain, and were in every obscure agitators, hired by them or quarter deserting from the flag under by the tyrant, who abuse the confi. which they had been compelled to dence and mislead the patriotism of march. Neither had the Marquis de the people. It is they who, deviating Villel any part in this obnoxious mea- from the true point of union, the go. sure,-a measure in itself so unobjec. vernment, disseminating distrust and tionable, that when the people coolly suspicion, lead you through crooked reflected they would blush to have and guilty paths to the precipice, and been alarmed at it. As little reason to subjugation ; it is they who invert was there for their suspicion of the the social order, convert loyalty into marquis. His voluminous papers rage, and zeal into sedition. The were now before the junta, and no. junta have proofs enough of these in. thing was expressed in them but zeal fernal machinations in the intelligence for the welfare of the country, and which they receive every day, and in diligence to promote all means for the correspondence which they interthe security and defence of Cadiz. cept.” But, notwithstanding the Let the state of those meang before government declared its persuasion of his arrival be compared with the works the innocence of the Marquis de Villel, projected and executed since. True it was not thought proper completely it was, he might have erred in the to exculpate him without such farther means which he adopted ; the junta inquiry as might satisfy the people. was far from ascribing infallibility to This proclamation, therefore, announits members. But had the people no ced that a commission would be apother way of manifesting their disap- pointed to examine his conduct, and probation than by a popular tumult? that it would not be composed of No one came to the junta to complain members of the central junta, in order of the marquis's conduct ; no one to avoid all shadow of partiality in an informed them that their commission. affair so serious. “ Any person,” ers at Cadiz had lost the love and said the junta, “ shall be heard who confidence of the people. Some ano- desires to accuse him of treachery or nymous letters only had reached the malversation, and the sentence will government, some on one side, some be adjudged according to law. He on the other, but all contemptible in himself demands in justice of the the eye of equity and sound policy: junta that this may be done ; his hoBut what was the course which would nour, the estimation of the governhave become the open and generous ment, and the public satisfaction, necharacter of the Spaniards ? To have cessarily prescribe it. If the marquis made their complaint frankly and no- be culpable, he shall be punished in bly to the government, and the go- proportion to his abuse of the high vernment would have done them jus- functions and national confidence tice. Sedition was a resource as low which he has enjoyed; but if he be as it was dangerous and fatal.” declared innocent, it is necessary that

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