tempted, by the most atrocious means, died of the fatigue which they suf. to terrify and keep them down. On fered from being incessantly harassed, the 7th of March, a body of these and kept night and day on the alarm. ruffians entered the little towns of The bulletins had fixed Soult's ar. Carril and Villa Garcia, murdered rival at Lisbon for the end of Fe. some old men and women in the bruary. It was not however till the streets, set fire to the houses of those beginning of the following month persons whom they suspected of be that he began his march. The Minho ing patriots, and then retreated to was to be crossed ; there is no bridge Padron. To lay waste villages with over it in any part where it forms the fire, to abandon the women to the boundary line between the two kingsoldiery, to put to death every man doms, and it is never fordable but at whom they took in arms, was the one spot, above Melgaco, and then system upon which Ney and Soult only after an unusual continuance of proceeded, in conformity to the orders dry weather. Soult wished to cross of Buonaparte. Such a system, if it without ascending the whole way to failed to intimidate, necessarily re. Orense, which is about four-and-forty coiled

upon their own heads ; and the miles from Tuy, and the best place thirst of vengeance gave a character seemed at its mouth, in defiance of the of desperation to the courage of the old frontier fortress of Caminha. The Galicians. A party of 105 French works, originally* ill-planned and illwere pillaging a convent, when Don situated, had long been neglected, Bernardo Gonzalez, with two-and- and though there were still a few thirty Spaniards, fell upon them, and guns mounted, the French, despising did such execution while the enemy both the place and the enemy, prewere in disorder and encumbered with ferred crossing in the face of this fortheir plunder, that only sixteen of tress to the delay and fatigue of gothem escaped. During three days ing round. In order, however, to the French attempted to destroy the deceive the Portugueze garrison, the peasants of Deza and Trasdira; the troops were entirely withdrawn from men of Banos and Tabieros came to the opposite bank, making a feint of aid their countrymen, and the inva- marching up the stream. Boats meanders at length retreated with the loss time had been collected at the neigh

of 114 men. A party bouring fishing town, La Guardia ; March 9. from Pontevedra entered they were brought over land to the

Marin : here the Lively most convenient point of embarkation, and the Plover opened their fire upon and soldiers enough to storm the ruin. them, and as they fled from the Eng- ous works of Caminha attempted the lish ships, their officers fell into the passage. But the Portugueze had "hands of the peasantry. In this kind not been duped into any remissness of of perpetual war the French were their duty; they opened an effectual wasted; a malignant fever broke out fire from a few guns ; some of the among them, which raged particu- boats were sunk, one reached the left larly at their head-quarters in San- bank with thirty-eight men and two tiago, and many who had no discase officers, who were immediately made

Dumouriez says, il semble qu'on se soit ingenić a faire de cette place un chef d'æuore d'absurdité suvante.

prisoners. The rest returned to the portion of the slain must in like manGalician shore.

ner be reduced. Having pursued the Thus baffled in his attempt, Mar- patriots one day, Soult turned back shal Soult ascended the right bank of to pursue the original object of his the Minho, and crossed by the bridge expedition, and on the 13th he apat Orense on the 6th of March. This peared before Chaves, the Aquæ line of route brought him near Ro- Flaviæ of the Romans, so named be. mana, to whose outposts he sent a cause of its hot springs, and in hotrumpeter, requesting permission for nour of its founder Vespasian. The an officer to pass with a letter to baths, when flattery in course of nathe Marquis. It was granted; and, ture was out of date, supplanted the incautiously, the Spaniards suffered memory of the emperor, and the place the Frenchman to pass without ha- obtained the more appropriate name ving blindfolded him. Soult had se- of Aquæ Calidz, which in process of lected an intelligent officer, whose time was abbreviated and corrupted real object was to survey the position into Chaves. The hot springs are in of the patriots, the letter being no. a place called the Tabolado, between thing more than an offer to the Mar. the walls and the river Tamega ; they quis of honours and employment in are said to be more efficacious than the intruder's name, if he would re. any others in Portugal, but the build. cognize him as king, and deliver up ings which formerly served to accomhis army. Romana only glanced at modate invalids who came to derive the contents, and ordered the French. benefit from these waters, were de. man to tell his general, that the only molished towards the close of the answer he could give to such propo- seventeenth century, in order that the sals, was from the mouth of the can- guns might command the approach non. Soult, however, had effected on that side without impediment. his purpose, and the next day making The Count de Mesquitella, by whose a desperate charge on the right of orders this was done, has been centhe Spanish troops, who were posted sured for it, as having committed a to the south-east of Monterey, on certain mischief for the sake of a fri. the heights of Orsona, he bore every volous precaution. It is the frontier thing before him. Romana himself town of Portugal, opposite to Mon. narrowly escaped being made pri- terey, and when war was carried on soner, part of his baggage was taken, upon a less extensive scale, was conand great part of that of the army. sidered as an important post. The The loss of men was not great. It walls were now broken in many plawas boasted in the bulletin, that 2000 ces; the citadel indeed was in better were made prisoners, and the whole repair, but both this and the town are of the rear guard, consisting of 3000, commanded from several points, and destroyed, in a series of actions at at short distances. The Portugueze Inzo, Allarez, and Osono. In rea- general, Francisco de Silveira, was lity the number of prisoners did not stationed here with about 3000 regu. exceed 300, nearly 200 of whom ef- lar troops, and a body of militia and fected their escape, and joined the peasantry, who were armed chiefly Spanish army at Sanabria, to which with pikes and fowling-pieces ; but, place Romana retreated. * The pro- knowing that the place was untena.

* This is affirmed upon authentic information,

ble, and how ill Portugal could af- passes, or taking advantage of the ford the loss of this little army, he nature of the country, retreated to retreated, on the approach of the Braga, the situation and old walls of French, five leagues, to Villa Pouca. which afforded nothing favourable for An outcry was raised against him for defence. This measure occasioned a this movement, and he was accused general alarm ; peasantry from all of treason : Rash men, whose patriot. parts came flocking in, some retreatism had neither judgement to guide, ing before the French, some hastennor virtue to sustain it, joined in the ing to meet them,-some armed with clamour with those agitators who pikes,—those who had fowling-pieces were in the service of the French ; looking for ammunition,—all eager and some of the militia and of the to be embodied and led against the peasantry were persuaded by them, enemy. The city and its vicinity in contempt of Silveira's orders, tó

were in an uproar ; and the people, remain in the town and undertake its seeing that no measures of resistance defence. Had the character of this were taken, became clamorous. The general been any way doubtful, and armed inhabitants waited upon Freire, had he been less esteemed and less be. and requested that he would lead loved by the soldiers, there can be them out, and resist the progress of little doubt but that he would have the enemy in the mountains. He fallen a sacrifice to unjust suspicion. replied, it would be madness to at.

The show of defence which was tack them in the passes, but that he made at Chaves induced Soult to in- had prepared every thing, and would vest it. By this time the men, who, give them battle in due time and in violation of discipline, had chosen place. Such an answer would not to remain there, grew cool ; they per- satisfy men who saw no preparations ceived that the placé was untenable; except what they themselves had made. and surrendered on the third day A cry went forth that ammunition

without having fired a had been refused to those who had March 15. shot. The French then fire-arms ; and presently it was disco.

proceeded towards Bra- vered that cartridges had not been ga. • Between this city and the fron- served to the soldiers. At this the tier there is some of the most defen- fury of the people became ungoverosible ground in the whole kingdom, able; no longer doubting that they and here Bernardino Freire de An- were betrayed by the governor, the drade, the governor-general of the pikemen attacked his house : It was northern provinces, had stationed him. in vain that his guards resisted them ; self with a few regular troops and a they forced their way, and Freire and great number of peasantry, men as his aid-de-camp were put to death brave and as patriotic as the best ge- upon the spot. One of his secretaneral could desire, but totally undis. ries, after having received several ciplined, though the example of Sir stabs, cried for mercy, and promised Robert Wilson proves that there had to confess the whole treason. In conbeen sufficient time to discipline men sequence of the dying man's declaraso zealous and so docile. No sooner tion, the Marquis de Loule and three was it known that the French were other nobles were displaced from approaching the frontiers,than Freire, their commands, arrested, and sent instead of attempting to defend the prisoners to Lisbon ; for the people repressed their fury, believing that on him, therefore, they conferred the they had obtained legal proofs against command by acclamation, and under them. It was said that the secretary such circumstances there was no al. discovered where ammunition had ternative but to accept it. They inbeen buried, and also gave up two sisted that he should lead them against papers containing the terms of agree. the enemy. He advanced therefore ment between Freire and the French; to Carvalho d'Este, a strong position but it is hardly possible that either a few leagues from the city, and there, of these charges can be true. Am. during three successive days, he remunition could not be buried with. pelled the attacks which Soult made out a great number of accomplices to dislodge him. This he effected and the most imminent risk of disco- principally by the excellent conduct very, and it is not to be believed that of his own battalion, which consisted any man would keep in his own pos- of not more than 600 effective men. session written proofs of his own trea. But these were all upon whom he son, which, till it was accomplished, could rely. However well the armendangered his ruin, and after it was ed inhabitants of Braga and the peaaccomplished, could be of no advan- santry were disposed to second him, tage to him. Freire's guilt, how. they were altogether without discipever, seems to have been admitted by line, nor had he officers enough to dithe Portugueze government. His rect their exertions. On whole conduct toward Sir Arthur the fourth day, Soult's March 19. Wellesley shews him to have been a artillery forced the pass, weak and presumptuous man; and the peasantry, fled, and Baron D'. perhaps the mortification which he Eben with his battalion and some few felt when he found himself treated as regulars and militia, made an orderly such, made him lend a readier ear to the retreat to Porto. insinuations of the French, and devote This was related in France as a himself more willingly to their service. victory over 20,000 Portugueze, who

Baron D’Eben, a major in the Eng- lost 6000 men and all their artillery! lish service, and equerry to the Prince It left indeed the road to Porto open: of Wales, was at that time in Braga. But, though the distance between that He commanded the second battalion city and Braga is only two-and-thirty of Sir Robert Wilson's legion, and miles, five days elapsed before the had been left by him at Porto, with French arrived there, so perpetually instructions to follow from thence ; were they harassed and impeded by but afterwards his instructions had an enemy who kept the country been changed, in consequence of the against them, though they could not apprehended attack on The northern resist them in battle. No sooner provinces, and he was sent to act un- was Silveira assured of their advance, der Freire with what force could be than he hastened back from Villa collected at Porto. The people had Pouca with his little army, and apfull confidence in him as a British of. peared before Chaves. Soult had left ficer,--for in every part of Portugal about 1300 men here, including his the British character is known and sick; and here he thought he had seloved, and they had proofs of his abi- cured his Spanish prisoners, 114 in lities in the state of discipline to number, being all that he had brought which he had brought his men. Up- away from his boasted victories over


Romana. The French thinking it more violent agitation. Their first impulse casy to beat the Portugueze in battle, was to take vengeance than defend against them the walls of upon their own traitor- March 21. a town where the people would take ous countrymen. They part with the assailants, advanced to killed a major whom they suspected, meet them; but superiority of dis- and on the following day, breaking cipline was of little avail in the ma- open the prison where Oliveira, their nagement of so small a body, and the former governor, was confined, they Portugueze had the advantage in put him to death with their knives,

number. About 600 of took out fourteen other partizans of March 21. the invaders were killed the enemy and shot them, then drag.

or wounded, and the re- ged the bodies through the streets, mainder took shelter in the citadel and threw them into the Douro. Howcalled Fort St Francisco: the place ever culpable such excesses may be, the was not stored for defence, and the chief blame lay in the government for French general, Messinger, with the having suffered these men to lie so long remainder of his detachment, was in prison, instead of bringing them to compelled to surrender prisoners of trial, and acquitting or sentencing them

Silveira then followed the to death or banishment according to French army, and harassed their rear, their deserts. Porto was ill prepa. till they approached Porto, then he red for defence; the people had hastook post at the bridge of Amarante, tily thrown up a cordon of detached upon the Tamega, a strong and im- batteries round the town and suburbs, portant position. Antiquarians have ill-constructed, injudiciously placed, endeavoured to prove.

that this bridge and the line was so extensive, that an was the work of Trajan ; but a tradi- army of sixty thousand men would tion too long established, and too fond- have been necessary to defend it, ly believed to be shaken by any histori- Captain Von Arenschild, an artillery cal arguments, has ascribed its foun. officer of the German legion, arri. dation to St Gonzalo de Amarante, a ved in time to remedy some of these saint, who, having taken up his abode defects, and erect other works which, there in a hermitage, and commisera- if there had been troops to defend ting the numerous accidents that hap. them, might have saved the town, pened in passing the river, determined There were men enough, as brave, as to build a bridge. The alms which he ardent, and as full of hatred for the obtained would have fallen short of enemy as the occasion required ;the necessary charges for feeding his the courage and the docility of the workmen, if the saint had had no Portugueze have since been esta. other resources ; he, however, by ma- blished by the most indisputable and king a cross upon the water, drew splendid proofs;-at'this timethey had as many fish to his hand as he pleased none to direct them, their passions to take, and then supplied his labour. were at the height, fear of treason ers with a fountain of oil from the prevented them from depending upon rock for the purpose of dressing them, their officers, and under such circum and another of wine, that their hearts stances the officers were more afraid might be gladdened, as well as their of their own men than of the enemy. countenances made chearful. Never was a more glorious opportu.

The approach of the French threw nity lost for want of a commanding the people of Porto into the most mind like Palafox. Soult approach.

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