ed with only 12,000 menthe Por- in the assault. In the Madrid Gatugueze had 270 pieces of cannon zette, it was said that the whole gar. mounted, and ill as they had con- rison was put to the sword.—Thus the structed the works, those works French chose to represent the massawere still sufficient to afford protec- cre, when they made it their boast; tion to the city, though it would have but the massacre was indiscriminate. been far better to have defended the A week after this dreadful butchery, streets and houses ;— Porto might a newspaper was published at Porto, then have been more fatal to the under direction of the French, and French than Zaragoza, for Soult, if the first number opened with a panethen defeated, must inevitably have gyric upon Marshal Soult, because been destroyed.

he had not entirely destroyed the ci. But the blind populace, led by ty. “The catastrophe which Porto blind leaders, relied upon their num- had suffered,” it said, “ was truly bers, and gave up the advantage of dreadful, and might serve as a warnstreet-fighting, where their numbers ing to all who had the folly and te. and their artillery must have ensured merity to undertake great enterprisuccess. They even insisted upon di- zes, without calculating the means, viding D’Eben's legion into small or looking on to the end. But amid parties to intermix with the people, the horror, with which so severe an instead of stationing them in a body example affected every feeling heart, in the most important points. The there was abundant matter of consoenemy reconnoitred the works on the lation for minds which were capable 26th. On the two following days of weighing things in the balance of he attacked the works, and on both true philosophy, Towns carried by was repulsed. On the 29th, the dis- assault, had invariably, among the trust which the people entertained of most civilized nations, paid with their officers, occasioned irretrievable their total destruction the penalty of confusion ; the enemy entered the ci- their contumacy : this was the fate ty, at a time when they had not more which Porto had to apprehend, and than six round of cartridges left. Ano- from this it had been spared by a ther hour of steadiness, and Porto hero who always listened to the voice would have been saved from the hors of mercy, and in whose heart valour rors which ensued! Upon the pre- and humanity contended for superiotext that a French officer, who was sent to summon the city, had been The plans of the ferocious Soult killed, many thousands of the inha- were thus far successful ; but already bitants, without distinction of age or the French in Galicia had reason to sex, were bayonetted, and their bodies wish that he had never entered Por. for three days exposed in the streets, tugal. A few days only after he then cast into the river. The river had been baffled by the garrison of had already received but too many Caminha in his attempt victims--the wretched inhabitants to crossthe Minho, a par. March 10. Aying from their butchers, thought ty of Portugueze, under to escape by the bridge of boats, it Alexandro Alberto de Serpa, crossed gave way beneath these numbers, at that point, and were joined at Gu. those who were behind prest on,- ardia by a body of peasantry. The and more perished in the water than united force amounted to about


4000 men; the Mayorazgo of Ga- Meantime Don Pablo Murillo, who licia, Don Joaquin Tenreyro, put bad distinguished himself so gallantly himself at their head, their parish in Estremadura, came to examine the priest acted as officer, and this gal. state of the siege. He learnt that a lant peasantry thus officered, undis. reinforcement of 1800 French were ciplined and ill-equipped, proceeded at this time in Pontevedra, about four to besiege the French garrison in leagues off. They had to cross the Vigo, consisting of 1300 men. This bridge of St Payo, over a river which town is situated in a bay, which is discharges itself into the head of the one of the largest, deepest, and sa- bay of Vigo, and Murillo immediatefest in the whole Spanish peninsula. ly took measures for defending the It is built upon a rock, but, not with passage. From Don Juan Antonio standing the severe loss which the Gago, an inhabitant of Marin, who Spaniards, during the War of the was at the head of 500 peasants, he Succession, suffered in that port, no obtained two eight-pounders, and care had been taken to fortify it; it from the town of Redondella, one 24 has merely a wall, with a fort flank, and two 18-pounders. With these ed with four bastions on the land means of defence, he entrusted this side, and an old castle, equally dila. position to Don Juan de O'Dogher. pidated, toward the sea. The neigh- ty, a lieutenant in the Spanish navy, bourhood of Ferrol has made it ne- who had the command of three gun. glected as a naval station, and Gali- boats. While he was taking these cia is too poor a country for foreign necessary measures, a detachment of commerce. There is, however, a three thousand men from that army manufactory of hats there, which of Romana, which Soult, in his lying are exported to America ; and a fish- dispatches, boasted of having destroy. ery is carried on so extensively as ed a fortnight before, drove the to afford employment for thirty mer- enemy back from Pontevedra, and cantile houses. It derives some im- took possession of the town. Mu. portance also from being the seat of rillo joined them; and being of opigovernment for the province of Tuy. nion that the speedy reduction of ViThe population amounts to 2,500. go was the most important object Şir John Moore had fixed upon this which could then be undertaken, port as the place of his embarkation, they proceeded to that place. and ordered the transports here ; and The French governor Chalot, a the delay occasioned by waiting till Chef d'Escadron, had replied to evethey came round Cape Finisterre to ry summons which Tenreyro sent him, join him at Coruna, gave time for the that he was not authorised to surFrench to come up, and for that bat. render to peasantry. Captain M.Kintle, which, while it redeemed the cha- ley having now arrived, he was again racter of the army, proved fatal to summoned to surrender, and negocihimself.

ations were begun, which continued Captain Crawford, in the Venus till the third day, when Murillo joinfrigate, was off the port, and he wrote ed the besiegers with the to Captain M.Kinley, who was then force from Pontevedra, March 26. at Villa Garcia, telling him how much consisting of new levies the esence of his ship would contri. and retired veterans, 1500 of whom bute to the success of the patriots. had now come forward to deliver their

country ; a council of war was held, his concurrence. The answer was by which Murillo was appointed com- in a spirit becoming England and mander-in-chief, and requested to Spain.' The garrison were required assume the title of colonel, for the to ground their arms on the glacis, sake of appearing of more conse- and surrender themselves prisoners of quence to M. Chalot, whose com- war ; the officers were allowed to replaint it was, that he was not suri- tain their swords and wearing appamoned by an officer of sufficient rank. rel, nothing more. The demand re

Having been thus pro:no- specting the money was refused ; the March 27. ted to accommodate the place was to be taken possession of

Chef d'Escadron, he sent as soon as the French grounded their him a summons in due form to sur. arms, and if these articles were not render within two hours. Chálot ratified within an hour, hostilities replied, that he could not possibly were to recommence. surrender till he had heard the opi- The officers who were sent to nenion of the council of war, of which gociate agreed to these terms, but he was president ; the members were the ratification was delayed beyond at present dispersed, and he required the hour allotted; and the Spaniards, 24 hours to collect them. Murillo who were prepared to execute what returned a verbal answer, that he they had threatened, began the asgranted him another two hours, and sault between eight and nine at night; the Frenchmen, after another ineffec. while those who had muskets kept tual attempt to prolong the term, de- up a fire upon the enemy, others belivered in their proposals of capitula- gan to hew down the gates. An old tion, which were, that they should man particularly distinguished himmarch out with their arms, baggage, self at the gate of Camboa, by the and the whole of their equipage, and vigour with which he laid on his with the honours of war; that they strokes, splintering the wood, and should be conveyed in English ves- when a ball went through him, by sels to the nearest French port, on the composure with which he died, parole not to bear arms against Spain happy to have fallen in the discharge or her allies till exchanged, or till of his duty, and in the hour of victory. peace should have taken place ; that D. Bernardo Gonzalez, the commandthe money belonging to the French ing officer of the detachment from government, and destined for the Pontevedra, sprang forward, and tapayment of the troops of the second king up the axe of the dead, conticorps, should remain in the hands of nued the same work, notwithstandthe paymaster, who was accountable ing he was thrice wounded ; a fourth for it, and that the papers relating to wound disabled him, and he was the accounts of the regiments should borne away: seven Spaniards fell at be preserved ; finally, that the troops this point.' Meantime, Murillo was should not lay down theirarms, nor the informed that the capitulation was town and forts be delivered up, till now ratified, and forcing his way the moment of embarking. Murillo through the ranks amidst the fire, with the three French officers who with great difficulty he made himself brought these proposals, and two heard, and put a stop to the assault. Spaniards, went immediately on board On the following morning, when the Lively, to lay them before Cap- Murillo had made preparations to entain M-Kinley, and answer them with ter and occupy the place, information was brought him from the little town ferez of that bráve band of students of Porrino, that a reinforcement from of Salamanca, the greater part of whom Tuy was on the way to the French. had fallen in this holy war; the abPorrino is about a league to the bot of Valladares, and the first preacheastward of the road between these er of the Franciscans, Fr. Andres two places, and equidistant about Villagaloi. Murillo sent off part of two leagues from both. News, his forces to reduce Tuy ; 5000 of therefore, could not be brought so the enemy were at this time assembled soon but that the troops must close. at Santiago, which they were fortify, ly follow it. Murillo instantly senting, and this skilful officer hastened off a part of his force as secretly as to place Pontevedra in a state of depossible to intercept them, and he fence, and to secure the bridge of remained hurrying the embarkation S Payo, that the French might not be of the French, by telling them that able to form any farther junction. he could not restrain the rage of the Tuy was soon recovered, part of the peasantry. How well they had de. French being killed, the rest made served any vengeance which the pea- prisoners. The Portugueze having santry could inflict the garrison were assisted in the conquest, re-crossed perfectly conscious, and were as ea. the Minho to defend their own counger to get on board as Murillo was to try, and they barricaded the streets see them there. In this haste, the of Viana, and fortified the bridge baggage could not be examined con- over the Lima at that town, lest the formably to the capitulation, for the French from Porto should attempt hurry of both parties was increased to succour their countrymen in Galiby hearing a firing from the town. cia by that direction. The troops from Tuy had arrived un. While the communication between der its walls, and, to their astonish- the French in Galicia and Portugal ment, a fire was opened upon them. was thus cut off, Romana being reThey were attacked, routed, and inforced at Sanabria by 3000 volunpursued with such vigour, that out of teers from Castile, and having rested 450, not more than 50 escaped ; 72 his harassed army, resolved to march were taken prisoners, and sent on into Asturias, and join his troops to board to join their countrymen, all those of that principality. This the rest were either killedorwounded. could not be done without crossing

The military chest, containing the enemy's line of posts between 117,000 franks, had been delivered up Astorga and Villafranca, both which according to the terms; but an exa- places were garrisoned with from 800 mination of the baggage was thought to 1000 men. The walls of the fornecessary ; about 20,000 more were mer city, old as they were, were sufdiscovered, and the whole of both sums. ficient to withstand an army who had was distributed among the troops no other weapon than their muskets ; and peasantry. Never had a more and the French had strengthened the motleyarmy been assembled,--men of works materially. But Villafranca all ranks and professions bore arms had no other fortress than the old patogether at this time in Galicia. A. lace or castle of the marquisse of Asmong those who distinguished them torga. From Sanabria, therefore, he selves were soldiers and sailors; D. first moved to Ponferrada, where he Francisco Sanchez Villamarin, the Al made some prisoners, and recovered


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a great quantity of corn, several four. a ball passed through his clothes withpounders

, and one dismounted twelve- out wounding him. He summoned pounder, all part of his own stores the enemy to surrender, and upon and artillery. The news of his de their hesitating what answer to refeat had been circulated over all Ga- turn, repeated the summons with a licia with the utmost industry ; the threat, that if they refused, every French had added, that he himself man should be put to the sword. was made prisoner ; they fired salutes The white flag was then hoisted, and for their pretended victory, and, the a negociation begun, which the better to delude the people, they even French were conducting with a view proceeded to the mockery of offering to gain time, till the Spanish comup thanksgivings in the churches, mander cut it short, by allowing lying towards God as well as man. them a quarter of an hour to surrenBut, in spite of these artifices, the der at discretion. Upon this they subtruth was known, and deputationsmitted ; Mendizabal then, as an act from some town or village came every of free grace, permitted the officers to day to this brave general, assuring keep their horses and portmanteaus, him that the Galicians were faithful and the men their knapsacks; and to the cause of their country. Romana the colonel commandant of the French, having remounted his twelve-pound. in returning his thanks for his geneer, dispatched his camp-marshal D. rosity, complimented him upon his Gabriel de Mendizabal to attack the good fortune in having captured the garrison at Villafranca. That offi- finest regiment in the Emperor-Nacer's first care was to get between poleon's service. The number of them and Galicia, while the come prisoners were about 800.

The mander-in-chief intercepted their re. Spaniards lost two officers and thirty treat towards Astorga ; for this pur- men, 82 wounded. The result of pose he proceeded on the night of this victory was, that the Bierzo the 17th to Cacabelos, and sent one was cleared of the French, and that detachment round by the right to they fell back from the neighbouring occupy the bridge at the other end part of Asturias upon Lugo, there of the town, while another filed to make a stand, supported by the round by the left to join it there ; main force, which was divided be. every horseman taking up a foot sol. tween Santiago, Coruna, and Fer. dier behind him to ford the Valcarce, rol, and the smaller river which falls into These events in Galicia, with the it. Mendizabal, with the remainder recapture of Chaves, and the bold of the troops, advanced along the advance of Silveira to the bridge of road. His advanced parties drove in Amarante, were little expected by the French at all points, till they re- Soult, who had entered Portugal, tired to the castle. The twelve- thinking to intimidate all whom he pounder was brought up; but the did not either deceive or corrupt. Spaniards found that the French fired

In consequence,” said he, in the securely from the old fortification proclamation which he issued, "of the while they themselves were exposed ; successes obtained in Spain by the upon this they entered, and, with bay. army of his majesty the emperor, my onets fixed, advanced to storm the august sovereign, I come to take poscastle. Mendizabal was at their head; session of your whole territory in his

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