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by their warm attachment to their na- as a tricking and treacherous people : tive land, and they were the only peo- they were not likely to form a bet. pleof that great and ill-compactedem. ter opinion of them now, when the pire who spoke of their country with government was become at once far a manly and honourable pride : from more oppressive and more faithless. them thelightof reformation had gone But the court of Bavaria was thoforth, and among them the light of roughly French. knowledge was burning ; what then The Archduke Charles, must they have felt, when forced to when he put his army in April 9. fight the battles of a barbarian, who, motion, addressed a letter while he pretended to follow the to the king, Maximilian Joseph. He steps of Charlemagne, exceeded him told him, thal, having received orders in his cruelties, and persecuted with to enter Bavaria, he ardently wished mortal hatred, literature and kuow. his majesty would listen to the wishes ledge, by the encouragement of of the Bavarian people, who saw in which Charlemagne in some degree the Austrians their deliverers. “The atoned for his offences !
severest commands,” said he, “ have Among the Saxons there was been given that no hostilities be comprobably only one feeling; they had mitted, except against the enemy of gained the empty name of a king. all political independence in Europe, dom, and for this their independence till your majesty makes known your and their happiness had been sacrificed. intentions. It would be very painful It was otherwise with part of the mot. to me to turn my arms against the ley population who were now subjects troops of your majesty, and to involve of Jerome Buonaparte. Among these your subjects in the miseries of a wa the Prussians, the Brunswickers, and undertaken for general iiberty, and the Hanoverians had reason to regret which, in its first principle, excludes the mild and benignant administra- all plan of conquest. But if the force tion under which they had lived, of circumstances should compel your while the Hessians and other of the majesty to a condescension incompa. smaller states would have been mate. tible with your dignity and the haprially benefited by the revolution piness of your people, I beg you, which released them from their petty nevertheless, to be convinced that my tyrants, and abolished the abomina. soldiers will pay every possible reble system of vassalage, had not those spect to the safety of your majesty, evils' been supplied by the sweeping and I invite you, sire, to confide curse of the conscription. Bavaria yourself to the honour of my sovewas the only state of the confederacy reign, and the protection of his arms." which was attached to France, and This was more courteous language even there, in spite of the old enmity than that arch-traitor to Germany between the Austrians and Bavarians, and to the liberties of Europe de the wiser and better part of the na- served. He withdrew from Munich tion retained that opinion of the to Dilligen, taking with him his French, which, forty years ago, was treasures and jewels. The Austri. almost universal through Germany: ans past the Inn on the 9th of April, the Germans then regarded the and intelligence was conveyed by the French government as the excess of telegraph to Buonaparte at Paris chat despotism, and the French themselves the war was begun.
The French and allied armies
were telegraph summoned Buonaparte from at this time thus situated. D’A. Paris to take the command of his arvoust's (Duke of Auerstadt) corps mies. He set out almost immediate. at Ratisbon ; Massena's (Duke of ly, arrived at Louisburg at three in Rivoli) at Ulm ; Oudinot's at the morning of the 16th; and in the Augsburgh; the head quarters at evening of the same day, met the Strauberg: The Bavarians were in King of Bavaria at Dillingen, and three divisions ; one under the Prince promised to restore him within twelve Royal at Munich, the second under days to his capital, to revenge the inDuroy at Landshut, the third under sults which had been offered to his Wrede at Straubing ; Lefebvre house, and to make him greater than (Duke of Dantzic) had the command any of his ancestors had been. Enin chief of these auxiliaries. The couraged by the presence of his proWirtemberg division was at Heyden- tector, Maximilian Joseph addressed heim ; the Saxons under the walls of a proclamation the next day to the Dresden; the Poles, or, as they were people, telling them that his territonow called, the corps of the duchy of ry had been invaded, and he had been Warsaw, near that city which had driven from his capital, without a deonce been their own capital, under claration of war, or any previous ex. Prince Poniatowsky. The Austri- planation, but that this attack on the ans advanced towards Munich, from rights of nations would now be puwhence Maximilian Joseph retired nished. “People and soldiers of Bamore precipitately than his troops ; varia,” said he, “ Austria seeks to they withdrew in good order. Le- annihilate your independence, reduce febvre, with about 12,000 Bavarians, your strength, and diminish your collected from the neighbourhood of possessions, under the pretext of freeMunich and Fraysengen, attempted to ing you. The people of the allied stop the Austrians near Landshut. states are not, however, ignorant of It was a strong position which he de. the new and dangerous influence fended on the Iser. The bridges which it has endeavoured to establish, were broken down, the approach to the obvious consequence of which them was difficult, and the houses on would be the restoration of the arbi. the opposite bank occupied by the trary power which the archdukedom enemy's riflemen, so that it was of Austria had assumed under the necessary to bat:er them down. This title of head of the German empire. whole part of the town was destroy. It is our throne which is threatened ed, and many of the inhabitants pe. to be overthrown ; it is the Bavarian rished under the ruins of their houses, name which is to be extinguished aThis being effected, the passage was mong nations. Your territory is deswon, and the Austrians advanced to tined to be the reward of your eneMunich. Their successes on the mies--for in their ostentation they do side of the Tyrol were more splendid not conceal their object. They wish and more important, but the war of to dismember your country, and to the Tyrol must be related separate establish in it barons dependent on ly, in reverence to the only people up- the court of Vienna. Their base and on the continent who have done their senseless purposes shall be defeated : duty against the common enemy. for this we have the pledge of the fie On the evening of the 12th, the delity of our people, of the courage VOL. II. PART 1.
of our soldiers, of the genius and pro- who had reached Augsburgh. The tection of our mighty ally. At the movements of the French were too sight of the illustrious protector of rapid for him. At break of day, on our confederacy, our enemies will fade the 19th, Oudinot defeated a body away, and the war, which they now of Austrians at Pfaffenhoffen, and again commence, shall, like that in Massena joined him there on the 20th. 1805, be carried into their own terri. D’Avoust left Ratisbon to advance tories; but measures shall then be to Neustadt, and draw near to Ingoltaken to prevent their any longer dis- stadt. His left, under General St turbing the continent, and making Hillaire and Friant, met the Austritheir neighbours the victims of the ans at a village called Peissing, and intrigues of their cabinets.”
defeated them. In this action the On the 17th Buonaparte reached French boast that their 57th regiDonauworth, and issued one of his ment, which at the commencement of characteristic addresses to the army. the revolutionary war acquired the “ Soldiers, territory of the Con- name of the Terrible, attacked singly federation of the Rhine is violated. six Austrian regiments in succession, The Austrian general hoped that we and routed them. The right wing, should take to fight on the first ap- under General Moraud, was engaged pearance of his army, and abandon at the same time with an Austrian our allies to his disposal. I come division, which Lefebvre and the Bawith the rapidity of the eagle. Sol. varians (having marched from Abensdiers, you were around me when the berg with that intent) attacked in sovereign of Austria came to visit the rear. The Austrians, thus outme in my camp-hut in Moravia ; you numbered and out.generalled, suffered saw him experience my bounty, and considerable loss; several regiments swear eternal friendship to me. We lost all their staff officers ; Fieldhave been victorious in three wars; Marshal Lusignan, and the Princes Austria owes every thing to our ge- Lewis and Maurice of Lichtenstein nerosity; thrice has she broken her were wounded. This action was call. engagements. Our past success is ed the battle of Tann. Lefebvre the sure pledge of the victory which formed a junction with D’Aroust at now awaits us. Let us advance, and sun-set. The archduke kept his army let the enemy at the sight of us again in order of battle; but the immediate wecognize their conquerors.” The intentions of the French were not Archduke Charles at this time, after against him. passing the Iser, advanced by forced These were but preliminary move. marches, with the 3d, 4th, and 5th ments to an attack upon the left corps of his army, and the 1st of the wing of the Austrians, under the reserve, towards the Danube, in the Archduke Lewis and General Hiller. direction of Kohlheim and Ratisbon. On the 20th Buonaparte took post He crossed the Labar, and proceeds at Abensberg. D’Avoust kept the ed, on the 19th, through Echmuhl, corps of Hohenzollern, Rosenberg, Rotenberg, and Cloisterrock. His and Lichtenstein in check; Massena object was to cut off D'Avoust's passed by Freyberg, and getting in corps before it could form a junction ihe rear of the Austrians, cut off their with Oudinot, who was advancing communication with the Tyrol. The from Augsburgh, and with Massena, main attack was to be made upon their front, by the divisions of Mo. at break of day on the raud and Guden, under Lasnes, and following morning. The April 21. the Bavarians and Wirtembergers, at Austrian cavalry made whose head Buonaparte placed him- some resistance in the plain before self
, following the example of greater the city, and were defeated by Besand better men, who, by appearing sieres (Duke of Istria). General to confide in the bravery of unfried Mouten advanced, with a column of troops, have made them what they grenadiers, to force the bridge : it wished them to be. He ordered the was of wood, and the enemy set fire officers of these two armies to form to it ; but that, says Buonaparte's a circle, and addressed them in a bulletin, was not an obstacle to the speech, which the Prince Royal of French infantry, who forced it, and Bavaria translated into German. To penetrated into the city. The posthe Bavarians he spoke of the old en. sible truth to be extracted from this nity between their forefathers and extravagant language is, the fire is the house of Hapsburgh, against the worst means by which a wooden whom the Bavarian standard had been bridge could be attempted to be de. for more than two centuries display. stroyed under such circumstances, and ed, and he promised that he would that the fuel and fire-brands, hastily now render them powerful enough to heaped together for the purpose, were contend single-handed with Austria. thrown into the water by the assailTo the men of Wirtemberg he spoke ants, who had leisure to clear their of their exploits in the service of way; part of one Austrian regiment, Prussia. The signal was then given. which they drove before them, and Wrede, with the Bavarians, attack. forced through the flames, suffered ed the enemy at Siegenburg ; Van- severely. The Austrians, thus driven damme, with the Wirtembergers, on to the right bank of the river, were the right flank ; Lasnes turned their there attacked and routed by Masleft. By their own confession the sena. Landshut was taken, and with Austrians lost eight standards, twelve it 30 pieces of cannon, 9000 prisonpieces of cannon, and 8000 prisoners; ers, 600 ammunition waggons, 3000 the French say they took 18,000. baggage waggons, the hospitals and On the same day the archduke made magazines.
At this time the Archan ineffectual attempt to prevent the duke Charles, forming a junction with junction of D'Avoust with Lefebvre the Bohemian army, under Kolloand the Bavarians." The Prince of wreth, surprised a thousand French, Hohenzollern and Prince Lewis of who had been left to guard the bridge Lichtenstein seized the colours, and at Ratisbon. Enraged at this, Buoadvanced at the head of their groops naparte swore that within four-andto animate them; their object was to twenty hours Austrian blood should gain possession of the heights of flow in Ratisbon, to efface the insult Abach : in this they were defeated, which had been offered to his arms. and the enemy accomplished their Some little apprehension perhaps junction along the Danube. mingled with, and aggravated this
The battle of Abensberg laid open burst of rage; for, by his own adthe flank of the Austrian army, and mission, there was no time to be lost. exposed their magazines at Landshut. D’Avoust and Lefebvre were holdBuonaparte marched against this place ing three Austrian corps in check,
and if the archduke had rapidly mo. accounts, were taken. At day-break ved against them, he might not only on the following morning, the French have defeated them, but have taken advanced in pursuit towards Ratisthe French at Landshut in the rear. bon, and after three successive char. Aware of this, and more rapid in his ges, in which they say 8000 of the movements than his antagonist, Buo- Austrians were cut to pieces, drore naparte made a forced march from them over the Danube. Meantime Landshut, with the two divisions of the French light infantry attempted Lasnes, the corps of Massena, the to get possession of the city, which cuirassiers of Nansoutz and St Sul. the archduke had garrisoned with pice, and the Wirtemberg division. six regiments. For this he has been At the same time he sent Bessieres censured by the enemy; for the city against General Hiller, who, with the was surrounded with a bad wall, a remains of the army which had been bad ditch, and a bad counterscarp, beaten at Abensberg and Landshut, and the assailants were so perfectly was on the Inn.
aware of its weak parts, that they Prince Charles had effected a junc. knew a place where it was practica. tion with the third and fourth corps ble to descend into the ditch by a of reserve, and had determined to at. ladder, and pass on the other side tack the French on the 23d. This through a breach in the wall
. Lastes was a day too late. He had with ordered a battalion upon this service; him 110,000_men, and had taken a they effected it in safety, and got into position at Echmuhl. Buonaparte the city : 8000 prisoners were taken arrived opposite that town at two in here, and the French crossed the the afternoon of the 22d, and attack. bridge in close pursuit of the fugl. ed them on all points ; their left wing tives. Ratisbon was set on fire in was turned; they were driven suc- the conflict. cessively from all their positions; their Here Buonaparte issued another infantry, forced from the woods which proclamation to his army, cover the town of Ratisbon into the in these words : -“ Sol. April 24. plain, were there cut off by the ene- diers, you have justified my's horse ; their cavalry, which my expectations. You have made up was strong and numerous, attempted for numbers by your bravery. You to cover the retreat, but were attack- have gloriously marked the differeuce ed by the division of St Sulpice on the that exists between the soldiers of right, and by that of Nansoutz on the Cæsar and the armed cohorts of left. The latter compelled a whole Xerxes. In a few days we have tricolumn to surrender, consisting of umphed in the three battles of Tanh, three Hungarian battalions of 1500 Abensberg, and Echmuhl, and in the men. The Archduke Charles is said actions of Peising, Landshut, and Ra. to have narrowly escaped, oving to tisbon. One hundred pieces of can. the fleetness of his horse. During non, 40 standards, 50,000 prisoners, the whole of the night the Austrians 3000 waggons, full of baggage, all continued to defile in small divisions, the chests of the regiments--Such is and in great confusion. All their the result of the rapidity of your wounded, the greater part of their march and your courage. The enemy, artillery, 15 standards, and 20,000 besotted by a perjured cabinet, seemprisoners, according to the French ed no longer to preserve any recollec