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CHAP. A.] HISTORY OF EUROPE.

597 tion of us. They have been promptly troops of the confederacy; their own awakened : You have appeared to loss they no doubt diminished, nearly them more terrible than ever. Lately as much as the French bulletins exthey crossed the Inn, and invaded the aggerated it. Unquestionably they territory of our allies. Lately they had suffered severely. They were presumed to carry the war into the driven out of Bavaria ; the French heart of our country. Now, defeated were enabled to detach Wrede and and dismayed, they fly in disorder. Lefebvre against the Tyrol and the Already my advanced-guard has pas- Palatinate ; and Prince Charles was sed the Inn-before a month is elapsed cut off from his communication with we shall be at Vienna.” At Ratis. the Inn and Vienna. “ This battle,"

bon also he issued a decree said Buonaparte, after the action of April 24. for sequestrating the es- Echmuhl, “ will have the same con

tates of those princes and sequences as that of Jena : we shall counts of the empire, and members of be in the enemy's capital before his the equestrian order, who ought, by own army.” During this, which may virtue of the act of the Confederation be called the first act of the campaign, of the Rhine, to have renounced the he exerted himself with indefatigable service of other powers than the con. activity, being for several days confederated states and their allies, and tinually on horseback, with only the to have established their residence interval of two hours at night, alỊ withintheconfederated or allied states, that he allowed himself for sleep, but had not conformed to these pro- He did not expose himself in battle, visions. One half of the estates thus and in this he acted wisely, knowing confiscated was to be applied to the of how much more importance his princes of the confederation, as an in- safety was than his personal example demnity for the expences

of the war,

in the field. There was a report one and to indemnify their subjects, on day that his leg was broken; the fact account of requisitions, expences, and was, that a spent ball grazed the heel other incidental losses; the other half of his boot, but without injuring him. was for Buonaparte, in aid of the war Successful, however, as the Corsi. expences, and to reward the officers can had been thus far, even to the and soldiers of his army.

extent of his wishes, he betrayed his The Austrian loss, according to apprehension at the altered system of their own accounts, was not a fifth the Austrians, by the manner in which part of what the French represented he gave his insolent anger vent. “Au. it. The whole, they said, amounted stria,” said he in his bulletin, “ has to about 9600 prisoners, 6000 killed raised numerous armies, divided into and wounded, and about 38 pieces of corps like the French ; her troops cannon. On the other hand, they are moving by forced marches, to estimated the loss of the French at imitate the French; her generals are four eagles, four pieces of cannon, publishing bulletins, proclamations, and 10,000 men, killed, wounded, or general orders, all in imitation of the taken. The French affirmed that French, But the ass is not ennobled they had lost only 1200 killed, and to a lion because he is covered with 4000 wounded. Here both accounts a lion's skin ; the long ears betray may be sufficiently accurate, if, as is the ignobler beast." Then, after probable, the Austrians include the calling the Austrian manifesto, which he said was drawn up by Gentz, a Archduke Lewis and Hiller were at ridiculous performance, he indulged this time before Traun, and being the natural vulgarity of his mind in threatened in the rear by Lasnes, repersonal insults towards the emperor. treated to Ebersberg. There they « From Vienna,” said he,he went had other enemies to encounter, for to Schaerding, a position extremely Bessieres and Oudinot had well adapted for a sovereign who formed a junction with Mas. May 3. neither wishes to be in his capital sena in that quarter. to govern his dominions, nor in the The French came up with the field, where he is known to be merely Austrian rear-guard as they were an incumbrance and a dead weight. crossing the bridge, pursued them, When he was informed of the re- drove cannon, waggons, and some sult of the battle of Echmuhl, he hundred men into the river, and made judged it prudent to leave the banks prisoners some three thousand men, of the Inn, and return into the in. who had been left to defend the town. terior of his dominions." The Aus- Claparede, who commanded the adtrians had magazines at Schaerding, vanced guard, continuing the purand Hiller, with three corps, had suit, halted when he found the enemy taken up a position at Old Otling, to occupying a strong position. Besprotect that place and Brannau, and sieres passed the bridge with the cakeep up the communication with the valry, of which he had the command, Tyrol." Bessieres attacked him on and Massena ordered the main body the day of the battle of Ratisbon, of the army to support them. The but was repulsed. On the same day archduke and Hiller, now on the point Massena was detached from Ratisbon of being attacked by superior num. to the same point. He passed Strau- bers, set fire to the town. It was ling and Passau, re-established the built of wood, and the flames spread bridge over the Inn, which the Aus. in all directions; they reached the trians had destroyed, and winning a bridge also, and Claparede was cut passage which was feebly defended, off from the support of the main took possession of Schaerding, where body. The Austrians attempted to the Austrians had previously set fire profit by this advantage, but with to the magazines, and in consequence little effect; continued disasters seen burnt half the town. Bessieres also to have disheartened them, and their

crossed the Ion, and ad. efforts must have been feeble or ill April 28. vanced to Burghausen, directed to have proved so unsuccess.

where he was joined by ful; for Claparede is said, with only Lasnes the same day: Oudinot, four pieces of cannon and 7000 men, with his corps, entered Ried on the to have withstood 30,000 men for 1st of May, where he found eight three hours, and three times to have sets of military ovens, and 200,000 repulsed them with the bayonet. Alrations of four : half as much was lowing for French exaggeration, it is found at Wels. Buonaparte passed beyond a doubt that his situation was through Ried on the 2d, and reached extremely perilous, and that the AuLambach the same evening, where strians, if they had acted well, must the bridge, which had been destroy- have destroyed his whole corps. News ed, was speedily restored. On the of his danger was communicated to 3d Massena arrived at Lintz. The Buonaparte, who immediately dispatched the divisions of Nansoutz and who crossed at Steyer, arrived at Molitor to his assistance, but they Molck on the 6th, and found in the did not arrive till after the action was cellars of the abbey there several over. After three hours the fire was thousand bottles of wine, which were so far got under that a passage was

served out to the army: great maga. opened, and Claparede was reinforced zines of every kind had been found both with horse and foot. The Au. since the passage of the Inn. Prince strians retreated with the utmost ra- Lewis and Hiller were at this time pidity. They lost 7500 prisoners ; at St Polten. Two-thirds of the re800 of their troops were burnt in mains of their army crossed the Da. the castle : their whole loss is estie nube at Crems, and were pursued to mated at 12,000. They reached Mantein, where they obtained a reEnns that night, burnt the bridge spite by breaking the bridge; the there, and continued their retreat, or other third made for Vienna. On the rather their flight, on the road to 8th Buonaparte's head-quarters were Vienna. The French say that 300 at St Polten. On the 10th, at nine in of Claparede's corps were killed, and the morning, he appeared, with the 700 wounded; the Austrian account corps of Marshal Lasnes, before Vi. makes their own loss 4000, that of enna,- at the same hour, on the same the enemy 3000.

day, and exactly one month after the Buonaparte slept at Enns on the Austrians had commenced their de. 4th, and employed the next day in plorable compaign, by crossing the re-establishing the bridge. Lasnes, river Inn.

CHAP. XXV.

Capture of Vienna. Passage of the Danube by the French. Batlle of

Aspern.

FORTY

ORTY years ago, Vienna was con. cumference was about four miles, for sidered to be well fortified, having a it was the work of an hour to walk rampart, twelve strong bastions, ten round the ramparts. By the enume. ravelins, deep and wide square ditch. ration of 1796, there were found to es, and outworks of proportionate be 1997 houses within the walls ; the strength. Maria Theresa was advi- suburbs at the same time contained bed by her son to dismantle it : “I 5102. The markets and shops were am an old woman,” that great em: in the city. The whole population is press used to say, " and I almost re- estimated at 270,000. Between the member when this city was besieged suburbs and the walls, a space had by the Turks ; unless the capital had been left all round of five or six hun. then been capable of withstanding a dred paces, that the works might blockade till it was relieved by John command an open range; this interSobieski, the Ottoman hordes would val gave great advantage to a besie. have ravaged our hereditary domi- ging army. Intrenchments had been nions, and overrun the empire. thrown up to cover the suburbs. An Twice I have myself seen this capital old inscription on one of the towers almost the frontier of my dominions. said, “ Happy is that city which, Let Joseph act as he will when I am amid the tranquillity of peace, holds dead, but while I live Vienna shall itself in readiness for war :-God's not be dismantled.”

protection and the courage of the The older works are said to have emperor and the people defend the been built with the money obtained walls of Vienna.” Alas, the age was from England as the ransom of Rich-over in which Vienna could boast the ard Cæur de Lion, so villainously courage either of its prince or its inmade prisoner. Those which existed habitants ! at this time, were supposed to be Four days before the appearance kept up only for the sake of keeping of the French, the Archduke Maxi. the city itself in subjection, at a time milian arrived to take the command when all fear of the Turks was past, of the city. He had collected ten and Austria had no apprehensions battalions of militia, and as many of from any European power. The cir. regular troops, amounting together

to 15,000, and he ordered registers militia. The archduke is represent. to be opened for inscribing the names ed as a hot-headed presumptuous of those who were willing to defend young man, who declared that he the capital. Buonaparte affirms that would bury himself under the ruins only thirty persons delivered in their of the city, and distributed all the names, all the rest refused with indig- arms which were in the arsenal among nation ; and then he praises the peo- the rabble. He is said also to have ple of Vienna for their good sense. ordered bombs and howitzers to be The Austrians, with far greater pro- fired upon the suburbs, when none bability, say that a great number en- but the inhabitants could be injured ; rolled themselves. After the capie and the bulletins asserted, that, in contulation it is not unlikely that the sequence of his determination to prolist was destroyed, lest those whose long a hopeless resistance, those who names appeared there should be fixed were for surrendering attacked his upon to pay heavier contributions. partisans, and Vienna presented the Be this as it may, the French bulle. dreadful spectacle of an intestine war. tin affords sufficient proof of the hos- So much of this is palpably false, tile disposition of the people. Ge. that it may well be doubled whether neral Couroux traversed the suburbs there is the slightest foundation in without opposition, but when Gene- truth for any part ; nor would it be ral Tharreau appeared upon the es. here repeated, but as another speciplanade before the walls, he was re- men of the official falsehoods circu. ceived by a discharge of cannon and lated by the French government, and musketry, which slightly wounded of the mean malignity with which him, Buonaparte bad now taken up Buonaparte, in the true spirit of a his head-quarters at Schoenbrunn, the savage, reviles all who resist him. favourite palace of the emperor, of General Andreossy, who had been which he had once before made him- made governor of Vienna on its formself master; from hence he sent a er capture, was reappointed to that summons to the archduke, telling station. He established in each of him, that if he ventured to defend the eight districts or wards into which the city longer, it should be reduced the suburbs are divided, a municipaby a bombardment in six-and-thirty lity, a national guard, and a commithours. The officer who entered the tee of provisions, and he ordered a city with the flag of truce was mal- deputation to wait upon the Empetreated, and even wounded, by the ror of France, to represent to him mob; this outrage is said in the the state of the city, and solicit his bulletin, (forgetful of its former as- generosity. Buonaparte replied, by sertion, that only thirty persons had assuring them of his protection, and enrolled themselves for the defence of reproaching the Emperor Francis for Vienna,) to have been committed by what he styled, his inhuman conduct some butchers and a few hundred sa- in delivering up his capital to all the tellites of the archduke. It is add. calamities of war. “That emperor," ed, that the archduke himself order. he said, “ instead of being the king ed the fellow who had wounded the and father of his subjects, had evinFrench officer to be mounted on the ced himself their enemy and tyrant. officer's horse, and led through the Nevertheless, Vienna should be treatcity in triumph surrounded by the ed with the same indulgence and fa

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