vour which it had experienced in At midnight, he sent two battalions 1805.” Berthier then, by his orders, to retake the position which covered wrote a second letter to the arch- the French while making their bridge. duke, requesting him to respect the They advanced in close column, but flag of truce, to consider the lives of the position was too strongly de. the citizens, and to hold out no long- fended; they ere repulsed, and er. He warned him also against con- Maximilian then giving up all hopes tinuing to fire upon the suburbs, say. of farther resistance, made his escape ing, that if a single one of the inha. while it was yet practicable over the bitants perished by the Austrian bridge of Tabor, which was then de. arms, such an act of frenzy, such a molished to prevent the passage of crime against the people, would for the enemy. ever break the bonds which attach The command devolved upon Ge. subjects to their sovereign. This neral O'Reilly, for the archduke summons was carried by the depu. left the city in such haste that he ties, and the answer returned was a did not transfer it to any per son. At double fire from the ramparts.

day-break, the new governor hung Upon this Buonaparte proceeded out a flag of surrender, and a deputa. with Massena's corps to the arm of tion, composed of the archbishop and the Danube, which separates the city all the chief persons of the state, from the Prater, an island which is waited upon Buonaparte at Schoenthe fashionable summer promenade of brunn, to accept such terms of capi. Vienna. Two companies of volti- tulation as he might be pleased to geurs were ordered to occupy a small grant. The garrison were allowed position on the bank : by them and to march out with the honours of by the fire of 15 pieces of artillery, a war, they were then to become pribattalion of grenadiers which defend. soners of war. The inhabitants were ed the passage were dispersed. The to be protected in their property and French cavalry swam the river, and privileges, rights and liberties, and ia seized boats from the opposite side: the free exercise of their professions with these a bridge was constructed, and religion ; the military pensions and a battery of twenty mortars was to continue to be paid, the military crected at the distance of only 200 academy and institution for the edu. yards from the city. The bombard- cation of children of both sexes to be ment began at nine on the evening of maintained in their existing footing the 11th. It was directed by An- under Buonaparte's protection; the dreossy, and the people imputed it to military chests, magazines, and prokis skill, that the only houses which perty of the magistrates of Vienna, were destroyed belonged to those of the states of Lower Austria, and persons who had been the most active of the hospitals, to be preserved inpromoters of the war. The utmost violate. consternation now prevailed in the

On the following day, city ; universal lamentations and cries the French took possession May 13. were heard in all quarters, and the of the city. Upon this archduke himself partook of the ge. occasion, Buonaparte addressed anoneral alarm, for he perceived that it , ther proclamation to his army. “Solwas the intention of the enemy to diers," said he, “ a month after the cross the river, and cut off his retreat. enemy passed the Inn, on the same

day, at the same hour, we have en- was old enough not to have outlived tered Vienna. His militia, his levies- the Austrian monarchy.” A proclain-mass, his ramparts, raised by the im- mation issued from Schoenbrunn to potent rage of the princes of the house the Hungarians, expresses of Lorraine, have not been able to unequivocally the deter- May 15. withstand your presence. The prin- mination which is here imces of that house have abandoned plied. After reproaching the emtheir capital ; not as warriors of ho- peror for faithlessness and ingrati. nour, but as selfish men pursued by tude, and observing that it was the their self-reproaches. While they Emperor of Austria, not the King were flying from Vienna, their fare. of Hungary, who had declared war, well to its inhabitants has been flames for, according to the constitution of and murder. Like Medea, with Hungary, he could not declare it their own hands they have massacred without the consent of the people, their own children. Soldiers ! the Buonaparte thus addressed the napeople Vienna, according to the tion : “ Hungarians! the moment expression of the deputation of its for recovering your independence is suburbs, abandoned, deserted, widow- arrived. I offer you the inviolability ed, shall be the objects of your re- of your territory, of your freedom, gard. I take its good inhabitants and of your constitution, whether ander my especial protection ; as to the latter shall remain as it now subturbulent and wicked men, I will in- sists, or whether it shall be modified flict exemplary justice upon them. by yourselves, in such a manner as Soldiers ! be good towards the poor the spirit of the times and the inte. peasants and this good people, who rest of your fellow-citizens may aphave so many rights to our esteem. pear to you to require. I want no. Let us not be proud of our success : thing from you ; I desire only to see let us rather see in it a proof of that you a free and independent nation. divine justice which punishes the in. Your connection with Austria has grate and the perjured.” It appears been for you most unfortunate. For by the language of this proclamation. that connection your blood has often and still more by that of the bulle. flowed in distant lands ; and your tins, that Buonaparte at this time in- dearest interests have constantly been tended to destroy the Austrian mo. sacrificed to those of the hereditary narchy. The fate of the house of Austrian states. You form the most Lorraine, * as he affected to call it, interesting part of that empire, and was foreseen, he said, by all intelli- yet you have been regarded only as gent persons. Manfredini had ob- a conquered province, and made the tained an audience of the emperor, to victim of passions, which to you were warn him that the war would weigh altogether foreign. You possess the heavy upon his conscience, and bring distinction of national manners, and about the downfall of his house : a national language. You are justly Count Cobentzel had addressed a proud of your ancient and illusdying speech to him to the same ef. trious origin. Resume then your fect; and the Prince de Ligne had existence as a nation. Have a king been heard to say, “he thought he of your own chusing, who shall go

His edict was dated from “our Imperial Palace at Schoenbrunn," as if he was ngu the lawfud sorereign of Austria.


vern for you only-who shall reside ed to the Hungarians of freedom and in the midst of you-who shall be independence and nationality, he was surrounded only by your own citi- violating all freedom, all indepen. zens and soldiers. This, Hunga. dence, all nationality, all principles of rians, is what all Europe, whose eyes public law, all feelings of common are now turned towards you, expects humanity. He ordered the Austrian from you. This also is required of militia to be disbanded, and, treating you by me. An eternal peace, com- them as criminals, because they had mercial relations, a confirmed inde- taken arms in obedience to their own pendence ; such is the high reward government and in defence of their that awaits



you be worthy of own country, promised an amnesty your ancestors and of yourselves. to all who returned to their home You will not reject this frank and within fourteen days, the officers generous offer. You will no longer who should continue after that term shed your blood for weak princes, in the Austrian service were to have constantly the puppets of ministers, their houses burnt and their property sold to England, to the eternal ene- confiscated. The Austrian prison. my of the continent, whose prospe- ers, born in the provinces which he rity is founded on monopoly and our had now conquered, he ordered to be dissensions. Assemble then in a na. incorporated with the Bavarian ar. tional diet, according to the custom of my; thus compelling them to march your forefathers, on the plains of Ra- to battle against their former com. cos, and let me know your decision.' rades, their countrymen, friends and

Too much of this' language was kin, and exposing them to be punishjustified by the persecution, oppres- ed with death as rebels and traitors sion, and degradation, which Hunga. This atrocious measure implied, tha: ry had suffered under the house of the conquered provinces would be Hapsburg, and

had this address pro- either retained by France, or annex. eeeded from a Timoleon, having the ed to Bavaria. The prisoners who will as well as the power to restore had been marched into France, were the people to those rights of which placed at the disposition of the prethey had been deprived, all friends of fects, who were to allot them in di. knowledge and of liberty might have visions of fifty, to be sent into the looked on with joyful hope to the departments, and distributed among promised revolution. But coming the farmers and manufacturers. This as it did from a tyrant, who, for his measure was designed to supply the flagrant perfidy and remorseless cru- waste which had been made by the elties, was cursed from one end of conscription, and unquestionably the Europe to the other, the Hungarians immediate condition of the prisoners themselves were not deceived. The was bettered by it, for who would promises of Buonaparte, they well not prefer labouring in the fields, or knew, would only end in subjecting at his trade, to confinement in a prithem to the conscription, and trans- son ? but the direct tendency was to ferring to one of his rapacious gene- introduce a system of helotry, and to rals, the ruffian Lasnes, or the savage bring back into Europe the accursed Massena, the “sacred, angelic, and system of domestic slavery, which apostolic” crown of St Stephen. At Christianity itself could not abolish the very time when this barbarian talk. there in the course of a thousand years The error of the Austrians in this and resting and refreshing the men, campaign was the same which they where they had good quarters and had committed in the former war. abundant provisions. On the 19th, Instead of collecting their whole the imperial guards, with the corps force, army behind army, one ready of Massena, Lasnes, and Oudinot, to support the other, to follow up were at Vienna, D'Avoust's beits advantages, or repair its losses, tween that city and St Polten, and the Archduke Ferdinand, with 45,000 Bernadotte, with the Saxons and men, went into Poland, and the Arch. Wurtemburghers, at Lintz. Lefebvre duke John, with 80,000 into Italy; was with the Bavarians in the Tyrol, both were at first successful, but their perpetrating cruelties there, which to successes were of no avail, and the lat. the latest ages will be remembered ter was recalled, as Prince Charles with horror and execrations upon had been in the last war, to the de France and Bavaria. The French fence of Vienna,—which, as in the had asserted, that Prince Charles, be. former instance, making no resistance, ing cut off from his communication fell long before he could accomplish with the Inn and Vienna, had no so long a retreat. But the invinci- other resource than that of retiring ble obstinacy which thus persisted in into the mountains of Bohemia, and its system after experience had de. that, by pursuing him, they might monstrated its impolicy, was a light have taken his artillery and baggage ; evil compared to the wretched pusil. but this advantage would not have lanimity which had now again infect- counterbalanced the hardships to ed the Austrian councils. Four days which the army would have been after the battle of Echmuhl, the exposed, during a march of fourteen Archduke Charles wrote to Buona. days, through a miserable, mounparte requesting an armistice. The tainous, and desolate country. Buofact is certain, though the letter itself naparte also would not procrastinate was never made public. Buonaparte's his appearance at Vienna for a single reason for refusing is not known : he day, because, he said, in the prevailacted in a manner contrary to his ing state of public excitement, it usual conduct, and it is probable that would be attempted to impede hin he felt himself strong enough at that by defending the town, which had a time to take every advantage which very good breast-work, provided with an armistice could yield him, and bastions. Here he clearly discoverthat he pushed on his conquests with ed his opinion, that Vienna was dethe resolution of effecting the ruin of fensible, and that it ought to have Austria. The time was now ap. been defended; but the inhabitants proaching, when the archduke and of Vienna were not like the Zaragothe emperor were to rejoice that their zans,—there is no national feeling offer of submission had been reject- among the Germans, and, for a goed :—but their joy was only for a vernment so cowardly and so dead to season ; for they knew as little how all sense of honour, more sacrifices to profit by good fortune as how to were made than it deserved. sustain adversity .

Prince Charles was not, however, The French remained several days so weak as the enemy imagined him at the capital, collecting their arny, to be, though he was already so sube dued in spirit as to have solicited an governors, had no high and heroic armistice. After his defeat at Ra. sense of honour, no principle of relitisbon, he retreated through Cham gious duty to support their courage, to Waldmunchen. Bellegarde joined and therefore they were found want. him with the army of Bohemia, ing in the hour of need. Between They proceeded by Klentsch and Horn and Mcissan, the Archduke Newmarkt to Budweis, halted one Maximilian joined him with those day at Lindau, hoping there to form troops which had escaped from the a junction with the remains of Hiller's capital. Too late for his great obarmy, then endeavouring to reach ject, he assembled his collected forVienna before the French, advanced ces at the foot of the hill of Bisam. to Neupolla, Horn, Wickendorf, berg, where they rested awhile after and Stokerau. To come up with so many forced marches. He had Buonaparte in front of the capital still 75,000 effective troops, and 288 was now, he well perceived, impos- pieces of cannon. His cavalry was sible, the enemy having taken the posted along the Russ, a little rivu. direct road ; still he hoped to gain ļet, which is concealed by ground the bridges across the Danube, and covered with bushes ; the advanced save it by a battle under its walls ; guard was pushed to the Danube, to and if it could hold out only five observe the movements of the enemy, days, then he expected to relieve it. and prevent their passage : this the Assuredly no field of battle could French attempted from Nussdorf to have been chosen where he was more the Black Lacke ; but they were re. likely to be victorious, nor where, if pelled, and a battalion of their ad. it was his fortune to be vanquished,vanced guard taken. His chain of he could have died more honourably. outposts extended on the left as far He also, as well as Buonaparte, ex- as the Marsh, and on the right to pected that Vienna would have not Krams: that place was still in his pos. So easily opened its gates. Even session : he sent a small corps to senow, he said, from the solidity of cure Presburg, and the space along its ramparts, the strong profile of the river between these two town's its works, and its extensive mines, it was occupied by forts. On the 16th, was capable of making a protracted his head-quarters were at Ebersdorf, resistance, had not all thoughts of near the high road leading to Brunn military defence for more than a cen- On the 19th, the outposts reported tury back been forgotten in ease, se- that the

that the enemy had taken possession curity, and luxury. Palaces had of the isle of Lobau, that their oum. been built upon its ramparts, its case- bers were increasing there, and that mates and ditches had been converted they seemed to be throwing a bridge into workshops, its counterscarps across the great arm of the Danube were planted, and avenues of trees behind the island. From the top of crossing its plains, united the suburbs the Bisamberg the whole of the op. to the body of the place : yet it posite country was covered with dust might have served to cover the pas- as with a rising mist ; a general sage of the river for a few days. movement of troops could be percei. Thus much Prince Charles expected ved by the glitter of arms, beyond from the loyalty of the inhabitants, Summering towards Kaiser Ebertbut he was deceived; they, like their dorf, where Buonaparte had reme

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