orator than as a writer. Several of his ser- elected a fellow of the Royal College of mons have been preserved from shorthand Physicians of London. At Brighton he inreports, and are published in Guthrie’s bio- terested himself in politics and municipal graphy of him ; but they give little idea of affairs. He served for a time as chairman of the magnetic influence he exercised in the the Brighton town council, besides acting as pulpit. Three of his lectures— Martin Lu- J.P. for Brighton and Sussex.

He was ther,''German Student Life,' and 'Poetry'- chosen chairman of the Brighton Conservawere published in one volume in 1892. tive Association in 1880, and in 1886 he was Numerous poems, hymns, and letters are in- returned to parliament unopposed as a reprecluded in Dr. Brown's • Life of Robertson.' sentative for that borough. He received the

[Dr. James Brown's Life of William B. Ro- honour of knighthood in 1888. He died bertson, D.D.; McKelvie's Annals and Statistics suddenly on 5 Oct. 1889. He married, in of the United Presbyterian Church; Dr. John 1855, Elizabeth Ann, daughter of John Ker's Scottish Nationality and other Papers ; Leavers of The Park, Nottingham, by whom Professor William Graham's Essays, Historical he had four sons. and Biographical; United Presbyterian Magazine, vol. for 1886; Arthur Guthrie's Robertson

[Obituary notice in the British Medical Jourof Irvine.]

A. H. M.
nal, 1889, ii. 848.]

D'A. P. ROBERTSON, SIR WILLIAM TIN- ROBERTSON, MRs. WYBROW (1847– DAL (1825-1889), physician, eldest son of 1884), actress. (See LITTON, MARIE.] Frederick Fowler Robertson of Bath, and of Anne Tindal his wife, was born in 1825. He ROBETHON, JOHN (d. 1722), secretary was educated at King Edward VI's grammar to George I, was a Huguenot refugee of school at Grantham, and he afterwards be- humble origin. He came to England about came a pupil of Dr. H. P. Robarts of Great 1689, and, having been in correspondence Coram Street, and a student of University with several of the statesmen at The Hague College, London. He matriculated at the (by whom he had probably been employed London University in 1816, but he does not as a spy), and being a good linguist, he was appear to have graduated. He obtained a employed by William III, first in a humble license to practise from the Apothecaries' capacity, and afterwards as secretary of Company in 1848, and was admitted a mem- state for the small principality of Orange. ber of the Royal College of Surgeons of Among William's correspondents, Robethon England in 1850. Ile acted as resident commended himself most to the Duke of medical officer at the Middlesex Hospital in Zell, and when the latter visited England in 1848-9, and he became a resident surgeon to 1701 the Duke of Portland, who had a high the Royal Free Hospital in 1850. He after- opinion of Robethon's influence and attainwards proceeded to Paris to complete his ments, asked the secretary to further his inmedical studies, and in 1853 he graduated terests in that quarter. On William's death, M.D. at Edinburgh. IIe commenced to Robethon transferred his services to George practise in Nottingham in the following William, duke of Zell ; George William died year, and for nearly twenty years he acted in 1705, leaving his secretary as a legacy as physician to the Nottingham General to his son-in-law, George Lewis, afterwards Hospital. An able speaker and an excellent George I of England. Robethon now gaorganiser, he soon made his influence felt in thered into his hands the threads of a vast Nottingham. Largely owing to his energy, European correspondence. The leading whigs the town now holds a conspicuous position in England kept themselves constantly in among the great teaching centres of the north touch with the house of Brunswick, and of England, for it was through his exertions all the letters from the elector's family to that the Oxford local examinations were in their supporters in England were drafted troduced into the town. The Literary and by Robethon. Marlborough supplied him Philosophical Society also owed its origin with large sums of money in return for largely to his endeavours, and he helped to valuable information touching the intrigues found the Robin Hood rifles. He was a of Louis XIV at the court of Saxony. Robemember of the Nottingham town council, thon also worked hard to assist Marlborough and acted as a local secretary when the Bri- to neutralise Charles XII (see under Robintish Association met in the town in 1866. Son, John, 1650–1723] and to expose the He also delivered the address on medicine at illusory character of Louis' overtures to the the meeting of the British Medical Associa- allies in 1707. He was very active in obtion in 1857. His eyesight began to fail, and taining information about the court of St. he soon became blind from glaucoma in 1873. Germains, and during 1714 Marlborough He retired to Brighton, and in 1874 he was and other whig leaders insisted in their

letters to him that his master should pay a of the secretary's son, Colonel Robethon, in visit to England as a counterpoise to the 1752, to Matthew Duane, and while in his design of bringing the pretender to St. hands were examined by James Macpherson James's, which was confidently attributed [q. v.] They were subsequently purchased to Harley. But Robethon had always op- by Thomas Åstle (q. v.], and in 1803 by the posed such projects in the past, and he now Marquis of Buckingham (cf. Hist. MSS. wisely pointed out the offence which such a Comm. 8th Rep. pt. iii. p. 15). Volume xi., visit would give Queen Anne. A man of entitled 'Rebelles,' is specially curious. address, with a wide knowledge of the world [Hist. Reg. 1722, Chron. Diary, 22; Gent. Mag. and a fair acquaintance with English politi- 1762, p. 342; Tindal's Cont. of Rapin, 1745, iv. cal parties, Robethon obtained much in- 503; Macpherson's Orig. Papers, passim; Strickfluence with George I, though he was held land's Queens of England, v. 345 ; Coxe's Walby the ladies of the court to be sly and, when pole, i. 153, 210; Coxe's Marlborough, passim; he tried to be pleasant,' quite insupportable' Wentworth Papers ; Kemble's State Papers, (LADY COW PER, Diary, passim).

pp. 58, 144, 480,506, 512; Legrelle's Succession Robethon was named among those who d'Espagne; Agnew's Protestant Exiles, 1874; were to accompany the king to England Wolfgang Michael's Englische Geschichte im

achtzehnten Jahrhundert, 1896, i, 423-4, 446-8, in 1715, being designated domestick secretary and privy counsellor. Like the majority 772-3;,

Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rop. App. pp.

T. S. of the Hanoverian courtiers, he was neces

193, 220.] sitous, and the English statesmen soon found ROBIN OF REDESDALE (f. 1469), rebel him presumptuous. Sunderland used him captain, is difficult to identify. After Edand Bothmar as instruments wherewith to ward IV's marriage with Elizabeth Woodville, alienate the king from Walpole and Town- the consequent political disaffection centred shend in 1716. Upon his resignation Walpole in the north of England. There were two remarked bitterly, 'I have no objection to risings in 1469. One was headed by Robert the king's German ministers, but there is a Hildyard; the other, instigated by Warwick mean fellow (of what nation I know not) and Clarence, was led by · Robin of Redeswho is anxious to dispose preferments.' Ro- dale.' It was probably thought convenient to bethon had, it appears, obtained a grant of a have a popular fictitious name as a watchword reversion, and wanted to sell it to Walpole (see Hoop, ROBIN), and Robin of Redesdale for 2,5001. Upon the return of Walpole to seems to have been the pseudonym adopted power, Robethon's influence diminished. His by a member of the Conyers family, which ability as a linguist was displayed in 1717 was very widely spread in Yorkshire at this when he translated Pope's "Essay on Criti- time. He was doubtless either Sir William cism' into smooth French verse (ELWIN, Conyers (d. 1495) of Marske or his brother, Pope, Index, s.v. Roboton'and. Robotham'). Sir John Conyers, who was a knight of the The workappeared simultaneously in Amster- Garter, and, as the head of his family, lived at dam and in London. He was in 1721 go- Hornby, Yorkshire. Warkworth identifies vernor of the French hospital of La Provi- Robin with Sir William (Chron. pp. 6, 44-5), dence in East London (Misc. Geneal. new ser. and is followed by Mr. Gairdner. But Sir iii. 64). He died in London on 14 April 1722. John and his son (also Sir John) took a proHis wife, who from the squatness of her minent part in the rebellion. The two Sir person and her croaking voice was known Johns seem to have marched south with the as Madame Grenouille,' survived him. The rebels, and at Edgecote in Northamptonshire, pair seem to have had a pension from the on 26 July 1469, helped to defeat the Earl Prince of Wales as well as one from the king of Pembroke and his brother, Richard HerThe 'Mrs. Robethon, one of the bed-chamber bert, but the younger Sir John was slain belonging to the Princess Amelia,' who died there. A year later, when Edward went on 5 July 1762, after forty years' service in into the north after his victory over rebels the royal family, was probably a daughter. in Lincolnshire, at the battle of Lose Coat

A portion of Robethon's correspondence Field, the elder Sir John Conyers and Hildis in the eleven quarto volumes of Hanoverian yard came in to him. The former lived until correspondence among the Stowe MSS. at the 1490, and was much favoured by Henry VII British Museum (Nos. 222-32; the items are (cf. CAMPBELL, Materials for the Reign of fully described in the Catalogue, 1895, i. Henry VII, Rolls Ser., i. 6:3, 277, &c.), to 287–321). The nucleus of this collection whom he was a knight of the body. He was formed by the papers of the electress married Margery, daughter of Philip, lord Sophia, which were entrusted to Robet hon by Darcy, and was succeeded his estates by George I upon his mother's death in 1714. his grandson William (b. 1468), son of the They were afterwards sold by the executors | Sir John who was killed at Edgecote.



[Ramsay's Lancaster and York, ii. 338–51; , to gain some acquaintance with the fortifiOman's Warwick, pp. 183-4; Whitaker's Rich- : cation of its strong places. On returning mondshire, ii. 41; Gairdner's Introd. to vol. ii. from one of these excursions in 1734, he of the Paston Letters, p. xlis; Chron. of Re found learned society in London interested bellion in Lincolnshire, ed. Nichols; Three in Bishop Berkeley's treatise against matheFifteenth-Cent. Chron. pp. 183-4; Bishop maticians, called • The Analyst. By way of Percy's Folio MS. pp. 246, 257; Visit. Yorkshire (Harl. Soc.), pp. 74-7;' Testamenta Vetusta, reply, Robins printed in 1735 · A Discourse p. 298; Tonge's Visitation of Yorkshire (Surtees concerning the Nature and Certainty of Sir Soc.), passim ; Wills and Invent. (Surtees Soc.) Isaac Newton's Methods of Fluxions and of i. 78; Surtees's Durham, vol. ii.] W. A. J. A.

Prime and Ultimate Ratios. In 1739 he pub

lished • Remarks on M. Euler's Treatise of ROBIN Dou o Fon. (See Hughes, Ro- Motion ; on the Compleat System of Optics BERT, 1744 ?-1785, Welsh poet.]

written by Dr. Smith, master of Trinity Col

lege, Cambridge; and on Dr. Jurin's DisROBIN DDU O'R GLYN. [See DAVIES,

course of Distinct and Indistinct Vision. In ROBERT, 1769?-1835, Welsh poet.]

the same year he published three able poliROBIN HOOD. [See Hood, Robin, tical pamphlets in the tory interest, viz.

Observations on the Present Convention legendary hero.)

with Spain; ''A Narrative of what passed ROBIN AB GWILYM Dou. See WIL- in the Common Hall of the Citizens of LIAMS, ROBERT, 1767-1850, Welsh poet.] London assembled for the election of a Lord

Mayor;' and 'An Address to the Electors ROBINS, BENJAMIN (1707-1751), and other Free Subjects of Great Britain mathematician and nilitary engineer, only occasioned by the late Secession; in which is son of John Robins (1666-1758), a quaker in contained a particular Account of all our poor circumstances, was born at Bath in

Negociations with Spain and their Treatment 1707. At an early age he evinced mathe- of us for above ten Years past.' These pammatical ability. On leaving school, at the phlets brought Robins into political notice. suggestion of Dr. Henry Pemberton (q. v.], The last of the three, published anonymously, to whom a paper by Robins had been shown, was an apology for the defection of certain he came to London, and within a short time members of parliament, including Pulteney ceased to be a quaker. To prepare for teach- and Sandys, who, disgusted with the Spanish ing he applied himself to modern languages Convention, declined for a time to attend and the higher mathematics. Without assist- the House of Commons. By those whose ance he made a demonstration of the last conduct Robins defended, he was appointed proposition of Sir Isaac Newton's "Treatise secretary of the secret committee nominated of Quadratures,' which was printed in the by the House of Commons to examine into, · Philosophical Transactions of the Royal So- and report upon, the past conduct of Walciety' (No. 397) in 1727. In the following pole. The committee made two reports. year Robins published in The Present State In 1741 Robins was an unsuccessful canof the Republic of Letters' for May 1728 a didate for the appointment of professor of masterly confutation of a dissertation by fortification at the royal military academy Jean Bernouilli on the laws of motion in recently established at Woolwich. In 1742 bodies impinging on one another. Bernouilli he published his best known work, New had vainly endeavoured to establish Leibnitz's Principles of Gunnery,' which he had begun theory. Robins's admitted victory over the by way of supporting his candidature. This veteran mathematician procured him many work, the result of many experiments which scholars, whom he instructed individually he had made on the force of gunpowder, and and not in classes. He continued for some the resisting power of the air to swift and years teaching pure and applied mathematics slow motions, was preceded by an account of and physical science; but, chafing against the progress of modern fortification, of the the confinement entailed by such a life, he invention of gunpowder, and of what had gradually gave it up and became an en- already been observed of the theory of gineer. He now devoted himself to the con- gunnery. Robins's book was translated into struction of mills and bridges, the drainage German by Euler, who wrote a critical comof fens, the making of harbours, and the mentary on it (Berlin, 1745). Euler's comrendering of rivers navigable. He also studied mentary was translated into English, and the principles of gunnery and of fortification. published by order of the board of ordnance,

In this new departure he received con- with remarks and useful tables by Hugh siderable assistance from his friend, William Brown of the Tower of London. New Ockenden, and travelled in Flanders in order Principles of Gunnery' was translated into French by Le Roy for the Academy of containing the nautical observations; the Sciences of Paris in 1751.

manuscript he took with him to India, and Robins invented the ballistic pendulum, a when he died in that country it could not very ingenious contrivance for measuring the be found. velocity of a projectile, and in 1742 he read

Robins's reputation as a pamphleteer caused & paper on the subject before the Royal him to be employed on an apology for the Society, of which he was admitted a fellow battle of Prestonpans, which formed a preon 16 Nov. 1727. He also read several papers face to the Report of the Proceedings and on gunnery questions, and in 1746 and the fol- Opinion of the Board of General Officers on lowing year exhibited to the society various their Examination into the conduct of Lieuexperiments. In 1747 he received the Copley tenant-general Sir John Cope,' 1749. On medal.

4 May 1749 a paper by Robins on Rockets There appeared in 1747 his Proposal for and the Heights to which they ascend' was increasing the Strength of the British Navy read before the Royal Society, and on 13 Dec. by changing all the guns from the eighteen- 1750 an account of some experiments made pounders downwards into others of equal by Robins and others on the flight of rockets. weight but of a greater bore. A letter which By the favour of Lord Anson, Robins was he addressed on the subject to Admiral Lord able to continue his experiments in gunnery, Anson was read before the Royal Society on the results of which were published from 9 April 1747. In this year the Prince of time to time in the Philosophical TransacOrange invited Robins to assist in the de- tions.' He also contributed to the improvefence of Bergen-op-Zoom, then invested by ment of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich the French, but it was taken on 16 Sept. by inducing Lord Anson to procure a second 1747, just after Robins arrived at the head- mural quadrant and other instruments. quarters of the Dutch army.

In 1749 Robins was given the choice of Lord Anson, who was a friend and patron going to Paris as one of the British commisof Robins, after returning from the voyage sioners for adjusting the boundaries of Acadia round the world in the Centurion, appears or of going to India as engineer-general to to have entrusted to Robins for revision repair the forts of the East India Company. the account of the voyage which had been He chose the latter. His precedence in compiled from the journals by his chap- India was to rank with the third in council. lain, Richard Walter (q. v.] There has been He was entrusted with the appointment of considerable dispute as to whether Robins all his subordinates, and given ample funds. or Walter wrote the book, which is en- Lord Anson expressed regret that he was titled in the quarto edition of 1748 · A leaving England. Robins set out at ChristVoyage round the World in the Years 1740- mas 1749, taking with him a complete set 1744 by George Anson, Esq.,' 'published of astronomical instruments, and also inunder his direction by Richard Walter, struments for making observations and exM.A.' (see Anson, GEORGE, LORD Anson.) periments. After a narrow escape from Dr. James Wilson, who published in 1761 a shipwreck, he arrived at Madras on 13 July collected edition of the works of Robins, 1750. He immediately designed complete circumstantially states, on the authority of projects for Fort St. David and the defence Glover and Ockenden, friends of Robins, of Madras. In September he was attacked that the printed book was twice as long as by fever. In 1751 he fell into a low state Walter's manuscript, which merely consisted of health, and died, unmarried, on 29 July of bare extracts from the journals kept during 1751 at Fort St. David, with the pen in his the voyage; that Robins worked them into hand, while drawing up a report for the shape, wrote an introduction, and added dis- board of directors. sertations. In an indenture between Robins In mannerunostentatious, without pedantry and the booksellers, John and Paul Knapton, or affectation, Robins was a lively and enterRobins was treated as the sole proprietor. taining conversationalist. Ile was always On 22 Oct. 1749 Lord Anson wrote to Robins ready to communicate to others the result of from Bath to ask whether he intended to his studies and labours. He left the publicapublish the second volume before he left tion of his works to his friend Martin Folkes, England, and Lady Anson, in a letter to Dr. president of the Royal Society; but Folkes, Birch, asks if Robins's second volume is owing to a paralytic attack, was unable to ready. On the other hand, the widow and act, and Thomas Lewis, Robins's executor, children of Walter claimed that the work entrusted the work to Dr. James Wilson, was written by him. It seems probable that who, in 1761, published Mathematical Robins revised and edited the work, and was Tracts' (London, 2 vols. 8vo), containing especially entrusted with the second volume, / 'Principles of Gunnery,' together with many



other pieces and a memoir of Robins. The own advertisements, and, high-flown and book became a text-book, and Dr. Charles fantastic as they were, in no instance was a Hutton issued a new edition in 1805. Be- purchase repudiated on the ground of missides the papers mentioned, he contributed direction. Among his more remarkable sales to the “Transactions of the Royal Society' was that of the twenty-seven years' lease of two on the • Resistance of the Air, to- the Olympic Theatre, for the executors of Mr. gether with the Method of computing the Scott, when, on 20 June 1810, by his good Motions of Bodies projected in that Medium,' management the price was run up from read June 1746; An Account of a Book 3,5001. to 5,8501. In 1842 he was commisentitled " New Principles of Gunnery," con- sioned by the Earl of Waldegrave to dispose taining the Determination of the Force of of the contents of Strawberry Hill, including Gunpowder and an Investigation of the Re- the valuable collections made by Horace sisting Power of the Air to Swift and Slow Walpole. This sale, which attracted buyers Motions' (No. 469, p. 437); • Experiments from all parts of the world, commenced showing that the Electricity of Glass dis- 23 April 1812, and occupied twenty-four turbs the Mariner's Compass and also nice days, the proceeds being 29,6151. 8s. 9d. Balances,' 1746 ; ' An Account of Experi- Perhaps no man in his station was ever ments relating to the Resistance of the Air,' more courted by his superiors; they profited 1747 ; "On the Force of Gunpowder, to- by his advice, and were amused by his eccengether with the Computation of the Velo- tricities. In 1813 he gave a dinner to Lord cities thereby communicated to Military Byron, Lord Kinnaird, Douglas Kinnaird, Projectiles,' 1747 ; “A Comparison of the Sheridan, Colman, John Kemble, and other Experimental Ranges of Cannon and Mor- eminent men (Moore, Life of Byron, 1847, tars, with the Theory contained in preceding pp. 182, 282). In conjunction with Mr. CalPapers,' 1751 ; 'A Letter to the President of craft, he in 1817 and 1818 exposed the bad the Royal Society in answer to his, enclosing management of the sub-committee of Drury a Message from the Chevalier d'Ossorio, En- Lane Theatre, and became the chief means voy of the King of Sardinia,' 7 Jan. 1747 ; of obtaining a new arrangement by which the

Of the Nature and Advantages of Rifled- house was released from debt; at a later barrel Pieces,' July 1747.

period his exertions were instrumental in re[Watt's Bibliogr. Brit. ; Journal des Sçavans, suscitating the fortunes of Covent Garden. 1743 and 1755; Nova Acta Erudit. 1746; Mém. He was a great advocate of the claims of de l'Acad. des Sciences à Paris, 1750 and 1751; comedians and their families to public symMém. des Sciences et Belles-Lettres à Berlin, pathy; for John Emery’s wife and children 1755 ; Orme's Hist. of the Military Transactions he in 1822 obtained a competency, and Mrs. of the British Nation in Indostan from 1745; | Bland and others were indebted to him for Rose's Biogr. Dict.; Chalmers's Biogr. Dict.; exertions in their behalf. Biogr. Brit, Supplement; Martin's Biogr. Philos.; Outof an income reputed to exceed 12,0001. Hutton's Dict.; Barrow's Life of George, Lord

a year, he devoted large sums to charity; Anson, 1839; The Analyst, or a Discourse ad- once, at Margate, he was assisting the funds dressed to an Infidel Mathematician, by George of the Sea Bathing Infirmary by holding a Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, 1734; Coxe's Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir plate for contributions outside the church Robert Walpole, 1800.]

R. H. V.

gate, when he, with others, was taken into

custody as a rogue and a vagabond for begging, ROBINS, GEORGE HENRY (1778- and was compelled to attend the Dover 1847), auctioneer, son of Henry Robins, an sessions, where, however, no evidence was auctioneer in the Great Piazza, Covent Gar- offered. In an action which he instituted den, who died on 15 Sept. 1821, aged 68, was against the magistrates of Margate at the born in London in 1778. Before attaining Maidstone assizes he obtained 501. damages. the age of nineteen he was unexpectedly A tablet in the wall of the institution at Marcalled on to officiate for his father at à sale in gate records his victory. In a work entitled Yorkshire, and thenceforth, during a period D'Horsay, or the Follies of the Day, by a of fifty years, conducted a large business. The Man of Fashion' [i.e. John Mills), Robins tact with which every advantage connected is introduced under the name of Mr. George with the property he had to describe was Bobbins, and there is a portrait of him standseized upon and turned to profit in his glowing ing in his rostrum in his sale-room (D’Horsay, descriptions, and his ready wit and repartee 1844, pp. 46-52). Shortly before his death in the rostrum, caused him to be one of the he was offered two thousand guineas and all most successful and persuasive advocates in his expenses to go to the United States of seducing his auditors to bid freely that ever America to dispose of a valuable property in appeared at the auction mart. He wrote his New York.

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