Elements of Mental Philosophy: Embracing the Two Departments of the Intellect and the Sensibilities, Volum 1

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Harper & Brothers, 1857 - 515 sider
 

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No beginning or change of existence without a cause
26
Matter and mind have uniform and fixed laws
27
This primary truth not founded on reasoning
28
On the meaning of the terms material and immaterial
30
Difference between mind and matter shown from language
31
The souls immateriality indicated by the feeling of identity
32
The material doctrine makes a man a machine
33
No exact correspondence between the mental and bodily state
34
Evidence of this want of exact correspondence
35
Comparative state of the mind and body in dreaming
36
The great works of genius an evidence of immateriality
37
The doctrine of materiality inconsistent with future existence
39
laws of belief 24 Of belief its degrees and its sources
41
Memory and testimony considered as sources of belief
42
Objection to reliance on testimony
44
Of relative suggestion as a ground of belief
45
Of reasoning as a ground or law of belief
46
general classification 30 The mind may be regarded in a threefold point of view
47
Kvidence of the general arrangement from consciousness
48
Kvidence of the same from the terms found in different languages
50
Further proof from various writers on the mind
53
Classification of the intellectual states of the mind
55
iil CONTENTS DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES Or THE MIND PAR...
57
Bectbn Tt 36 Connexion of the mind with the material world
59
Of the origin or beginnings of knowledge
60
Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin
62
Further proof of the beginnings of knowledge from external causes
64
The same subject further illustrated
65
Subject illustrated from the case of James Mitchell
66
Illustration from the case of Caspar Hauser
67
Of connatural or innate knowledge
69
The doctrine of innate knowledge not susceptible of proof
70
The doctrine tried by the idea of a God
71
The discussion of this subject superseded and unnecessary
73
Further remarks on the rise of knowledge by means of the senses
74
sensation and perception 48 SensatioK a simple mental state originating in the senses
76
Sensations are not images or resemblances of objects
78
The connexion between the mental and physical change not sus ceptible of explanation
80
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
81
Of the secondary qualities of matter
82
Of the nature of mental powers or faculties
83
Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
84
Of the connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
85
Order in which the senses are to be considered
86
Of the sense and sensation of smell
87
Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations
88
Design and uses of the senses of smell and taste 39
89
Chap IV the sense of hearing 63 Organ of the sense of hearing
90
Nature of sonorous bodies and the medium of the communication of sound
91
Varieties of the sensation of sound
92
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
93
Application of these views to the art of ventriloquism
94
Uses of hearing and its connexion with oral language
96
the sense of touch 69 Of the sense of touch and its sensations in general
97
Idea of externality suggested in connexion with the touch
98
declioo Piga 71 Origin of the notion of extension and of form and figure
99
On the sensations of heat and cold
100
On the sensation of hardness and softness
102
Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
103
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
104
Of the organ of sight and the uses or benefits of that sense
105
7 Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
106
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
107
The idea of extension not originally from sight
108
Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight
109
Measurements of magnitude by the eye
111
Of objects seen in the mist and of the sun and moon in the horizon
112
Of the estimation of distances by sight
114
Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects
116
Of objects seen on the ocean c
117
Supposed feelings of a being called into existence in the full pos session of his powers
118
of reliance on the senses 87 By means of sensations we have a knowledge of outward things
122
Objection to a reliance on the senses
123
Some alleged mistakes of the senses owing to want of care
125
Of mistakes in judging of the motion of objects
127
Of mistakes as to the distances and magnitude of objects
129
The senses liable to be diseased
130
On the real existence of a material world
131
Doctrine of the nonexistence of matter considered
132
The senses as much grounds of belief as other parts of our con stitution
133
Opinions of Locke on the testimony of the senses
134
habits of sensation and perception 98 Oeneral view of the law of habit and of its applications
135
Of habit in relation to the smell
138
Of habit in relation to the hearing
140
Of certain universal habits based on sounds
142
Application of habit to the touch
143
Other striking instances of habits of touch
146
Habits considered in relation to the sight
147
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase of power
149
Of habits as modified by particular callings or arts
150
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception cf he outlines and forms of objects
151
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine
152
muscular habits 111 Instances in proof of the existence of muscular habits
154
Muscular habits regarded by some writers as involuntary
155
Objections to the doctrine of involuntary muscular habits
156
conceptions 114 Meaning and characteristics of conceptions
158
Of conceptions of objects of sight
159
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
161
Of the subserviency of our conceptions to description
162
Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
163
inceptions which are joined with perceptions 145
165
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations 107
167
Origin of the distinction of simple and complex 08
168
Nature and characteristics of simple mental states ISO 124 Simple mental states not susceptible of definition
169
i25 Simple mental states representative of a reality
170
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
171
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
172
The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood
173
Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind
174
Complex notions of external origin
175
Of objects contemplated as wholes
176
Something more in external objects than mere attributes or qua ities
177
Imperfections of our complex notions of external objects
178
abstraction 134 Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas
180
Instances of particular abstract ideas
181
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
182
of generalizations of particular abstract mental states
183
Of the importance and uses of abstraction
184
general abstract ideas 139 General abstract notions the same with genera and species
185
Early classifications sometimes incorrect
186
Illustration of our earliest classifications
187
Of the nature of general abstract ideas
188
Objection sometimes made to the existence of general notions
190
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers Ate
191
Of general abstract truths or principles
192
Of different opinions formerly prevailing
193
Of the opinions of the Realists
194
Of the opinions of the Nominalists
195
Further remarks of Brown on general abstractions
197
op attention 153 Of the general nature of attention
198
Of different degrees of attention
199
Dependance of memory on attention
200
Of exercising attention in reading
202
Alleged inability to command the attention
203
Chap XVdreaming 158 Definition of dreams and the prevalence of them 304
204
Connexion of dreams with our waking thoughts 805
205
Dreams are often caused by our sensations
206
Explanation of the incoherency of dreams 1st cause
207
Second cause of the incoherency of dreams
208
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
209
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
210
our estimate of time in dreaming 311
211
Section Ptf 166 Of the senses sinking to sleep in succession 813
213
General remarks on cases of somnambulism
214
68 Further illustrations of somnambulism
216
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MJKT PART SECOND TH...
219
Section PM 169 The soul has fountains of knowledge within
221
Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself
222
Opinions of Cud worth on the subject of internal knowledge
223
Further remarks of the same writer on this subject
224
Writers who have objected to the doctrine of an internal source of knowledge
226
Knowledge begins in the senses but has internal accessions
228
Instances of notions which have an internal origin
229
Imperfections attendant on classifications in mental philosophy
231
original suggestion 171 Import of suggestion and its application in Reid and Stewart
232
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
234
Origin of the idea of externality
236
Idea of matter or material existence
237
Origin of the idea of motion
238
Of the nature of unity and the origin of that notion
239
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession
240
Origin of the ideas of moral merit and demerit
252
Of other elements of knowledge developed in suggestion
253
Suggestion a source of principles as well as of ideas
254
consciousness
256
Consciousness the second source of internal knowledge its natuie 25G 197 Further remarks on the proper objects of consciousness
257
Consciojsness a ground or law of belief
258
Instances of knowledge developed in consciousness
259
relative suggestion or judgment 200 Of the susceptibility of perceiving or feeling relations
261
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
262
Of the use of correlative terms
263
Of relations of identity and diversity
264
Of axioms in connexion with relations of identity and diveraily 205
265
Relations of degree in adjectives of the positive form
266
III Of relations of proportion
268
V Of relations of time
270
VI Of relations of possession
271
VII Of relations of cause and effect
272
Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect
273
Connexion of relative suggestion or judgment with reasoning
274
Reasons for considering this subject here
275
Meaning of association and illustrations
276
Of the general laws of association
277
Resemblance the first general law of association
278
Resemblance in every particular not necessary
279
Of resemblance in the effects produced
280
Contrast the second general or primary law
281
Contiguity the third general or primary law
282
Cause and effect the fourth primary law
284
Secondary laws and their connexion with the primary
285
Of the influence of lapse of time
286
Secondary law of repetition or habit
287
Of the secondary law of coexistent emotion
288
Original difference in the mental constitution
289
The foregoing law as applicable to the sensibilities
290
Of association caused by present objects of perception
292
Causes of increased vividness in these instances
294
casual associations i intellectual 233 Association sometimes misleads our judgments
295
Casual association in respect to the place of sensation
296
Connexion of our ideas of extension and time
297
Of high and low notes in music
298
Connexion of the ideas of extension and colour
299
Tendency of the mind to pass from the sign to the thing signified
301
Whether there be heat in fire c
302
Benefit of examining such connexions of thought
304
Power of the will over mental associations
305
Association controlled by indirect voluntary power
306
Further illustrations of indirect voluntary power
307
Remarks on the general nature of memory
309
Of memory as a ground or law of belief
310
Of differences in the strength of memory
311
Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in time and place
312
Illustrations of specific or circumstantial memory
314
Of philosophic memory or that species of memory which is based pn other relations than those of contiguity
315
Further illustrations of philosophic memory
317
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
318
53 Instance illustrative of the preceding
319
Section Pag 254 Remarks on the memory of the aged
320
On the compatibility of strong memory and good judgment
322
Marks of a good memory
324
Directions or rules for the improvement of the memory
325
Further directions for the improvement of the memory
327
Of observance of the truth in connexion with memory
329
61 Of mnemonics or systems of artificial memory
330
duration of memory 262 Restoration of thoughts and feelings supposed to be forgotten
331
Mental action quickened by influence on the physical system
333
Other instances of quickened mental action and of a restoration of thoughts
334
Approval and illustrations of these views from Coleridge
335
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
337
Connexion of this doctrine with the final judgment and a future life
339
reasoning 269 Reasoning a source of ideas and knowledge
340
Illustrations of the value of the reasoning power
341
Definition of reasoning and of propositions
342
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
344
Grounds of the selection of propositions
345
Of reasoning a priori
348
Of reasonings posteriori
350
Of reasoning a fortiori
351
Of habits of reasoning
353
Of reasoning in connexion with language or expression
354
demonstrative reasoning 281 Of the subjects of demonstrative reasoning
356
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative reasoning
357
The opposites of demonstrative reasonings absurd
358
Demonstrations do not admit of different degrees of belief
359
Of the use of diagrams in demonstrations
360
Of signs in general as connected with reasoning
361
Of the influence of demonstrative reasoning on the mental char acter
362
88 Further considerations on the influence of demonstrative reasoning
363
moral reasoning 89 Of the subjects and importance of moral reasoning
365
Of the nature of moral certainty
366
Of reasoning from analogy
367
EOfl Caution to be used in reasoning from analogy
368
Of reasoning by induction
369
Of the caution necessary in inductive processes
370
Of instances or experiments in inductive reasoning termed instan tias crucis
371
Of combined or accumulated arguments
372
practical directions in reasoning 297 Rules relating to the practice of reasoning
373
Stctioa fXV 299 Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
374
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
375
Reject the aid of false arguments or sopliUms
376
Fallacta equivocationia or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
379
Of adherence to our opinions
380
Effeci on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
381
imagination 30f Imagination an intellectual process closely related to reasoning
383
Definition of the power of imagination
384
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
385
Further remarks on the same subject
386
Illustration from the writings of Or Reid
387
Illustration of the subject from Milton
388
The creations of the imagination not entirely voluntary
389
Illustration of the statements of the preceding section
390
On the utility of the faculty of the imagination
391
Works of imagination give different degrees of pleasure
392
Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning
394
Of misconceptions by means of the imagination
396
Explanation of the above misrepresentations of the imagination
397
Feelings of sympathy aided by the imagination
398
Of complex ideas of external origin
399
Nature of complex ideas of internal origin
400
Of the help afforded by names in the combination of numbers
401
Instances of complex notions made up of different simple ideas
402
32G Not the same internal complex ideas in all languages
404
B
406
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART THIRD IMP...
409
Section tag 328 Disordered intellectual action connected with the body
411
The mind constituted on the principle of aconnexion with the body
412
Illustration of the subject from the effects of old age
413
The connexion of the bodily system with the mental shown from the effects resulting from diseases
414
Shown also from the effects of stimulating drags and gases
415
Influence on the body of excited imagination and passion
416
This doctrine of use in explaining mental phenomena
417
excited conceptions or apparitions 335 Of excited conceptions and of apparitions in general
418
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sight
419
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sound
421
Neglect of periodical bloodletting
424
Methods of relief adopted in this case
426
Third cause of excited conceptions Attacks of fever
427
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions In flammation of the brain
428
Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited conceptions
429
Fifth cause of apparitions Hysteria
430
partial insanity 315 Meaning of the term and kinds of insanity
431
Of disordered or alienated sensations
432
Of disordered or alienated external perception
433
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
434
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
435
Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion
436
Disordered or alienated association Lightheadedness
437
Of partial insanity or alienation of the memory
438
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
440
Instance of the above form of disordered reasoning
441
Of readiness of reasoning in the partially insane
442
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
443
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
444
Idea of total insanity or delirium
446
Of perception in cases of total or delirious insanity
447
Illustration of the above section
448
Of the memory in connexion with delirious insanity
449
Of the power of reasoning in total or delirious insanity
450
Of the form of insanity called furor or madness
451
Of moral accountability in mental alienation
452
Of the imputation of insanity to individual
453
369 Of the treatment of the insane
454

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Side 418 - Me oft has fancy ludicrous and wild Soothed with a waking dream of houses, towers, Trees, churches, and strange visages, expressed In the red cinders, while with poring eye I gazed, myself creating what I saw.
Side 220 - The other fountain from which experience furnisheth the understanding with ideas, is the perception of the operations of our own mind within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got ; which operations, when the soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the understanding with another set of ideas, which could not be had from things without ; and such are perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing...
Side 396 - Must kings neglect that private men enjoy! And what have kings that privates have not too, Save ceremony— save general ceremony?
Side 220 - This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense...
Side 277 - How soft the music of those village bells, Falling at intervals upon the ear In cadence sweet ! now dying all away, Now pealing loud again, and louder still, Clear and sonorous, as the gale comes on.
Side 199 - The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, When neither is attended ; and, I think The nightingale, if she should sing by day, When every goose is cackling, would be thought No better a musician than the wren.
Side 392 - He was passionately fond of the beauties of nature ; and I recollect once he told me, when I was admiring a distant prospect in one of our morning walks, that the sight of so many smoking cottages gave a pleasure to his mind, which none could understand who had not witnessed, like himself, the happiness and the worth which they contained.
Side 138 - Could the youth, to whom the flavour of his first wine is delicious as the opening scenes of life, or the entering upon some newly-dis- . covered paradise, look into my desolation, and be made to understand what a dreary thing it is when a man shall feel himself going down a precipice with open eyes and a passive will...
Side 289 - To behold the wandering moon, Riding near her highest noon, Like one that had been led astray Through the...
Side 289 - Where the great Sun begins his state Robed in flames and amber light, The clouds in thousand liveries dight; While the ploughman, near at hand, Whistles o'er the furrowed land, And the milkmaid singeth blithe, And the mower whets his scythe, And every shepherd tells his tale Under the hawthorn in the dale.

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