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Two questions remain, where possibly least of all the place where English should be more difference of opinion is to be expected: studied without some sound knowledge of its as to whether the other modern Literatures origin : that in po scheme of Literature can are to be included in the school, and whether Chaucer be omitted, and that to read Chaucer language is to be studied as well as litera- with no knowledge of middle English is ture. The first one may be dismissed very hardly less absurd than to read Homer with briefly. No proposal has been made, and it only a knowledge of Attic : that if a knowmay be assumed that no proposal will be ledge of Anglo-Saxon and the elements of made, to put in the other Modern Languages Gothic, sufficient to give some first-hand except as alternatives to English. The Pall knowledge of the beginnings of English Mall professes to be afraid of English being Literature, can be acquired with a few *associated with modern languages. We months' study, as competent authorities fail to see why the most bigoted opponent of assure us, it would be a great pity to sacria school of modern European languages and fice the chance of making the survey of the literature need object to such .association' ground relatively complete, for the sake of as is implied in the system of alternatives. keeping in the course a mass of classics of If Mr. Collins thinks the study of French which the old is a repetition of Moderationwould act prejudicially on the study of studies, and much of the new is comparatively English, a view which strikes us as ground- irrelevant. And there is another dadger less, at any rate we fail to see how a student which the addition of the language would of English is damnified by the fact that avoid. A course of teaching which is another man in the same university is reading literary merely, though stimulating in diFrench, and will be examined at the same verse degrees, and likely to evoke the highest time, and appear in the same Class List. faculties of a few, may with many minds
The other question, whether language have too indefinite a character, and with not shall be added to literature in the new a few tend to sink into the communication school, will no doubt be much more hotly of opinions and criticisms learned at seconddiscussed. It is idle to attempt to shake a hand. The element of definiteness in linhardened and impenitent Antiphilologer like guistic study: the training in accuracy, Mr. Collins, with his great gifts, his wide capable of being brought to a test : the sense knowledge of literature, and his strongly of mastery acquired in learning an unfamiliar formed and loudly expressed opinions. But tongue : the tracing relations between the a few considerations may be offered which earlier and later forms of the language : may
have weight with the more ordinary and these things would be present to correct the practical men, who after all will have to dangerous tendency referred to, and to mako decide the question of the new studies, and the combined study more of a mental trainprescribe the conditions and the course.
And all this is apart from the light is indeed one of the unfortunate results of which the study of language must necessarily Mr. Collins's forcible style of controversy, throw upon literature, and on which much that he feels himself bound successively to more might be said. repudiate and rebuke the Oxford and Cam- Much of this, no doubt, those who agree bridge teachers of English, the University with Mr. Collins would admit: some of it he legislators,2 and popular opinion, which at has himself admitted in his article. His least will go for something in the settle difficulty is the shortness of the time, which ment.
no doubt, under his classical scheme, parIt may, for example, be plausibly urged ticularly as he only allows a year for the that if English Literature has been neglected, systematic study of English,' would be fatal so still more has the English language : that to any possibility of including language. for a hundred men who leave the University But under the more reasonable scheme herc with some knowledge of the literature, not advocated, where the classics are not systemone can be found who knows as much of the atically read beyond Moderations, and two growth of his own language as he does of years and a term are thus saved for English, the Classical tongues : that the University is the difficulty disappears.
1 October Quarterly.
· January Quarterly, p. 242.
3 January Quarterly, p. 243.
Quarterly, p. 259.
Homer : an Introduction to the Iliad and the course, on the works of Helbig and the
Odyssey. By R. C. JEBB, Litt.D., &c. Königsberg school respectively, I would Glasgow : Maclehose, 1887.
earnestly recommend the fourth, on the
Homeric Question, to the consideration of It is a strange thing that we should have had all English scholars. to wait till this year for a handy introduc- Professor Jebb has definitely and boldly tion to Homer, but it is stranger to think thrown in his lot with the adherents of what that even in Germany there has not appeared, has been not unhappily called the ‘Crystalso far as I am aware, any work possessing lization theory,' the hypothesis of a primitive claims to do what Professor Jebb has done. epic of the Wrath of Achilles expanded by The want, now that it has been met, seems the insertion of many lays of various coinso obvious, and yet so well within the limits pass by later hands. The substance of the of a reasonable treatment, that it is hard to primary Ilial' is to be found in books 1, 11, see why the beginner should have been left and 16 to 22 inclusive—allowance being to glean his general conspectus of the sub- made for later interpolations, large or small, ject from histories of Greece, histories of in books 16–22.' The group of books 2 to Greek literature, histories of art, and the 7 represents the earliest series of additions introductions or notes of commentators. made (not all at one time or hy one hand) to However industrious the student, and how- the primary Iliad.' Books 12 to 15 are 'a ever excellent his authorities in each of skilful and brilliant expansion,' 'thoroughly these departments, he laboured perforce worthy of a great poet'-(though I cannot at under the disadvantage of piecemeal learning, all agree with Mr. Jebh in regarding these now confused by fundamental contradictions, books as
even possibly the work of one now left entirely in the lurch as if by mutual hand; in no part of the Iliad is the narraconsent. It is hardly necessary to say that tive more uneven and complicated than here). such works as Mr. Gladstone's Primer' When the additions had reached this point, could not fill the gap, while Hartley Cole- no further amplification of the original ridge's Introduction to the Study of the Greek simple plot would be possible ; for the space Poets is long out of date.
between 11 and 16 was now filled with Conciseness, with all its drawbacks, being events, while any further retardation begranted as an absolute necessity for learners, tween 1 and 11 would be tedious. Hence Professor Jebb's handbook is as good as it the artitice of duplicating' the turningwell could be. Within the limits, and with point of the story, the discomfiture of the the aim, to which he rigorously confines Greeks, by the insertion of books 8 and 9-himself, we do not of course look for any book 10 did not yet exist. very novel views or surprising theories ; we With regard to 23 and 24 the case is expect, and we find, a clear and lucid state- different. They are concerned with a subment of the most approved results of criti- ject always of extreme interest to Greek cism, informed and illustrated by their hearers—the rendering of due burial rites.' passage through a mind of singular tact and If they are viewed simply in relation to the delicacy of judgment. In no part of the plot, there is no reason why they should book is this more conspicuous than in the not have belonged to the primary Iliad first chapter on • General Characteristics,' itself. It is the internal evidence of lanwhich is full of acute and instructive re- guage and style which makes this improbmarks on the position of the Epic, whether able.' Book 24, Professor Jebb thinks, may as Volksepos or learned poem, in the history possibly be by the author of book 9, to which of literature. The whole chapter is a model it forms a brilliant antithesis.' All these of quiet and luminous criticisin.
books must be older than circ. 850–800 B.C., Passing lightly over the next two chap- while the remaining book, 10, and the ters, on 'the Homeric World' and Homer greater interpolations may be referable, in Antiquity,' both excellent specimens of perhaps, to circ. 750–600 B.C. Under the accurato condensation, based in the main, of "greater interpolations' Professor Jebb in
cludes the episode of Phoenix in 9; the in- whole Iliad is the allusion to the fact that terview between Nestor and Patroclus, 11 the plain of Troy can be seen from the top 596–848 or at least so much of it as is of Samothrace; and that occurs in a passage comprised in 665-762' (the earlier part of which for many reasons must be considered it is surely essential to the primitive poem); late (xiii. 12-14). The other natural features the making of the armour in 18; the Theo- mentioned in the note on p. 148 are not dismachia in 20, 4-380 (to this should be added tinctive of any locality. Here again, howalso the actual Theomachy in 21, 383–514); ever, it is more pleasant to welcome agresthe funeral games in 23 ; and the Catalogue, ment than to accentuate differences ; and even by a Boeotian poet of the Hesiodic school, the ultimate reference of but a small part of in 2, 484-779.
the Iliad, as a poem, to Europe is an imThe view thus summarily condensed co- portant point d'appui for a fresh examination incides, im grossen und ganzen, so completely of the evidence. It does not seem probable with my own belief that I have no wish to to me, however, that we have to look to criticize it, and can only gratefully welcome Thessaly; with the single exception of the appearance of so powerful a champion Achilles, an indispensable datum of the on the side of what I hold to be the truth. legend, the important heroes all belong to A matter of more importance, however, is S. Greece and the islands; it is Argos and this very significant indication of the ten- the Argives, as Cleisthenes complained, not dency of modern Homeric criticism to rally, the Myrmidons, who are glorifieil
. The little after many years of independent and mutu- linguistic evidence there is points to the ally destructive combat, round a single Peloponnesus ; the affinities of the non-Ionic standard. All the best recent work has forms are with the Cyprian-Arcadian rather been converging towards agreement; in the than with the Thessalian. Compare for general spirit in which they view the Iliad, instance Cyprian and Homeric Trółis with Naber, Sittl, Niese, Christ, Fick, however Thessalian TTólis. discordant in details, are really allies, as The book contains appendices treating of against the Right of the Unitarians and the 'the House at Tiryns,'—a condensation of Extreme Left of the Lachmannianer. Even Professor Jebb's recent paper in the Journal Hentze, as appears from the preface to the of Hellenic Studios rather too polemical and last published part of his Iliad (the third long for the general character of the book, edition of books vii.-ix.) has at length given but in the main I think right-and of various up his belief that 8 and 9 belong to the linguistic points; and closes with a useful original poem, and will probably be found in list of books. Instead of discussing these at the same camp in a few months. Then there length, it will be more useful to note a few will at last be something like concord in the corrections for future editions. On page 1 modern school. The fundamental point to be the 'songs on the death of a beautiful youth' settled is the original sequence of books are not very happily cited as instances of 1-11-16; if that is once admitted, all other Indo-European Nature worship. Of the five differences are insignificant.
names given as belonging to such hymns one, With regard to the place of origin of the Linus, is probably Semitic (as Prafessor Jebb poems Professor Jebb is a modified adherent himself points out on the next page), and of the European’ theory, holding that at another, Adonis, patently so: and whatever least the primary Niad was composed in we may think of Hyacinthus and Hylas, Greece proper, not in Asia Minor—which Ialemus at least does not wear a very • Indo however he regards as the birthplace of 2-7 European’ look. The Simonides who quotes and a fortiori of all the later books. Here Homer (p. 88) is not for certain he of Ceos ; be seems to me to lay too much stress upon Bergk for instance thinks it was Simonides the supposed knowledge of Asia Minor which
of Amorgos, thus throwing back the date of the poets of 2–7 show. It would have been the quotation 160 years. On
141, note 2, more satisfactory if he had indicated this in Nauck’s σκηπτόοχος for σκηπτούχος cannot be somewhat greater detail. I can recollect no quoted for the restoration of a medial F. On important indication of such knowledge in p. 185 the argument that the suggested these books except in late portions of the derivation of modern Greek poüya from low second. The names of towns in the Troad Latin ruga (rather than from the Homeric are familiar even to the author of book 1, pâyes) fails to carry poûya far enough back' and Sarpedon and his Lycians, as Christ has surely begs the question, which on the evishown, are by no means an integral part of dence cannot be regarded as other than quite the story where they occur. The only really open. It is misleading striking instance of local knowledge in the digamma in the Aeolic alphabet ‘kept its
say that the
place far into the historical age' (p. 140); in many-sided presentment of ancient life and the Aeolic inscriptions properly so called- manners, drawn from the resources of wide those of Aeolis in Asia Minor-the digamma archaeological study. In dealing with the is of course unknown. The statement is orators it is much, of course, to come after correct only if 'Aeolic' be taken in the wide A. Schaefer, Blass, and Prof. Jebb; and sense to include the dialects of Boeotia, Elis, besides these, such works as the Attische Thessaly, etc., an extension of the word Process (with the additional notes by J. H. which is much to be deprecated; or if it Lipsius), Schoe
Lipsius), Schoemann's Antiquities and the means that in the historic age there were new edition of Hermann's Antiquities as far still MSS. of the old Aeolic poets in which as published (e.g. Thalheim's volume on Greek the F was written (see Meister, Gr. Dialekte, law), Caillemer's detached ftudes, Büchsenpp. 103 ff.) The Iliad and Odyssey consist schütz's Besitz und Erwerb, and Becker's of not nearly,' but considerably more than, Charicles in Göll's recension, have been freely 15,000 and 12,000 lines respectively (p. 5, used, and add greatly to the interest of this note 3). Of mere misprints, on p. 30, 1. 18, edition. In part ii. more especially, the latest Ilind 16 should be Iliad 17: p. 87, note 1, German monographs have been laid under 1. 7 one 'Chios' should be 'Rhodos': p. 194, contribution. The new edition of Roeckh's V. (d) the omission of uév after gúkos makes Public Economy, by Fränkl, appeared just the metrical remark unintelligible. On p. too late to be of service. 201, 1. 25 read Turici for Turin, and I. 36, Though the type remains the same, the Danish for Dutch. A few still smaller slips second edition is still more attractively got might be noticed ; but it is superfluous to up than its predecessor. We are inet at say that not one of them detracts sensibly once by an excellent autotype plate of ilfrom the claim of the book to be a trust- lustrative coins, with descriptive letterpress worthy and indispensable guide to the study by Mr. Sandys; an improvement for which of the two great poems.
we have to thank the liberality of the UniWALTER LEAF. versity Press. We naturally turn to see what
use has been made, in part i., of Prof. Joseph Select Private Orations of Demosthenes, with Mayor's criticisms in the Journal of Philology, Introductions and English Commentary,
vi. 240-252. Most of his corrections are by F. A. PALEY, M.A., and J. E. SANDYS, thankfully accepted; in some cases, as in Litt.D. Second edition, 1886.
Pantaen. p. 971, § 16, the editorial dignity
is saved by a show of resistance, while subAn edition which for eleven years has been stantially conceding the point at issue. On in the hands of all English scholars requires Boeot. de Dot. p. 1018, § 33, the note on no long notice. Messrs. Paley and Sandys' undèv ůdekoûvtos is re-written with reference Demosthenes already takes rank as a standard to Mr. Mayor, but with no notice of the strong work, and it will be sufficient to indicate the probability in favour of ovdév, actually found chief alterations, almost all of them, we may in MSS. of authority (e.g. in F). say at the outset, improvements, in the re- croachments of uñ on où in later ages are print now before us. If less ambitious as well known. In the same speech, p. 1021, à contribution to classical philology than § 42, the Attic usage katà ri = διά τί is Shilleto's monumental edition of the De Falsa treated (controversially, too) as equivalent Legatione, it is in some respects more useful to the much rarer pleonasm of katà where to the student. A generation which has we should expect the simple accusative (Katie learnt to admit the incompleteness and Toût' údıkei, Timocr. p. 710, § 32). Ou occasional fallibility of Porson's method of Dionysod. p. 1292, § 32, and p. 1293, $ 37, editing may, without ceasing to honour the the certain corrections of Cobet might have memory of Shilleto, recognise the limitations been defended in a note and not merely of his mind. Exact as he was in verbal quoted as various readings; in the latter scholarship, skilled in the handling of MSS. passage the primitive hand gôs éoti lies but and wonderfully versed in the phraseology half hidden in the tautology géowotal kui of the orators, there were yet whole depart- čo ti oớa. In one or two passages we offer ments of antiquity which, owing to the in- suggestions of our own. Prof. Mayor's rencessant demands on his time, remained closed dering of ouvetuunon (Dionysod. p. 1285, $ 8) to his view, Thus he falls far short of may, we think, be slightly improved upon. Messrs. Paley and Sandys, as well in minute The context alludes to the practice of changknowledge of Grecian history, so important ing the destination of corn-ships in accordance for explaining obscure allusions and fixing with advices after they had sailed, the the date of controverted speeches, as in their natural effects of which would be, not merely
to raise prices where corn was cheap, but to writer whose motto is quicquid agunt homines, lower them where it was dear; this is votum timor ira voluptas, Gaudia, discursus, ointiâv, ‘to bring prices to a level, produce has a good deal of miscellaneous discourse, an equilibrium. This did not suit the ranging over temperance, vegetarianism. Athenians, who wanted an artificial cheapness vivisection, and the management of college at the expense of speculators, and made, not estates. The intention of the author is only the exportation of corn, but its con- admirable, nay noble, and he only emphasizes signment to any other port than Athens a teaching now heard on all hands. Yet, amid capital offence (Adv. Pharm. p. 918, $ 37, the thousand calls upon us, so specious, so wich Sandys' note). The law was of course popular, to attend (for moral reasons) to disregarded in the pursuit of gain, as the bodily health, one is occasionally tempted references show: and the present passage is to ask whether, after all, we have not forinteresting as a proof of greater talent for gotten a once familiar text, Ideo dico vobis business on the part of the Greeks than they ne solliciti sitis animae vestrae, quid manduhave sometimes been credited with. Again, cetis. we are not disposed to agree with Mr. Sandys But apart from its discursiveness, few (Introd. p. lxi, and note on p. 1270 41) things can be imagined more inspiring and that the case of Conon was probably tried suggestive than this pre
suggestive than this preface. For, while before the Forty, sitting as a jury. We Mr. Mayor is a scholar of the first order, conceive that the tetrapákovta were petty
the moral elevation of his character prevents magistrates, not dicasts in the ordinary him from being a self-isolating student. In sense ; and that a case in which the plaintiff the light of his almost prophetic enthusiasm, Ariston had been half-killed must have gone the advance of knowledge is seen to be what before a regular heliastic court, with at least it really is, and what we hope it may one 201, more probably 501, jurors.
day be generally thought in England, an W. WAYTE. element of moral advancement. Philology
and natural science belong, of course, to all Thirteen Satires of Juvenal, with a Commen- countries; yet in view of the wide diffusion tary by John E. B. MAYOR, M.A. Vol. I.
of the English language, it is most important Fourth edition, revised, vol. ii. Third
that we should have original works in both edition, revised. Macmillan, 1886.
departments of knowledge written in English
and from an English point of view. Our It is no exaggeration to say that since debt to Germany, it is true, can never be Casaubon no scholar bas presented repaid. But there is much in what Jacob remarkable a combination as Prof. John Bernays once said to the writer of this article; Mayor of two qualities seldom found in the “Do not translate our books, write afresh in same person, wealth of learning and fresh
your own language, and from within your ness of interest. His commentary on own circle of ideas.' No one has done more Juvenal, long so justly admired for its abun- than Mr. Mayor to aid us towards the reali. dance of illustration, is a work whose im- zation of this object. portance extends far beyond the limits im- Mr. Mayor's book still suffers from the posed by the requirements of textual or imperfection of its form. The pages on the explanatory criticism of his author. Just life of Juvenal (vol. ii. pp. xi.—xx.) should as one learns far more of ancient life from have been transposed to the beginning of Casaubon's Persius than from Persius him the first volume, and the new index to the self, so the present writer has often felt that end of the second. he has learned more of Juvenal's age from The new readings, catalogued p. xlviii. and Mr. Mayor's commentary than from onwards, will have to be carefully studied Juvenal.
by all Latin scholars. The most important The new edition before us contains a large and interesting one, proved beyond all doubt number of new notes ; a new index of phrases by ancient evidence, is in 8, 148, ipse rotam printed at the end of the first volume; and adstringit suflamine mulio consul for multo a new preface, in which the anthor notices sufflamine consul. But auditor saturarum for (among other things), the chief additions adiutor (3, 322): perit hic plus temporis atque recently made to our knowledge of the text, olei plus for petit (7,99): inde Dolabellae atque notably under the auspices of Beer and istinc Antonius for hinc (8, 105) are also, Bücheler. The new index, which has evi- in their several ways, great improvements. dently cost its author immense pains, will With regard to the life of Juvenal, the prove of great value. In the preface, Mr. new edition adds nothing to the pages printed Mayor, as though drawn into the spirit of a in the previous edition at the beginning of