vol. i., in which the evidence is collected, pathize in their views of literature, they debut not sifted. It may be worth while briefly scribe the same world, they talk of the same to indicate the present position of the ques- persons, or (if this be denied) they largely tion.

First, we have the inconsistent tradi- employ the same fictitious names; and, tion given by the manuscript biographies, finally, their diction and turns of expression which agree that Juvenal practised declama- correspond in a remarkable manner. These tion till middle age, but leave us in doubt points will, I hope, be made good with chap whether he was born in the reign of Claudius ter and verse in a future number of the or of Nero, and which, while saying that he Journal of Philology; meanwhile it should be was banished from Rome, differ as to the observed that there seems to have been the time and place of banishment: one account same kind of personal and literary intimacy relegating him to Britain and another to between Juvenal and Martial as existed beEgypt: one dating the event in Domitian's tween Vergil and Horace, Calvus and Catulreign, and assigning it to the anger of the lus. It is difficult to resist the conclusion pantomimus Paris, the other deferring it to that Juvenal must båve begun to write, if the age of Trajan.

not to publish, satires at least as early as the The story of the offence given by Juvenal late years of Domitian's reign. It is urged to Paris may well have arisen from the text that the biographies make Juvenal a decla. of the seventh satire (vv. 87—90), though it mator up to middle age, and that Martial, seems to derive some support from the lines writing as late as 92 A.D., calls him facundus; of Sidonius Apollinaris; Nec qui consimili Martial therefore, it is inferred, only knew deinde cusu. Ad vulgi tenuem stupentes

Juvenal as a declamator. But the word Irati fuit histrionis exul. But, facundus proves nothing. It is several times secondly, the often-quoted inscription of used, by good writers, of literary eloquence Aquinum is cited as adding to the probability (Horace, A.P. 41, Statius Silvae, 1, 4, 28– of Juvenal's banishment to Britain. Why? 30, Martial, 5. 30, 3: 14, 185). The most Because the Decimus Junius Juvenalis there natural conclusion seems to be, taking into mentioned was tribunus or praefectus (the consideration all the facts, that Juvenal word is lost and we cannot therefore ascer- wrote his earlier satires in the later years of tain which) of a cohors Delmatarum. Now Domitian's reign, and retouched them after in 103, 105, and 124 A.D., we know that there the emperor's death. were cohortes Delmatarum in Britain. But, And now comes the really interesting before we infer anything from this, we must question. Do Juvenal's satires give a faithremember that there is no positive evidence ful representation of his social surroundings ? that the Juvenalis of the inscription is our Mr. Mayor would, it seems, be inclined to Juvenal at all : and also that there was a answer yes. “Not in Seneca,' he says, 'not cohors Delmatarum (the fifth) in Germany in in Martial, not in Plutarch, Lucian, the 116 A.D., with which the cohors mentioned younger Pliny, the anthology, do we find in the inscription may be identified on just such a panorama of the world under the emas good grounds as with those in Britain. pire, its beliefs, traditions, education, fasbions,

It would seem then that neither the in- hopes and fears.' No doubt Mr. Mayor is scription por the biographies help us much. right in maintaining, as against the exaggeWhat then do we know? We know that rations of Boissier, that Juvenal is honest. Juvenal wrote his thirteenth satire either in But surely the satires (like other satires 107 or in 119 A.D. For the consulship of since his time) are not so much a panorama Fonteius is there dated sixty years back, and of the world as a chamber of horrors filled Fonteius must be the consul either of 67 or with figures notorious in the society of the of 59 A.D. The second satire was written not capital, the exhibitor being, let us reiuember, very long after Agricola's British campaigns, a provincial whose means did not allow him and probably after the death of Domitian to move in the highest society on equal terms. (A.D. 96). Thus we get a space of thirty-one An honest moralist might, at the present or at least of twenty-three years between the day, easily make up an exciting novel out of second and thirteenth satires: and there are the reports of trials in the Central Criminal allusions in the first, sixth, and eighth satires Court or the Divorce Court. He might digto events occurring from 100 to 116 A.D. dify his proceeding with the name of realisın.

The evidence is not complete without a But who, except the realists, would accept consideration of the relation between Juivenal his work as a faithful picture of life? and Martial. That they were intimate friends Juvenal's honesty need not be denied : but we know from Martial himself ; more than it is impossible to deny either that his picthis, it can easily be shown that they sym- tures are incoherent and strongly rhetorical, or that his morality is largely tinged with for putting within easy reach of the most social prejudice. A nobleman fighting as a modest purses this valuable collection of gladiator is to him a more monstrous spec- ancient interpretations of two writers among tacle than a flagrant case of unnatural vice the most obscure in the Latin language. It (2, 143). Nero's crimes in the eighth satire is certainly true that these obscurities are begin with the murder of his mother and often left quite unsolved by the scholiasts, relations, and end with his love of music and and that without the erudite commentaries the drama. Again, Juvenal (unlike Seneca) which modern scholars have ever since bas nothing to say against slavery or against the Renaissance been continually producing, the games of the amphitheatre : and for phi- we should very often be in complete uncerlosophy he seems to have a feeling not very tainty as to the real meaning of Persius uplike contempt.

or Juvenal : but this is true of all scholia. Space compels us to conclude with these Meanwhile I may remark that the interest remarks a very scanty and inadequate notice of them is by no means confined to the pure of a great book. It only remains to express elucidation of difficulties of meaning. They the hope that Mr. Mayor may soon complete not rarely contain valuable suggestions for his commentary on the second, sixth, and the constitution of the text of the Satires, ninth satires. Unquestionably the sixth as well as out-of-the-way information, and is Juvenal's greatest effort; and Mr. Mayor occasional quotations from lost writers. is not writing for the young.

To come to the sources of the text. In

Persius Iahn's two primary codices were H. NETTLESHIP.

A, a Montpellier MS., No. 212, B, a Vatican

MS., No. 36 H. Bücheler in no way alters A. Persii Flacci D. Iunii Iuvenalis Sulpiciae

this selection of his predecessor : but in 1879

an American Ph.D. of Bonn, by name J. H. Saturae. Recognouit OTTO Iann. Editio

Wheeler of Massachusetts, re-examined the altera curata a FRANCISCO BÜCHELER.

MS. carefully at Rome, and placed the reBerolini : 1886.

sults at Bücheler's disposal. They confirm This edition of the Roman Satirists is a the opinion of Iahn as stated in his Praefatio reprint of the Otto labn of 1868, but a (which is reprinted in this new edition). reprint with such material additions and The third basis for Persius' text, C, is the workiog in the results of so much new celebrated Montpellier codex Pithoeanus, research, as almost to claim the title of a which (as I bave stated in the Academy) has new book. Not that Prof. Bücheler has within the last few years been submitted to deserted the lines or the external form of a microscopic examination by another Bonn his predecessor ; for the apparatus criticus doctor, Rudolf Beer, whose Specilegium Iuis still simple and the new editor's person- venalianum, published by Teubner in 1885, ality is rarely obtruded on the reader. a short pamphlet of eighty-two pages, is Notwithstanding which, the extra matter quite indispensable to every student of both is of such first-rate importance, as to make satirists. Beer also has placed his collation a brief notice of it necessary as well as in Bücheler's hands; and we are now able to useful.

speak with certainty of the readings of this And first, it contains the scholia both to MS., which has never before been possible, Persius and Juvenal. What a gain this is as Iahn's readings were not drawn from a will be felt when it is remembered that personal inspection; nor was the period the editions in which these appear are all when he published them so exacting in more or less difficult to procure. Otto Iahn's respect of minuteness as the present. It larger Persius contains the Persius scholia; is in Juvenal that P is of most importance. but it has long been out of print, and sells Here Iahn is followed by Bücheler in making for fancy prices. His first and larger P generally the basis of his text ; but since Juvenal which similarly contains the Juve- Jahn’s days research has brought to light nal scholia is equally rare. Cramer's separate some other fontes which are of first-rate edition of these latter scholia (it is still the importance. These are (1) the schedae most valuable) is procurable by application Arovienses or Aarau fragments, five leaves to German booksellers, but very rare in which were used as the bindings of books England; Heinrich's involves the purchase of belonging to the library of some Aara u an excellent commentary on the Satires, but

The whole amount contained is written in German, and therefore not so useful between 420-430 verses, a small fraction to ordinary English students. Our thanks are of the whole number of lines in Juvenal, therefore due, nationally, to Prof. Bücheler but interesting as representing the same

XO. I. VOL. I.




recension as P. (2) The Florilegium San- quid est enim quod in libellis meis placeat, gallense, No. 870 at St. Gallen, examined by dictauit auditor.

dictauit auditor. More than probable too Stephan, see Rhein. Mus. xl. p. 263. This is x. 150 Rursus ad Aethiopum populos supplies one capital variant which Bücheler aliosque elephantos for altosque : but here for the first time prints in his text, viii. 148. the new reading is not in P, and is so far Ipse rotam astringit sufflamine mulio

less certain. It is probably on the strength

of Priscian's citation that Bücheler has consul'

admitted it: though internal considerations for multo sufflamine of most MSS. and are here certainly of very great weight, also: edd. This reading is accepted by Mayor for with alios as an alternative few, proin the Preface to his Fourth Edition, bably, would prefer altos : the former an • The juxtaposition mulio consul is Ju- artificial touch quite in the style of the venal all over,' p. xlviii., and is sup- period, the latter rather flat and meaningported by the schol. on viii. 157 and by a less. grammarian in Keil's Gramni. Latin. vi.

It seems strange that our editor should, p. 231. (3) The Bobbian palimpsest frag- after thus showing that he is no slave to a ments in the Vatican, first examined by single dominant codex, accept its reading in Mai, later by Du Rieu, within the last few x. 93 Principis augusta Caprearum in years again by Löwe, whose transcript has rupe sedentis. I hold it to be certain that been published at Iena as a programme by Juvenal would never have been guilty of so Götz, 1884. There are two leaves; one strange a perversion of taste as to use contains Pers. i. 53–78, 79—104: the other ironically a word which would by its sound Juv, xiv. 323, xv. 17, xv. 18—43.

suggest the natural, almost the inevitable In addition to all these Bücheler intro opposite angusta. Nor can I accept P's duces to our notice for the first time a

reading in v. 38 inaequales berullos Virro hitherto neglected claimant, Paris 9345 of tenet phiala, which seems in point of concent. xi., which at the end of Sat. 6 has this struction unexampled. subscription, decem iuvenalis explicit lib. Passing to conjectures, I would signalise secundus incipit lib. iii. legente Aepicarpio x. 54 Ergo superuacua aut quae perniciosa scrinbentis Exuperantio servis. This Servian petuntur ? Propter quae fas est genua incerecension is at present matter for conjecture, rare deorum ? the two questions denoting and must remain so till research has gone two different classes of vows, the undesirfarther.

able and the safe. This is ingenious; but In a short notice it is not possible to do not much in Juvenal's manner. I should more than notice some of the new readings prefer to add si after aut, if there are introduced by Bücheler. Many of these useless or dangerous prayers, what are legiare based on P and are often convincingly timate?' In the difficult passage vi. 167 right. Thus in x. 35 where Iahn prints Malo Venusinam quam te Cornelia mater Praetexta et trabeae fasces lectica tribunal Gracchorum, Bücheler conj. Venustinan, but Bücheler following P which gives Praetexta I have not found his support of the name et rabeae reads Praetextae trabeae, an asyn.

in his discussion of Juvenalian passages in deton which every one familiar with Juvenal Rhein. Mus.


It looks, will accept at once. viii. 205 P gives Inde however, as if it ought to be right, though Dolabella atque stinc cantonius inde, i.e. atque the scholiast appears to have read the istinc Antonius, whereas Iahn, believing that metrically desperate Venusinam. P gave atque hinc follows Lachmann's conj. This new edition, on the whole, marks an atque dehinc. I own myself perfectly con- advance in the criticism of the Satires: it vinced again by the new reading of viii. 67 must give to the study of them that new Segnipedes dignique molam versare nepotes ; interest which springs from a very careful the degenerate descendants of the high-bred presentation of the readings of the primary race-horse would in this Satire on aristocracy MSS. Yet it cannot be final: for Bücheler very appropriately be called his grand-chil having told us much, we naturally ask for dren. What indeed is the myth of Nepos'? more. English scholars in especial, who in I hope it may vanish from Mayor's text as Mayor's edition can claim to have produced it has fron Bücheler's. ii. 322 P gives the most erudite commentary on any Latin Auditor (Satirarum) for that venerable tra- author published since the seventeenth cendition Adiutor which has so often puzzled tury, will of course be sceptical even as undergraduates. Mayor rightly accepts to mulio consul, and far more as to the Auditor. I would suggest as an illustrative other novelties they will find in the new parallel the words of Martial Praef. xii. Si text.


I venture to offer bere a conj. which instead of tantum which MSS. give. Exactly occurred to me in reading Sat. i. 135, 6 similar is the opposition of stare and recum

bere in v. 65, though there it is the slave who Optima siluarum interea pelagique uorabit stands while the guests recline : here it is Rex horum uacuisque toris stantum ipse the master who reclines, wbile the guests iacebit,'

who orght to be there are standing outside.



Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur von ihren Anfängen bis auf die Zeit der Plolemäer. Von FERDINAND BENDER. Leipzig: W. Friedrich.

1886. Pp. xii. 762. SCHOLARS will find nothing new or of special interest to them in Herr Bender's work. Written for those who know little or no Greek, it consists largely of translations, poetical versions, by various bands, and summaries of the masterpieces of Greek literature. The critical and historical matter, generally sound, has no independent value. The author claims to have elucidated the development of Greek literature, but does not seem to me to have added anything to what was already known on the subject, and does not see the relation of the oral nature of the literature to its development. In his preface he hopes to be excused for having devoted more space to the poets than to the prose writers: but this is no excuse for the absence of all appreciation for the literary charm of Thucydides, or for the absence of all attempt to estimate the style of Aristotle. His attitude towards the Homcric question is inconsistent with itself: his criticism of Aristophanes shallow and inadequate. The book seems to have been somewhat hastily put together, and the author apparently has sometimes found the mass of his materials too much for him. On the other hand, measured by the purpose for which it is designed, the book has several good points. The style is light and interesting (for a German work); the chapters on the Lyric poets are discerning and appreciative; Herr Bender neither starts nor adopts any wild theories ; he has managed to include in his 760 pages nearly everything that the class of readers to whom he addresses himself ought to know; and any danger of weariness, which seems according to English notions to be portended by the size of the book, will be due to its length, not to its depth.— F. B. JEVONS.

taken in 1878. Finding many discrepancies in the two collations, in 1882 he carefully collated the MS. throughout, in many places two or three times, and now confidently declares that where he and Koch differ, as they often do, his own report is to be trusted, except perhaps in a few orthographical details.

The preface gives a full account of the Ambrosian MS. and its various correctors and orthography.' For the books de ira Gertz gives the readings of L. (cod. Laurent. 76, 32, snec. xiii). Conjectures, ancient and modern, to 1885, are most exactly recorded in the critical commentary, which also contains several grammatical votos and emendations of the two Senecas, Q. Curtius, Quintilian and Plin. ep. Index prior ‘ea continet, quae in rebus et maxime quidem in sermone memorabilia mihi visa sunt, et de quibus plerumque vel in commentario critico et praefatione vel in locis “Studiorum criticorum "ibi laudatis disputatum est.' Index posterior

eo pertinet, ut genera causasque errorum in A commissorum demonstret.' The former will be of interest to lexicographers, the latter to palacographers.

Doubtless this volume supersedes Koch's, and will always be valued for its exact collation of our chief authority for the text of these books. Bücheler has given us a trustworthy text of the ludus de morte Claudii and of the later epistles, and promises an edition of the whole of Seneca for Teubner's biblio. theca. Still it is to be hoped that Gertz may be enabled to complete his undertaking ; it is a field in which much remains to be done and the labourers are few, as Madvig complained.

I select one passage, where I cannot agree with the editor's conjecture (de otio 3 g 3, p. 256):

Si res publica corruptior est, quam ut adiuvari possit, non nitetur sapiens in superuacuum ncc se nihil profuturus impendet; si parum habebit auctoritatis aut uirium nec illum erit admissura res publica, si ualetudo illum impcdiet, quomodo nauem quassam non deducerct in mare, quomodo noinen in militiam non daret debilis, sic ad iter quoi inhabilis erit, non accedet.

The critical note on the last line runs : Ad iter, quoi inhabilis erit scripsi (ad iter quo inhabilem se sciet Maduig); ad iter quod inhabile sciet A, quod per se defendi potest, ut ostendit Mayor in Journal of Philology, vii. p. 51 89., hic uero uix potest, cum non tam de itineris dificultate quam de sapientis infirmitate nunc agatur.

I still adhere to the MS. reading. The sage will not essay a road which he knows to be impracticable,' is the same thing as 'the sage will not essay a road, for which he is too weak.' Just above it is not said 'as he would not put to sea if ignorant of scamanship,' but as he would not launch a crazy bark,' so here the impossibility of the task justifies the sage in declining it, quite as inuch as bodily infirmity would do. If any change is needed read quod inhabilt (esse) Scict.–J. E. B. M.

pp. xxxiii

L. Annaei Senecae dialogorum libros xii ad codicem

praecipue Ambrosianum recensuit M. C. GERTZ. Hauniae, Gyldendal, 1886. 8vo.

443. The author once hoped to publish the whole of Seneca. If possible, he will take next the epistles. He has been enabled to bring out this instalment of his task only by the liberality of Fr. Hegel, the head of the Gyldendal firm, which had already (1874) published his Studia critica in L. Annaei Senecae dialogos. To Weidmann in Berlin we are indehted for the publication of his edition of the de ben, and de clem. (1876).

The volume is dedicated to J. N. Madvig and J. L. Ussing, praeceptoribus, collegis, amicis.' When H. A. Koch's edition of the dialogues was edited by Vahlen in 1879, Gertz tested Koch's collation of the Ambrosian Ms. by his owu notes




us with a pertinacious chorns, in notes much louder

and harsher than the notes of the frogs of England. βρεκεκεκεξ κοάξ κοάξ. .

They begin with an inarticulate preparatory sound, Aristophanes, Ranas, 209.

like an old Dutch clock groaning in the effort to It must often have occurred to English readers of

strike, and end with a succession of spluttering Aristophanes that the well-known line which I have quacks. The frog language cannot be better rendered placed at the head of this note, does not represent

into articulate speech than by the Brekekekex koax the croak of the common frog with which we are kors of Aristophanes.'— Peloponnesus, p. 103, familiar in England. Some explanation of the dis

The scientific name of the common English frog is crepancy is clearly required ; but all the commentators rana temporaria ; but the Greek frog, as I learn from whom I have consulted, Mitchell, Fritzsche, Kock,

Mr. Alfred Newton, Professor of Zuology in the Paley, Green, and Merry, are silent on the subject.

University of Cambridge, is the rana esculenta, the During a visit to Greece in the Easter vacation of last

edible frog of southern Europe. I find, however, that, year, I happened to have an opportunity of verifying according to the Expédition Scientifique de Moré, the accuracy of the sounds used by the comic poet in

its croak differs tn some extent from that of the same imitation of the music of the marsh. While walking

species in France. La Commission de Morée a cru from Tiryns to Nauplia, as I passed a clump of tali remarquer que son cri n'était pas tout-à-fait le mêms reeds, my attention was arrested by a clamorous noise que celui des Grenouilles də nos environs. Las Grecs resembling that of a number of paroquets engaged in

ne mangent point la chair de cet animal, au contraire, a persistent quarrel. It was obviously the croaking

ils témoignent autant de dégoût que pour toute antra of the Greek frog that I now heard for the first time

sorte de Reptiles.'—Section des Sciences Physiques, III -a series of four short guttural syllables followed by i p. 74, 1833.-J. E. SANDYS. a double quack. In English letters it may perhaps be best represented by keke-kekék koåk koak. I failed

THE VASES FROM THERA.—The vases from Thera to catch either the initial br, or the final s, of the are at present generally dated about 1700 B.C. The Aristophavic line ; but the general resemblance was

date is obtained in this way. The vases were found unmistakable.

under three layers of lava ; this lava must have flowed Having since had occasion to consult, for another

down from the former volcanic cone over the bay purpose, a number of works on Greck travel, I have between Thera and Therasia : the collapse of the cone found the following passages which may be of interest

would have been recorded, had it occurred after our in this connexion :

records for Thera begin : our records for Thera begin "The commion frogs of Greece,' says Dodwell, ‘have about 1500 B.C. ; so that the vases, having existed a note totally different from that of the frugs of the

before the third eruption prior to the collapse of northern climates, and there cannot be a more perfect

the cone some time before 1500 B.C., may be dated imitation of it than the brckckckcx koax koax of Aris

about 1700 B.C. Several olojections may be taken, tophanes.' Classical and Topographical Tour through and particularly two. First, such a convulsion as Grecce, ii 45, ed. 1819.

the collapse of the cone would have demolished the Again Mure, when travelling along the banks of vases and the buildings containing them, had these the ancient Balyra, the chief river of the Messenian

existed then. Secondly, the vases were found, not valley, observes with fuller detail : ‘Here it was that under lava, but under pumice; and although the 1 first had my attention called to the peculiar croak

alleged lava must have flowed down from the former of the Greek frog, which now began with advancing great cone over the bay, the actual pumice might spring to be heard in the marshy grounds, and which,

have been shot up from the present little cones in while not altogether strange to my ear, struck me at

the bay ; and many eruptions of these are recorded the same time as different from that of the same

from 197 B.C. onwards. It might be well to take a animal in any other country where I had happened

millennium or so off the received date. -CECIL TORR. to hear it. It consists of two varieties of note, the first of which cannot be better described than by New MATERIALS FOR THE TEXT OF ARISTOTLE's comparing it to the familiar sound made between the Politics.—Readors of Aristotle's Politics will learn tongue and the gum or palate, in order to excite the with some interest that fragments of books Ill and speed of horses. The second is a mixture of a croak IV on a palimpsest in the Vatican library have been and a quack. These two sounds . . . . succeed each collated by Mr. G. Heylbut for the first number of other at intervals with great regularity, the first

this year's Rheinisches Museum. Such fragments being repeated rather oftener than the second ; nor were known to exist from Mai's statement in Script. were it possible to convey them more accurately to veter. nova collectio II p. 584 ; but he had given the apprehension by written language than has been no clue to their whereabouts, and it was not until done by the vrekekekex, koax, koax, of Aristophanes. last year that they were accidentally rediscovered on This coincidence caused me a sort of gratification twelve leaves belonging to the second volume of a which none but an enthusiastic Hellenist will be able manuscript of Aristides marked gr. 1298. Mai's to appreciate ; and the song of these 'sons of the chemicals had effectually destroyed the writing above morass' formed a most agreeable relief in the sequel

and left the Aristotelian text, except in comparatively to many a dreary hour's march on the swampy plains few cases, quite legible. The handwriting is said to of the coast of Elis.'-Tour, ii 263, 1842.

be of the 10th century: the parchment has thirtyLastly, in the late Mr. W. G. Clark's account of two lines to a page and about forty-seven letters to a his tour with the late Master of Trinity, then Pro

line. Abbreviations are seldom used. Iota adscripfessor of Greek at Cambridge, I find the following

tum is inserted or omitted quite irregularly. The description of their return from the Lernaean Marsh words are not separated, except at pauses in the sense: to the plain of Argos : “A multitude of frogs assailed ν εφελκυστικόν is retained invariably before cous

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