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The Classical Review
The general aim of the promoters of The CLASSICAL REVIEW has been already explained in a Prospectus which has been widely circulated; but it may be well in our first number briefly to recapitulate what was there stated as to the scope of the Review, and to point more directly to the results which we hope may follow from its establishment.
As regards its subject-matter, the Review will deal with all that concerns the language, life, and literature of Greece and Rome down to the year 800 A.D. in the case of the Western, and the year 1453 A.D. in the case of the Eastern Empire, as well as with the history of classical scholarship up to the present time. Oriental languages and history, and general or comparative philology, will be included only in so far as they are directly related to the languages and history of Greece and Rome. But the Review will embrace all that is written in Greek and Latin down to the dates above mentioned, without regard to the distinction commonly made between sacred and profane literature.
It is evident that it will be necessary to define our subject still further if it is to be brought within reasonable compass, so as to admit of thorough treatment in the pages of THE CLASSICAL REVIEW. This liinitation we hope to gain, in the first place, by taking as our starting point and chief concern the interpretation of the ancient texts. We do not propose to deal with Philosophy, or Law Theology, or in the abstract, but with their literary basis. Thus Theology, so far, as it enters into our plan, will be not speculative or systematic, but mainly critical or exegetical. Another limitation will arise out of our manner of treating the subject. Our aim is not so much to provide original matter as to supply an index and chronicle of all that is being done in the field of Classical Antiquity as above defined.
It is thought that a publication based on these lines will supply a real want which has long been felt in this country. Whereas in Germany there are more than twenty periodicals devoted to the exclusive study of Classical Antiquity, some of them coming out as often as once a week, English scholarship has produced up to the present time no single periodical of frequent or even regular issue which devotes itself to the different requirements of classical students. For notes and news of classical and archæological interest, as well as for reviews of classical books, scholars have had to depend almost entirely on the journals of general literature, in which only a very limited space could be allotted to any special department.
We hope then to make The CLASSICAL REVIEW a critical record of the work of the year, so far as regards English publications, by noticing within three months of their
NO. I. VOL. I.
appearance, all that are not unmistakable cram-books or of a merely elementary character; and in regard to foreign publications, by independent notices of the more important books, and by short summaries of the various philological, archæological, and theological reviews so far as they fall within the province marked out; attention will also be called to articles or paragraphs of interest to classical scholars which may be found in other publications. In regard to unprinted matter, information will be given by Correspondence from our own and from foreign universities, by Reports of Exploration and Discovery, and in other ways.
A further use of the Review will be to serve as a receptacle for notes and queries and adversaria of any kind. It constantly happens that a scholar in the course of his studies makes an emendation or strikes out a new interpretation of a disputed passage, or lights upon an interesting illustration, or discovers inaccuracies in some work of authority; yet nothing comes of his discoveries because he does not know where to send them. We hope that THE CLASSICAL REVIEW may become the natural depositary of such fragments of knowledge, each perhaps apparently unimportant in itself, but in the aggregate capable of leading to results of great interest and value. At present there is perhaps no country which produces so large an annual crop of scholars, with so small a comparative result in the shape of per:nanent contributions to classical learning, as our own.
Again, we shall hope, at least until our pages are fully occupied in the ways above described, to insert short original articles, which will usually be of a less elaborate kind than those which are admitted in the existing philological journals. Such articles will from time to time be especially adapted to the requirements of younger scholars.
To sum up briefly the benefits we anticipate from the establishment of The CLASSICAL REVIEW, if we succeed in carrying out the above programme: they are first, that writers will no longer work in the dark, as they have too often done in former times, but will at any rate have an opportunity of ascertaining what is being done abroad, and will also have the satisfaction of knowing that their own work will be tested by competent critics within a reasonable period of time; secondly, that schoolmas'ers and others interested in education will learn what books to recommend to their pupils, and may perhaps gather hints as to improved methods of teaching from our foreign correspondence; thirdly, we hope to turn wasted power to account by inducing some who are at present unproductive scholars to take a more active part in promoting the advancement of learning; fourthly, perhaps it is not too much to hope that some who have been prejudiced against classical education may chance to cast their eye on these pages and discover that to classical scholars at any rate Classics' means something more than writing verses in a dead language, though even for that much-decried accomplishment we think there is something to be said, and indeed propose to give occasional specimens of it in our columns. Lastly, we hope that THE CLASSICAL REVIEW may be used as an organ of intercommunication between scholars in all parts of the world, and thus foster the feeling that all are engaged in a common work, and enable each to profit by the experience of others.
It must, of course, take time before the ideal of a Classical Review here sbadowed forth can approach to realization. But the editors believe that it is perfectly capable of being realized, and that in proportion as it is so, it will tend very greatly to improve the condition of classical learning in England.
MYRON'S PRISTAE. THE sculptor Myron is credited by Pliny raised, so that the only hold they have on it which are figures of pristae. By a misunder- placed horizontally on a pivot raised a little standing these pristae were long considered from the ground. Such a group would suit to be sea-monsters. It is now held that they admirably for sculpture in the round. The could have been nothing else than “sawyers of plank being short and placed at no distance wood,' and since the notion of a number of up from the ground, would range with the disconnected figures in the attitude of sawyers top of the pedestal and present no inconis contrary to modern views about Greek gruity. The keen excitement of the contest sculpture of the higher order, recourse has would bring out a display of action and been had to the reasonable idea of a group expression such as would have commended of two sawyers at work. It would be easy itself to Myron, with his love of closely to conceive such a group in bas-relief, if that observing nature in her commoner forms. were admissible, as it is not ; for Myron is While then it is clear that the Greeks had only known to have worked in the round. not only a game answering to our see-saw' But a group of sawyers, executed in the but also a variety of it very suitable for a round, would present a spectacle for which group of sculpture, it remains to be proved there is nothing to prepare us among the that the word pristae was applied to it as remains of Greek sculpture. The saw and well as to actual sawyers. If that could be the piece of wood are elements in the design done, the difficulty in this case would be much which cannot be reconciled with the princi- reduced, if not altogether removed. Aristoples of Greek statuary; and yet they are phanes, Achar. 36, plays on the words apíw necessary elements.
As the matter now and apíwr. The speaker says that his demos stands, it is admitted that the pristae were did not know the word 'buy’; his demos proa group of sawyers, but as yet no copy, or duced everything itself; there was no apiwv, other trace of them than in Pliny, has been no see-sawing,' as I suppose. Upon this found.2
the scholiast remarks, τούτο παιδιά καλείται Believing that the strict interpretation of από γάρ του πρίω ρήματος όνομα του πρίων. If he pristae as sawyers lands us in an impossible merely means “This is what is called a pun,' group, I propose to argue that this word may then, being not much the wiser for that, we have been applied also to a game in which must look elsewhere for a definition of πρίων. the process of sawing was imitated in some Hesychius gives it as an equivalent of ảyomeasure. There is in the British Museum pátwv, while the scholiast to Achar. 625 has a painted vase 3 of the red figure style, on αγοράζων as εν αγορα διατρίβειν. If αγοράζων which are seen two satyrs playing at a game
contained the sense of being pulled at by like our see-saw,' with this difference- rival traders in the market, the word a piwv important for a group in the round—that may readily have come to be used with the each is within arm's reach of the other. The same signification, since the working of a one, in fact, holds the other firmly by the saw by two persons presented so obvious an wrists, with the intention of pulling him analogy. To this I am inclined to add the over, and thus upsetting the balance of the proverb iyopà Kepkutwv, because on one of plank, near the centre of which they are the archaic metopes from Selinus we see both placed, the one opposite to the other. Herakles carrying over his shoulder the two They do not stand on the plank, but have Kerkopes bound by the knees to a plank, sunk, each on his knees, with the heels and presenting just the appearance of the
two satyrs on our vase, turned upside down. 1 Nat. Hist. xxxiv. 57.
I would have liked to take the maidiá of the " E. Petersen, Arch. Zcit. 1865, p. 91.
scholiast in its ordinary sense of a game and 3 Vase Cat. No. 996 ; cngraved in Bullet. dlo l'Acad. de Brucelles, xii. pt. i. p. 289. For an exam
suppose him to say : from the verb apiw is ple of see-saw,' practised in the modern manner, see
the name of aplwr, the game.' If that a Greek vase in Gerharil's Aul. Bilirerke, pl. 53, or * In another passage, Wasps, 694, Aristophanes l'anofka's Bilder antiken Lebc7s, pl. 18, fig. 3. seems to refer to an actual group of sawyers.
is right, the persons playing at this game fettered' had been superadded to the signiwould naturally be called pristae, and we fication of sawing.' It is conceivable that should be free to take Pliny's word as ap- the use of apiwv for a game as practised plicable to Myron either in the sense of on our vase may have helped to bring about actual sawyers, or of a group of two figures this new meaning. But these are questions playing at a game, as on our vase. These on which I venture with all diffidence. figures may have been satyrs, as on the vase, It has been suggested that the game in or boys in ordinary life. A known group question may have been called teravplo uós, by Myron consisted of Athene and a satyr. a plank being πέταυρα, πέτευρον or πέντευρον. But boys or satyrs would have made an But the metaphor of a πεταυρισμός της τύχης equally admirable subject for him.
would seem to suit better the ordinary game I may note that Suidas gives aplodels as of see-saw' as practised on a vase already equivalent to Seoueubels, citing Soph. Ajax, referred to (in note 3), than the vase of which 1019 (Lobeck), while Hesychius gives a piovas I have been speaking more particularly. = χερών τους δεσμούς, from which it appears that the signification of being bound' or
A. S. MURRAY.
ON SOME POLITICAL TERMS EMPLOYED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
THE title of this paper is vague, and needs της καλλίστης αποδοχής αξιούμενος παρ' αυτω. definition. By 'political terms’ I do not It may also be worth observing that the mean titles of magistrates and other officials word προσκαρτέρησις, which is a άπαξ λεγόmentioned in the New Testament; although uevov in Epbes. vi. 18 (although, of course, to the student of Greek antiquities these the verb tpoo Kaptepel is frequent enough in afford an interesting field of inquiry, in the New Testament,) is employed, exactly as which a good deal remains to be done.1 My St. Paul used it, in a Jewish deed of enfranobject will rather resemble that of the late chisement from Kertch, dated the 377th year Dr. Field in part iii. of his Otium Norvicense, of the Pontic era, i.e. 81 A.D. It is published a book which its learned author issued pri- by Gille, Antiquités du Bosphore Cimmerien, vately, but which deserves to be more widely vol. ii. Inscriptions, No. xxii. (compare published ; for no student of Scripture can C.I.G. 2114 66), and is worth quoting for read it without profit and delight. I have more reasons than one. It runs thus :often wished to do with Greek inscriptions, what Dr. Field has done with later Greek
Βασιλεύοντος βασιλέως Τιβεliterature, viz. employ their diction and ρίου Ιουλίου Ρησκουπόριδος φιλοphraseology to illustrate New Testament καίσαρος και φιλορωμαίου ευσεidioms. It is certain that they would repay σεβούς, έτους Ζοτ, μηνός Περει[τίthe search. Thus in addition to the instances ου ιβ, Χρήστη γυνή πρότε[ρο]
5 of the phrase åtodoxñis ačios cited by Field νπ (1) Δ(ρ)ούσου αφείημι επί της πρ[ο]on 1 Tim. i. 15, we may quote the follow- σευχής θρεπτόν μου Ηρακλα[v] ing from an Ephesian inscription now at ελεύθερον καθάπαξ κατά ευχήν] Oxford: Τίτου Αϊλίου | Πρίσκου, ανδρός δοκιμω- μου, [άνεπίληπτο[v] και απαΓρενότάτου, και η πάσης τιμής και αποδοχής αξίου χλητον από παντός κληρονόμου), , 10 (Baillie, Fasc. Inscr. Gr. No. 2 ; see Wadding- ρέπεσται (sic) αυτόν όπου αν βούton, Fastes, p. 225). Other examples of the λη]ται ανεπικωλύτως καθώς ε[i]same phrase may be found in the Corpus In- ξάμην χωρίς εξε] την προσευscriptionum Atticarum, ii. 628 fin. (1st century [χήν θωπείας τε και προσκα(ρτ)[ε]B.C.); Keil, Sylloge Inscriptionum Bæot. xxxi.
ήσεως, συνεπινευσάντων δε
15 14 ; Corpus Inscr. Gr. 2349 b, compare 3524, και των κληρ[ο]νόμων μου Ί[φι]line 29; also in the well-known decree in κλείδου και Ελικων[ιάδος, honour of Menas at Sestos, about B.c. 120 συνε[πιτροπ[ευούσης δε και τη[s] (Dittenberger, Sylloge, No. 246, lines 13—14):
συναγωγής των Ιουδαίων. 1 It is only quite lately that we have been able to ? The manumitted slave is pledged only to one define the precise functions and status of the town- obligation, that of diligent attendance at the synaclerk'at Ephesus (ypaumateùs Toll 8ņuov, see Menadier, gogue worship. It was not uncommon in Greek deeds Qua condicione Ephesii usi sint, etc. Berlin, 1880, of manumission to make certain conditions (see Foup: 78), of the 'Agiápxai(see Marquardt, Römische Alter- cart, Sur l'Affranchissement des Esclaves). Similarly thümer, iv. p. 374), and of the olkovóuos tñs hóews in C.I.G. 2114 b, we read in the same connection : at Corinth (Rom. xvi. 23 ; see Menadier, ibid. p. 77). θωπείας [και προσκαρτ]ερήσεος.
In the abundance of the materials at our associations of Jerusalem, as clothed in the command, it becomes necessary to limit in language and blended with the sentiments some way the scope of our inquiry. It is of old Greek citizenship. I should point in proposed therefore, in this paper, to adduce proof of this to the Epistle to the Hebrews epigraphical illustration only of those words and to the Apocalypse, in both of which the and phrases which the sacred writers have figure of a Heavenly Canaan is replaced by adopted from Greek political life. Even the figure of a heavenly módes with a heavenly when thus restricted, our subject is wide franchise, and this as a development from enough; for the range of political interests purely Hebrew ideas. It was different with in Greece was almost co-extensive with the St. Augustine. He may well have owed life of the people. A free Greek was nothing something to Stoicism : but his Civitas Dei if not a rolirns, and it is remarkable how was of course suggested by the Empire and copious was the vocabulary of Greek politics, Franchise of Rome, though not without -how many ordinary words were (so to perpetual reference to the heavenly citizenspeak) minted afresh to be employed in ship as set forth in the New Testament. the currency of public life.
In Ephesians ii. 12 foll. Jewish and
Greek ideas are curiously blended in deπόλις. .
scribing the previous exclusion and present
admission of the Gentile to the franchise of I begin with móds, noting that what Athens was as a módes, such in its degree was
the Church : απηλλοτριωμένοι της πολιτείας
του Ισραήλ και ξένοι-thus far all is entirely every free Hellenic city. The whole of Greece proper, and the islands and shores of the (Eévoi) Tŵy diaOnxô rớs émayyerías, k.t.4. In
Greek. The next idea is quite JewishMediterranean, teemed with separate civic
the two next verses the μεσότοιχον του centres, each with its xúpa or territory, many papaypoll appears to allude to the balustrade being the 'mother-cities' of colonies, many
which barred the Gentiles from entering the having subject-cities under tribute, and each governed by its own citizens, the privileged civic terms: õpa oŮv oủkét! COTè Févou kai
Inner Temple. Then again follow Greek possessors of its civic franchise. Now to the Jew of Palestine and of the Dispersion Jeru πάροικοι, αλλά εστε συμπολίται των αγίωνsalem was all that his róles was to a Greek, ideas of the Church as the family and the
and these again are merged in Hebrew and much more. Nor would it be difficult temple of God.
Elsewhere in the New to trace in detail a striking analogy between
Testament these ideas are reversed : the & Greek móds and the position of Jerusalem
citizen of Zion is a stranger in the world. as the centre of national and religious inter
1 Ρet. ii. 11: ως παροίκους και παρεπιδήμους ests. The nationality of the Jew was marked
την αναστροφήν υμών εν τοις έθνεσιν by his right to partake in certain sacra, and this right depended upon
So ibid. i. 17: έν φόβω τον της παροικίας and these sacra had their centre in Zion. In
υμών χρόνον αναστράφητε. . all this the resemblance to a Greek móds and
And i. 1: παρεπιδήμοις. its roliral is obvious at a glance. But I doubt
Ηeb. xi. 13: ότι ξένοι και παρεπίδημοί εισιν whether it has received the attention it de
επί της γης .... ητοίμασε γάρ αυτοϊς πόλιν. . serves. Even Bishop Lightfoot considers
(Cp. ibid. 9: παρώκησεν εις γην της επαγ that the Apostolic conception of the Heavenly γελίας ως αλλοτρίαν.) City with its spiritualfranchise was connected, not with the municipal life of Greece, but
πάροικος, ξένος, κ.τ.λ. rather with the cosmopolitan ideas of Stoicism
Here let me note that πάροικοι, παρεπίδημου, then in the air. He speaks of the age of the Seleucids and Ptolemies' as a time when
ξένοι, and αναστροφή are each of them terms
which recall facts of Greek public life. the old national barriers had been over
are familiar with the μέτοικοι, or ξένοι μέτοικοι, thrown, and petty states with all their interests and ambitions had crumbled into 1 The δρύφρακτος λίθινος οf Josephus, B.J. ν. 5, the dust. But howerer far we may allow
$ 2. διά τούτου προϊόντων επί το δεύτερον ιερόν this to be true, the fact remains that under
δρύφρακτος περιβέβλητο λίθινος, τρίπηχυς μέν ύψος,
πάνυ δε χαριέντως διειργασμένος. εν αυτώ δ' ειστήκεσαν Alexander and his successors (we are not εξ ίσου διαστήματος στήλαι τον της αγνείας προση- . here concerned with the Roman Empire), the μαίνουσαι νόμον, αι μεν Ελληνικούς αι δε Ρωμαϊκούς life of the people was essentially municipal γράμμασι, μη δείν αλλόφυλον εντός του αγίου παριέναι: still. And the origin of the New Testament
το γαρ δεύτερον ιερόν άγιον εκαλείτο. One of these
inscriptions has been discovered, and was published idea of the Heavenly City should be traced
by M. Ch. Clermont-Ganneau ( Une Stéle du Temple (it appears to me), directly to the Hebrew de Jerusalem'), Rcrite dich. 1872, p. 211.