« ForrigeFortsett »
έπασσότερος) is compared by Sittl with τη example in the old formula όρχαμος ανδρών, λύγετος and αισυμνήτης, with the view of if όργαμος is connected with άρχω, and the showing that the v may be original and not old epithet åpyel óvrns, assuming the derivaan Aeolic variation. But the latter word tion from paivw, whether the word is interis probably of Aeolic origin and itself ex- preted 'swiftly appearing' or 'making the emplifies the Aeolic v for o, since it is equi- light (or lightning) to appear.' The difficult valent, according to Curtius, to asoouvons dindos (or áindos) may also be Aeolic. from aioa and the root uva ('one who minds Hinrichs' interpretation
interpretation ever visible' the rights of the competitors). As for (Aeolic đí for ủei, cf. üürúpbevos) gives the tydúyetos (which may likewise be an old
best sense in Il. ii. 318. The original form Aeolic word), according to Savelsberg's would appear to have been äiendos, which highly probable explanation, it implies an was altered to distinguish it from áidylos adjective mlús = large' (mlúveros, large (destructive'). The evidence of Aeolice grown,' i.e. adult, cf.mnémulos, 'large-gated'), for a before p, which is deducible from but there is no such evidence of an adjective Oepolmns and other proper names, is not to άσσύς. The connection of επισμυγερός with be set aside simply because similar names Moyepós has been questioned; but there is occasionally appear in later times outside less room for dispute as to the connection of the Aeolian area ; though it is possible that αμύμων with μώμος. (See the last edition of O époos is an older form, rather than a diaCurtius' Grundzüge.) Sittl rejects the ex- lectic variation, of Odpoos. (See Monro, in planation of celkool, cedva, čádwp, as having the Journal of Philology, vol. ix. p. 264.) been originally formed with v replacing the Another Aeolic peculiarity (6 for 6) seems initial digamma (υείκοσι, ύεδνα, υέλδωρ). He to have survived in the Homeric pñpes for supposes that cikool (8Felkooi) was written Onpes (cf. Latin fera.) The fact that this with e prefixed èFelkool, but he is obliged form appears only as a personal name of to assume that čedva, &c., are formed by the Centaurs) may serve to explain the erroneous analogy, the < being prefixed survival, but is no argument against the although no initial consonant has dropped Aeolic origin of the word. The conversion out. As regards the masculine nominatives of the digamma in talaúpivos equally implies in å (e.g. impóra), which Sittl (here supported the Aeolic v for a, if the word is written by Meister) would account for as converted ταλα-Γρινος and derived directly from τ(α)λα vocatives, Hinrichs adheres to the view that "to bear' ('bearing a shield of ox-hide '). they are to be explained by the Aeolic ac- This substitution of v for F is undoubtedly centuation and the omission of final s, which characteristic of the Aeolic of Lesbos, and occurs in some Boeotian inscriptions. More words of similar formation in Homer are over, Mr. Monro observes (Homeric numerous (e.g. καλαύροψ, εύληρα, ταναυπους, Grammar, § 96), the other theory is not EŬkydos, besides those above mentioned). necessarily at variance with the Aeolic origin The Homeric text abounds in instances of of the forms. If the usage began as a piece the Aeolic prefix ça, occurring, just as might of ceremonial etiquette, it may well have be anticipated, in ancient epithets, and espebeen due to the influence of great Aeolic cially those of Aeolic towns. This evidence families.' Sittl objects to Çan (Od. xi. 313), would remain equally applicable, even if it but there appears to be no valid reason could be proved that sá was not used by against classing it, as Ahrens does, with the itself as the equivalent of diú in the Lesbian Aeolic accusatives dvouévnv, åßáknv, éubépnv, poetry, as Sitti contends. (He takes leave, &c., Ho would likewise correct åreldvrn however, to alter šá to diá in Sappho fr. 87, (Od. xi. 311) and one or two similar survivals ζα δ' ελεξάμαν όναρ Κυπρογενήα.) Nor is of Aeolic verbs in Me, but Curtius has shown there any relevancy in the comparison (cf. Monro's Homeric Grammur, $ 19) that between the Ionic variation dayós for dayós, these forms are exactly parallel to the and the forms čpos and yékos (with dative Homeric φιλήμεναι, κιχήμεναι, &c. He is έρω, γέλω, and accusative έρον, γέλον) which willing to allow that the Homeric moupes are common to the Homeric and the Aeolic may be directly related to the Lesbian dialect, and are quite distinct in their forTrécoupes, but he suggests that the Ionians mation from the post-Homeric épwr- and borrowed the Aeolic form of the numeral γέλωτ-. . through commercial intercourse. In regard Fick's argument postulates these and to Aeolic o for a (before liquids), he demurs other occasional Aeolisms in the Homeric to the evidence of πόρδαλις (for πάρδαλις) for dialect; but his special theory—that by far no better reason than that the word itself is
the greater portion both of the Iliad and not of Greek origin. But we have a clear Odyssey was originally composed in the
Aeolic dialect-depends, in the main, on the Catalogue of the Ships (which was those elements which belong to the very probably imported from the Cypria with ground-work of the Homeric language, such some alteration), the meeting of Glaucus as the alternative forms of the personal and Diomedes (sl. vi. 119-236), the Embassy pronouns instanced above. Those who deny (bk. ix.), the Doloneia, the Shield of Achilles, the composite character of the dialect can and the Funeral Games. But the speech of only meet the argument, which these forms Phoenix in the Embassy, and the Máxn supply, by maintaining that they co-existed Trapanorádios (bk. xv.) likewise betray an with the others in the Ionic dialect, either Ionic hand, being 'stark mit festen ionismen as part of the ordinary speech or as poetical versetzt.' For the Odyssey, the portions varieties. Sittl attempts to diminish the which Fick would assign on linguistic evidifficulty of this assumption, in reference to dence to Jonian authorship, prove to be the pronouns, by changing õppes and õppes exactly identical with those which Kirchhoff, into αμές or αμμές (= άσμές) and υμμές arguing from the subject-matter alone, had (= juopés), from which, he suggests, nuées already assigned to an editor, who expanded and ómées may have been derived through the four component poems into nearly their qués and spés. But the theory of an old- present shape. Ionian origin rests on a very uncertain basis Fick has made the further conjecture that of conjecture. And, while the evidence of the Ionic reviser, who completed the two the extant Aeolic poetry undoubtedly sup- poems, was the Cynaethus, whose memory ports the theory of an Aeolian origin, as far is preserved in the account quoted from as it goes, it will be shown that the evidence Hippostratus by the scholiast on Pindar, of the extant Ionic poetry tells the wrong Nem. ii. 1. «The name of Homeridae was way.
originally given to the descendants of Homer, Fick includes in the Aeolic element other who continued the recitation of his poetry. forms, which must be regarded as funda- This was done subsequently by rhapsodists mental, e.g. the infinitive terminations -peval not connected with Homer by descent; and plev, the genitive endings -ao and -aov, among these were conspicuous Cynaethus and the genitives formed by the suffix - Dev and his school, who are said to have com(ệuedev, gébev, Fébev), and the dative plural posed many of the verses and inserted them ending cool, which occurs uniformly in in the poetry of Homer. This Cypaethus Aeolic and never in Ionic texts (except a was a native of Chios. He is said to have dubious fragment of Ananias, állà tou composed the hymn to Apollo, the hymn ixovesow). This Aeolic element, he holds, thus entitled being one of the poems incan only be explained on the supposition scribed as Homer's. that it represents the original text, on which rhapsodised the Epic poetry of Homer at the Ionic forms were engrafted by a simple Syracuse in the 69th Olympiad, according to process (' ganz roh und äusserlich ') of trans- Hippostratus.' The testimony of this writer lation. In order to test this theory, he has is valuable on the point in question, as his performed the reverse process—a retrans- special subject was Sicily. The other lation into the Aeolic dialect—with results, extracts collected by Carl Müller show that which may be thus summed up: (1) The he compiled quasi-historical records in the intermixture of Aeolic and Ionic forms is form of genealogies, embodying the local determined by the metre. The Ionic forms traditions. One fragment, for example, are adhered to, as a rule, where the metre relates to the Cottytia, a festival celebrated allows; while the Aeolic forms are retained in Sicily and at Corinth. The statement chiefly as a matter of metrical necessity or that this rhapsodist was also the composer convenience. (2) Certain portions of the of the hymn to (the Delian) A pollo is supIliad and Odyssey present obstacles to re- ported not only by Pliny (H.N. iv. 12, 22) translation, such as imply that the author but by the internal evidence of the alteror authors of these sections composed them native conclusion (v. 14-18) adapted to a in the Ionic dialect, only copying the tra- Syracusan audience. That he was the ditional 'Epic' phrases. These additions reviser of the Odyssey is rendered very consist, for the Tiad, chiefly of passages probable by the interpolated reference to inserted as connecting links to unite various Ortygia (Od. v. 121-4), the forced allusion episodes with the body of the poem, the to the palm-tree by the altar of Apollo in episodes themselves having been composed Delos (vi. 161-7. Cf. the hymn, v. 18 and at a somewhat earlier date by poets, perhaps v. 117), and the marked references to Sicily of Iovian extraction, but well versed in the and South Italy (i. 184, xx. 383, xxiv. 211, Aeolic dialect. The episodes in question are 338, 365 ff.). The completion of the Iliad
is ascribed to this poet partly on the evidence be prized even in aftertime." And I will of an interpolation in the Catalogue (II. ii. spread your renown upon the earth, as far 594–600), describing the blindness of Tha- I roam among
the fair-lying cities of men.' myris, the Thracian minstrel, whom the The whole tenour of this speech, as well as Homerids would claim as a predecessor, if the mention of the poet's migration, is not as an ancestor. The author of the hymn certainly appropriate to the rhapsodist, who makes particular mention of his blindness at had made his name famous by his additions the same time that he sings his own praise :- to Homer.' The object for wbich, accord• Fare ye well, ladies all, and bethink ye of ing to Fick, these additions were made, was me hereafter, when any of earthly kind the competitive recitation by rhapsodists at coming hither, a stranger worn with travel, the Delian festival, introduced, perhaps, enquireth of you: “Damsels, what man about the time when the Ionian revolt was among the minstrels who resort hither is most preparing and the Ionians were drawn towelcome unto you, and in whom do ye gether by an impulse of patriotism. (Cf. chiefly delight ?" Then give ye a kindly Professor Sayce in the Academy, Nov. 15, answer, one and all : “ 'Tis a blind man, and 1884). he dwelleth in rugged Chios. His song will
G. C. WARR. (To be continued.)
EARLY CLASSICAL MSS. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.
The starting of a Classical Review in Of the very few surviving classical Greek England affords an opportunity for attempt- works written on papyrus, the most importing a piece of work, which, if rightly carried ant have, one by one, found their
into out, will be of no small advantage to scholars the British Museum. This is matter for
be engaged upon the texts of Greek consolation ; for the national collections are and Latin authors, and, it may be hoped, by no means strong in ancient copies of the also of interest to students in general. This Greek and Latin classics. In these days one work is the compilation of a brief catalogue cannot hope to make up much lost ground in of all existing MSS. of Greek and Latin this respect. The most precious vellum texts classical literature in the libraries of the are already safely housed in public libraries. United Kingdom. Such a scheme can only But papyri may still be unearthed from the be successfully accomplished by cooperation ; tombs of Egypt. The great collection of but it may be anticipated that there will be documents now at Vienna and Berlin, among no lack of assistance in the universities and which many rare fragments have already large central libraries where the greater been brought to light, and which are being number of MSS. are accumulated. It may subjected to the close labour of competent be objected that the catalogues of the several scholars, will probably yield important libraries should suffice; but, as every librarian results. And when we bear in mind that knows, older catalogues are far from accurate, the papyri, which it is proposed to form the particularly in the matter of assigning dates, subject of the present paper, have all been and in most large libraries the catalogues purchased within the last thirty years, we are inconveniently numerous, requiring in need not altogether despair of the future. some instances rather severe study for the The Greek classical papyri of the British digestion of their contents. Moreover, in Museum are five in number. Two contain some libraries the catalogues are still un- portions of two of the books of the Iliad : printed. To lead the way, then, in this three, the orations of Hyperides. They have proposal, I hope to contribute from time to all been described at some length in the time to the pages of the Classical Review Catalogue of Ancient Manuscripts in the concise descriptions of the MSS. of early British Museum (part 1, Greek, London, Greek and Latin writers in the British 1881); I will briefly sketch their history and Museum. As an introduction to the work, palaeographical value. the present article may be devoted to a 1. The Harris Homer (Papyrus cvii.). notice of the classical papyri, which, from This papyrus is in two fragments which their great antiquity, occupy a preeminent were obtained by Mr. A. C. Harris of Alexposition of their own.
andria on two different occasions, in 1849
and 1850, from a tomb, known as the of the early Biblical Codices of the fourth Crocodile Pit, at Ma’abdey near Monfalat, and fifth centuries than the writing of the the second fragment being the first that was Ptolemaic period. found. Both fragments were purchased for The papyri containing the orations of the Museum in 1872. They contain portions Hyperides are, as already stated, three in of book xviii. of the Iliad, viz. (1) lines l_ number, that is, they form three numbers 171 and, in a broken column, the first words in the Museum Catalogue. Two of them, of 11. 172—218, and (2) 11. 311-617. The however, originally formed part of the same papyrus is much discoloured, so much so roll and must be taken together. The evil indeed that the text requires a good light practice of the Arabs, who break up papyri for the rather painful process of reading. which they discover in order to make, For this reason it has been printed in full in as they think, better bargains by disposing the Catalogue. The writing is in slender of them piecemeal, is answerable for their uncials, generally upright, sometimes almost mutilated condition. All the extant works sloping back to the left. The regularity of of the Athenian orator are included in the the band and its natural freedom, without Museum fragments. trace of the artificiality which can generally 3 and 4. The oration of Hyperides for be detected in imitative writing, bas led me Lycophron (Papyrus cxv.) and the oration to venture to assign this papyrus to the first against Demosthenes respecting the Treasure century B.C. But our palaeographical know- of Harpalus (Papyrus cviii.). The first is ledge of these remote times is still but a very fine specimen, more than eleven scanty. The documents are rare, and until feet in length, and contains forty-nine more are brought to light, and until sufficient columns of writing. Mr. Joseph Arden purfacsimiles are printed and collected together, chased it, in 1847, at Gournou, in the we cannot hope to attain to that exact edu- district of Western Thebes. It was bought cation of the eye which familiarity with the for the Museum in 1879; by a strange coobjects alone can give. I may notice in this incidence on the same day on which the place that a remarkably bad facsimile of a Bankes Homer was also acquired. The few lines from this Homer which was printed second is in thirty-three fragments, which in Gerhard's Archäolog. Zeitung, 1849, gare came into possession of Mr. Harris in 1847, birth to the myth that the rough breathing and passed to the Museum in 1872. The appears in the line of writing in the shape texts of both orations are known by the facof an open a, which has been quoted as a simile editions of Prof. Churchill Babington noteworthy fact in the handbooks on Greek and Mr. Harris. As to the date of the Palaeography.
writing of this fine MS. there are various 2. The Bankes Homer (Papyrus cxiv.). opinions. It is in very beautifully-formed This papyrus is in one piece, measuring uncials of, apparently, an unusual type. It upwards of seven feet, and containing six- has been assigned to as early a period as the teen columns of writing. It was bought by second century B.C. The Museum Catalogue Mr. W. J. Bankes at Elephantine, in 1821, makes it a century younger.
Dr. Blass and passed into possession of the British goes further : he would place it as low as Museum in 1879. The text is book xxiv. the period of Hadrian and the Antonines. of the Iliad, wanting the first 126 lines; We must be content for the present to leave well known by the collation published by the question open and await more light. George Cornewall Lewis in the Cainbridge
5. The Funeral Oration of Hyperides in Philological Museum, in 1832. This is one honour of Leosthenes, the Athenian general, of the few surviving MSS. which contain and his comrades who fell in the Lamian stichometrical notes, every hundred lines war, B.C. 323 (Papyrus xcviii.). This papyrus, being numbered in the margin. From its in fragments, was purchased in 1857 from first discovery the Bankes Homer has taken Rev. H. Stobart, who procured it in the high rank as a most ancient MS., and has previous year from the neighbourhood of been quoted with veneration in palaeo Thebes. It is well known by the edition of graphical and other works. In the Museum Prof. Churchill Babington. Palaeographically, Catalogue, however, it is assigned to the it has a special interest. On the reverse second century of our era. This later date side is written, among other matter, a horowill probably prove in the end to be much scope, cast for a person born at the end of nearer the mark than the more remote the first, or in the middle of the second, century before Christ in which it has been century. It was naturally inferred that this placed. The writing is in round uncials and was an addition written after the oration inuch more nearly resembles the book-band bad been inscribed on the other side. The case is, however, exactly the reverse. Dr. glossary which contains words beginning Blass, from a close scrutiny of the joints in with me. Here there occurs a lacuna in the papyrus and for other reasons, has con- which several successive words in the Greek clusively shown that the horoscope is in fact have entirely disappeared with the exception on the face of the roll, and the oration on of those three initial letters, or at most four the back; and his suggestion that the latter letters, while the beginnings of the Latin is merely a student's exercise is supported equivalents are also mutilated. In this inby the existence of many clerical faults and stance there has evidently been a large hole by the character of the writing, which is in in the prototype, having on one side an the roughly-formed uncial letters of ap- almost even edge cutting the Greek words parently an unpractised hand. These facts vertically. Papyrus, as we know, is a bring down the date of the MS. to the second material which splits up just in the way incentury of the Christian era.
dicated by the even edge of the lacuna ; Before concluding, it may be of interest whereas a hole in vellum or a defacement to draw attention to a MS. in the Museum upon it would scarcely follow such a straight which bears internal and pretty conclusive line. Although not bearing directly upon evidence of having been copied from a pro- the present argument, it is interesting to totype written on papyrus. This evidence know that such glossaries were actually consists in the gaps left blank in the text written on papyrus, although the example by the very conscientious or very ignorant on record is not earlier than the sixth scribe. The MS. in question is the Harley century, whereas the prototype of the Harley MS. 5792 (Cat. Anc. MSS. p. 10), containing MS. was probably, from its mutilated cona Greek and Latin glossary copied in the dition, of a much older date. In the Comseventh century. The words in the two ment. Soc. Göttingen, iv. (1820), p. 156, and languages being written in parallel columns, Rhein. Museum, v. (1837), p. 301, the frag. it is evident that the scribe has followed ments of such a glossary are described. In exactly the arrangement of the prototype, conclusion it may be noted that exact linewhich must have been, in places, in a very for-line or page-for-page reproduction in the imperfect condition. From the exact way middle ages of ancient prototypes was, we in which the scribe has copied only what he know, practised not only in cases where, as saw, arranging his letters on the plan of the in the Harley glossary, the nature of the text before him, we can trace the actual text required it, but also where illustrative shapes of the lacunae ; and these shapes drawings accom panied the text and where it lead us to the conclusion that the lacunae was therefore necessary to maintain the were caused by actual rents or holes rather proper arrangement between text and drawthan by abrasions, and that the material ing. Some examples of this will have to be was papyrus and not vellum. The strongest considered hereafter. piece of evidence occurs in that part of the
E. MAUNDE THOMPSON.
THE REFORMED PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN.
For years the prevailing pronunciation of a scheme of pronunciation prepared for that Latin in England has been condemned by purpose which, after running the gauntlet all competent judges ; and still it has been of searching criticism, has been published, thought a hopeless task to supplant it. But with certain modifications, , in a pamphlet within the last few months the prospect bas published by Messrs Trübner, and entitled suddenly brightened ; and the hope that The Pronunciation of Latin in the Augustan some day the ancient Latin tongue would Period. The scheme was most favourably receive its rights has grown into an expecta- received by members of the Society, both tion that this some day will be soon. The resident and non-resident; how favourably, Cambridge Philological Society, stimulated may be judged from the fact that out of by the efforts of teachers who felt that the twenty-seven lecturers in Cambridge, twentyold pronunciation and, still more, the jargon five were in favour of a reform in the direcof old and new together, was an intolerable tion proposed, while out of thirteen headburden and anomaly, issued to its members masters, professors, assistant-masters, not