« ForrigeFortsett »
resident in Cambridge, only one was opposed in general effect and essential particulars from to all reform, the remainder, including six the present one. Another fallacy hardly head-masters, either already using the new less mischievous is the assumption that we pronunciation or being willing to adopt it if should begin with the whole of the changes adopted in the Universities. With the final at once. No such change can be made all consideration and adoption of the scheme at once. With the best intentions it is imarose the question of its introduction into possible to change the whole of our propractical teaching. This question was ob- nunciation suddenly. But the ideal should viously twofold : part relating to Cambridge, be always kept in view, and fresh advances and part to the outer world. The reformed continually made. To come to details, we pronunciation, it was clear, could be intro- see that a very large proportion of the duced into Cambridge without much difficulty. difficulty of the reformed pronunciation arises A committee was accordingly appointed, and not from the fact that we do not possess the subsequently enlarged, so as to be repre- equivalent sounds in English ; but from the sentative of the whole University, for that fact that the Latin letter has usually a purpose. They have communicated with all different value in English. This is the case the classical professors and lecturers of the with ů, ū, i, ŭ, , c, 8 final, th, ph (see below), University asking them to use the pronun- i consonant (j), il consonant (v). To take ciation of Latin recommended in the scheme one or two examples, it is just as easy to us in their teacbing, and to report any difficulties to pronounce res as race as to pronounce it that they find in using it to the committee. reeze, to pronounce uas as walce as to proWithout being too sanguine, we may say nounce it vass; but the analogy of English that the reformed pronunciation of Latin spelling suggests the other pronunciation. will be generally, if not universally, adopted The whole difficulty arises from not treating throughout Cambridge in the Michaelmas Latin as French or German, that is as a foreign term. The other question was one of con- language in which the native pronunciation siderably greater difficulty, and importance. of the letters is to be discarded. If Latin Cambridge, although ready and willing to were a spoken language, no one would think set her own house in order, and undesirous of pronouncing nūnus nainus, any more than of seeing a genuine movement in favour of of pronouncing ane ain.
of pronouncing ane ain. Next come the reform pass again into inertia, could not sounds which can be easily learnt from take upon herself singlehanded the intro- French, several of the vowels, the rolled r. duction of the new pronunciation throughout (also in Scotch), the dentals t, d, n, l, 8. the country. Proposals for cooperation were That the tongue did touch the teeth in the made to Oxford, and responded to in a like Latin sounds is certain ; and there is no spirit. The Oxford Philological Society, difficulty in making it do so. But as the having considered The Pronunciation of Latin acoustic difference between the English and in the Augustan Period, have passed two Latin sounds is not great, it is not a point resolutions, one expressing their general that need be insisted on at first. The vowels agreement with the views proposed, and of maximus (maxumus) and zythum are another their opinion that it is generally found in French and German. But that desirable that the scheme should be adopted they should be given in Latin at present is in practice, and singling out certain points perhaps too much to expect. The aspirates as specially important. The agreement of ch, th, ph, if it be found too difficult to the two Societies, which will no doubt have pronounce them as k, t, p, followed by h, further practical issues, is the greatest step should at least be given by k, t, p. The which has hitherto been gained. But that point of the scheme which involves most there are difficulties still in the way, some doubt and difficulty is that of final -m, and real and some imaginary, cannot be gainsaid; its discussion bas been properly placed in a and with these, so far as they concern the footnote. It is perhaps beyond hope that a
scheme' itself, we now propose to deal. It pitch accent will be heard on English lips, is frequently, if silently, assumed, that Latin but the hammering English accent night be pronunciation is not sufficiently ascertained so far mitigated as to allow the post-accentual to admit of the promulgation of a scheme. syllables to have their proper length. The This view is based upon an Un- desirability of giving the quantities is addoubtedly there are disputed points within mitted on all hands; but to do so properly its range. But they are comparatively few requires some patience and practice. To and unimportant; and no body of scholars, sum up: all that really can be matter of however chosen, who understood the question, doubt is the exact pronunciation of certain could draw up a scheme which would differ vowels (ē, 7, č, y), the precise value of u consonant which is in any case very nearly great majority of the sounds, or one which rendered by English w, perhaps also that of is actually taught in our schools to the the diphthongs ae, oe, and final m. In all classes that are learning French. other cases the correct representative is either actually an English sound, and this in the
J. P. POSTGATE.
ON SOME POLITICAL TERMS EMPLOYED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
(Concluded from page 8.) Δήμος, λαός.
Polybius ; but it was reserved for Jewish There are other political terms which are
lips to give the word a sacred significance conspicuous by their absence from the New
and a world-wide currency. Testament. Δήμος occurs only four times in
Έθνος. the New Testament. The LXX. never use it except for a subdivision of the people, "Έθνος, the correlative of λαός in the after the analogy of the Attic demes.' mouth of Hellenistic Jews, was a word that Δημηγορείν in the New Testament means to
any importance as a political term address a multitude, but not in a consti- until after Alexander. It was when Heltutional assembly ; thus Acts xii. 21 : ó lenism pushed on eastward, and the policy Ηρώδης ... εδημηγόρει προς αυτούς. Δήμος of Alexander and his successors founded occurs in the same passage (Acts xii. 22): cities as outposts of trade and civilisation, ο δε δημος έπεφώνει, Θεου φωνή, κ.τ.λ. Also that the contrast was felt and expressed in Acts xvii. 5: και επιστάντες τη οικία between πόλεις and έθνη. . Hellenic life Ιάσονος εζήτουν αυτούς προαγαγείν εις τον δήμον, found its normal type in the πόλις, and -in both texts it means multitude, or rabble. barbarians who lived κατά κώμας Or in Some .It is twice used in the narrative of the less organised form were έθνη Droysen Ephesian riot (Acts xix. 30, 33): Παύλου has illustrated this in his Hellenismus (iii
. δε βουλομένου εισελθείν εις τον δημoν, ο δε 1, p. 31-32). He cites e.g. Arrian, Indica, 'Αλέξανδρος ... ήθελεν απολογείσθαι τω δήμω. 40: Σουσίοις δε πρόσοικοι ότι εισίν οι Ούξιοι, We are however expressly told that this λέλεκταί μοι κατάπερ Μάρδοι μεν Πέρσησι was a tumult (στάσεις, συστροφή and not an προσεχέες οικέoυσι, λησται και ούτοι, Κοσσαίοι έννομος εκκλησία, νν. 40, 39), and it only δε Μήδοισι. και ταύτα πάντα τα έθνεα ημέreceives the name of εκκλησία at its orderly
και πόλιας επέκτισε and formal dismissal : και ταύτα ειπών (sc. του μη νομάδας έτι είναι, αλλά αρυτηρας και ο γραμματεύς) απέλυσε την εκκλησίας (ν. 41). γης εργάτας, κ.τ.λ.
γης εργάτας, κ.τ.λ. So in the great Smyrna We cannot be mistaken in supposing that inscription (at Oxford, C.I.G. 3137, line one reason why the Jews avoided the word 11): έγραψεν δε προς τους βασιλείς και τους dñquos as a name of the people of God' was δυνάστας και τας πόλεις και τα έθνη. So Teles because the term had been discredited by apud Stob. vol. ii. p. 66 (Teubner text) ένιοι the decline of Greek freedom, and the idea
και φρουρούσι τας πόλεις παρά βασιλεύσι of democracy could not survive in a political και έθνη πιστεύονται κ.τ.λ. (are employed by atmosphere wherein despotism prevailed. kings to garrison the cities or are put in Moreover oņuos was a term at once too charge of peoples). In Polybius vii. 9, technical, and too strictly civic to designate πόλεις και έθνη are contrasted repeatedly, and the members not so much of a city as of a we have also βασιλέων και πόλεων και έθνέων. nation. The word daós was just the word At the same time because Ovos was thus required. It had very noble associations in opposed to modis it was used not seldom for the past history of Greek life. It was a "a district united by a federal league.' So great word with Homer. Though rarely Polybius xxvii. 2: το δε Βοιωτών έθνος επί found in old Attic prose, it is a favourite πολύν χρόνον συντετηρηκός την κοινήν συμποwith the poets. It was familiar to Attic λιτείαν κατελύθη και διεσκορπίσθη κατά ears in the herald's formula 'Akoúete déw, and πόλεις. At a later date I find Ovos used for was perpetuated in social life through names the inhabitants of a Roman province (étap like Λαοδίκη, 'Αγησίλαος, which will always χεία) : instances may be found in the passages be found to carry a certain dignity with cited by Marquardt, Röm. Alt. iv. p. 374 them. . It was used by Plato and again by note, and in Wood's Inscriptions from the
Odeum (Ephesus), No. 1. These various of the 2nd cent. B.C. The word therefore uses of covos in the Gentile world are exactly before its adoption by the Jews, had formerly reproduced in its employment by the LXX. a perfectly neutral sense of convening' an and the New Testament. Usually it de- assembly, with a tendency as time went on scribes the pagan world, outside the Jewish to become appropriated to the assembling of Church. Yet it does occasionally stand for a sacred brotherhood. Once only in the the λαός itself: του έθνους του Ιουδαίων (Acts New Testament is συναγωγή used (if then) of X 22). In Acts xxiv. 3, 10 the shade of a Christian assembly, in James ii. 2, and meaning is ambiguous, and may refer less to then it refers to Jewish Christians. 'Erow. the nationality of the Jews than to their aywyn occurs twice in the New Testament, grouping into a Roman province; but verse in Heb. x. 25 of the assembling of the 17 is decisive: ελεημοσύνας ποιήσων εις το Church on earth, in 2 Thess. ii. 1 of the étvos uou. So also in Acts xxvi. 4, xxviii. reunion of the Church in glory. 19, and elsewhere in St. Luke and St. John.
Βουλη ) Έκκλησία. Next we must notice the names of public upon the LXX.; they never use it in a
The word Bovdý has a very slight hold assemblies in the New Testament, -ékkinoia,
technical sense : e.g. Ps. i. 5 : év Bovky συναγωγή, βουλευτης, γερουσία, συνέδριον.
Sukalw: 1 Macc. xiv. 22, in what purports Concerning the all-important word ékKAnoia I merely observe in passing that we
to be a letter from Sparta, τα ειρημένα εν ταις must banish from our minds all remembraneo βουλαίς του δήμου (!!). The title βουλευτής
occurs twice in a colourless sense in Job iii. of its etymology from έκ-καλέσαι (however correct in itself), inasmuch as the èKad noia notices that the translator of Job aimed at
14 ; xii. 17: and Dr. Field (on Acts ii. 24) always and everywhere in Greece was the
an artificial classicalism. In the New Tesreverse of an exclusive assembly. Indeed it
tament Boudy signifies counsel, never council. was the most inclusive word in existence for a constitutional assembly, embracing
In St. Mark xv. 43 Joseph of Arimatheia is all free citizens of full age, excluding only styled cúoxiuw Bovdevris: St. Luke (xxiii. aliens, females and äriyor. This is worth 50) says of him Bovlevins imápxwv. In both remembering in view of comments like that
passages the word appears to denote memof St. Augustine (In Ep. Rom. Inch. Expos. bership of the Sanhedrin ; but both SS. Mark T. ii. Pt. ii. p. 925): Ecclesia ex vocatione
and Luke are writing for Gentile readers.
Otherwise βουλή and βουλευτής were not appellata,'—a form of comment wbich I have met with occasionally in modern Cal
technical terms among the Jews for their vinist manuals (comp. Pearson On the Creed,
Sanhedrin, although we find in Josephus, Art. ix. cb. 1, § 3 note, where his good sense
Bell. J. ii. 17 & 1: oi te åpxovtes koi oi Bov
deural: and Ant. xx. 1 § 2, in an edict of and good scholarship do not fail him). The
Claudius : Ιεροσολυμιτών άρχουσι βουλη δημο Christian ekkinoia, if it is to be true to the
Ιουδαίων παντί έθνει. political origin of its name, must include all those who are enfranchised by Baptism
Γερουσία, πρεσβύτεροι, συνέδριον. unless they be excommunicate.
Why then this omission of Bovin and Συναγωγή.
βουλευτής, terms which designate the most Evvaywyn in the LXX. is nearly synony- important feature in Greek civic life? And mous with ekkinoía, see the phrase Lev. viii. why in their place do we find yepovo ia, 3: πάσαν την συναγωγήν εκκλησίασον επί την συνέδριον, πρεσβύτεροι ! θύραν της σκηνής του μαρτυρίου: 50 Numb. XX. Fully to answer this question would take 8; Josh. xviii. 1, etc. In old Attic ouvaywyn us too far away from our present object into was used of the convening of a board : ouva
the details of Greek political antiquities. It γωγής δε των λογιστών ή βουλή αυτοκράτωρ is enough to say that the βουλή, organised értw (Manual, No. 37): similarly év rộ after the Attic model, was the key-stone of πρώτα συννόμω συναγωγα των συνέδρων, 1.e. old Greek democracy. And as such, it was of the senate of Andania (Andania decree, naturally no favourite with the despotisms Dittenberger, Syu. No. 388, line 49: 1st cent. that succeeded Alexander. Antigonus and B.c.). In the Will of Epikteta' (2nd or 3rd Demetrius were the last potentates_who cent. B.C. C.I.G. 2448) ouvaywyn denotes the affected to be partial to democracy. From 'assembling' of the Oiacus or corporation their downfall at Ipsus B.C. 301, we may founded by the bequest. In C.I.G. 3069 date the destruction of free government in ouvaywrý denotes a díacos of Attalists (Teos) Greek cities. At Ephesus we know from
Strabo, as compared with the extant inscrip- In the New Testament the word is of frequent tions, exactly what took place. Lysimachus allowed the forms of democracy to go on as
Πρεσβεύω. . before ; but he established a new board, a
Some other New Testament words have yepovoía, and its influence was practically interesting political associations. Thus the dominant. We know nothing of the num
office of ambassador (opco Beia, Luke xiv. 32; bers of this board, nor of their mode of
xix. 14 ; peoßeów, 2 Cor. v. 20; Eph. vi. 20), appointment. We do not certainly know
was in everyday use in the intercourse what were their legal functions. Those who
between the Greek cities, and between them desire to read the best published discussion
and the kings. of this matter should consult the essay of
The word idcórns, though of common use in Greek inscriptions in the British Museuin,
classical Greek for a 'layman' in contrast now in the press, I have had to go over the
with the professors of any kind of art, yet ground afresh, and restate the question. My perhaps in the New Testament hardly lost results are these :
the memory of its political origin. (1) The Boudů all over Greece declined in Acts iv. 13, άγράμματοι είσι και ιδιώται 1.6.
not of the official class. importance, and became a mere honorary
1 Cor. xiv. 16: τον τόπον του ιδιώτου. corporation in the times of the Diadochi and
i.e. of the Roman senatorial government.
23, 24: άπιστος ή ιδιώτης. (2) The case of Ephesus is by no means
a member of the Christian éxkinoia, but an solitary. Not only at Ephesus, but in cities
ignorant one. all over Greece, we hear of a yepovola in
2 Cor. xi. 6: ιδιώτης τω λόγω Roman imperial times; and the presumption speaker.' is, that what Lysimachus founded in the
Κήρυξ. . cities of his dominion, the Romans deliberately It was reserved for the Gospel to give encouraged everywhere.
strange dignity and world-wide importance (3) The functions of the Gerousia were to the κήρυξ (κηρύσσω, κήρυγμα) a well-known probably, in the first instance, religious and subordinate figure in every Greek assembly, ecclesiastical. Thus at Ephesus, I believe in public games, or other formal gathering. the Gerousia to have taken in charge the revenues and general administration of the
"Εκδικος, εκδικείν. Artemision only; although from this vantage It has occurred to me whether the favourite ground its influence and power was felt in LXX. and New Testament terms ēKOUROS, all matters of civil administration.
εκδικέω, εκδίκησις (in the post-classical sense (4) At Ephesus and elsewhere it is abun- of 'avenger' &c.) may not be derived from dantly certain that οι πρεσβύτεροι and το the official "Έκδικος (compare σύνδικος), a speσυνέδριον
convertible terms with cial advocate (champion) of a city (Cic. ad γερουσία. Assuming these statements to be Fam. xiii. 56). The word is not uncommon true (and I think they can be proved beyond in the Graeco-Roman inscriptions; and the dispute), we have at once a complete account office of the ēKÔLKOS was important and freof the origin of the word Sanhedrin for the quently called into use by the Greek cities sacred council of the Jews. We also under- under Roman rule. stand why yepovola (Acts v. 21), and not
Δόγμα. . Bovdý, was its recognised Greek name; while οι πρεσβύτεροι are simply the members of the Abyua was not the regular word in repubyepovola. All these terms, so familiar to us lican Greece for a decree of the boule and first in their Jewish, and afterwards in their demos : the technical term was yýdloua, and Christian usage, had been commonly em- δόγμα (or rather τα δόξαντα, το δεδογμένα) an ployed before, in a precisely analogous sense,
occasional synonym. The following passage in Graeco-Roman civic life.
of Thucydides illustrates what I mean (iii.
49; when the Athenians countermand their Αρχων. .
cruel decree respecting Mytilenè) : Ý név I need say nothing on the word äpyov after έφθασε τοσούτον όσον Πάχητα ανεγνωκέναι το the excellent remarks of Schürer (p. 18 foll.). ψήφισμα και μέλλειν δράσεις τα δεδογμένα κ.τ.λ. He shows from Jewish inscriptions what the The instances of sóyua quoted from the use of the word in Greek politics would sug- orators by L. and S. s.v. prove no more than gest, that with the Jews oi õpxovtes were the this. In later Greek we find dóypati someofficial members, the executive of the yepovola. times for the decrees of the Areopagus, C.I.A.
jï. 687, 704, 7206, 8366, 687a. Occasionally decree, and to say the same by word of it occurs elsewhere, as in Crete, C.I.G. 2593 mouth. -2597; 3049 from Sibyrtos in Crete ; 1193 I may remark on two points of interprefrom Asine and Hermione in Argolis. But tation in this document. the special use of the word doyma was for a 1. γενομένοις ομοθυμαδόν is only a strong decree of the Roman Senate (Senatus Con expression for 'assembled all together' (so sultum, decreto Senatus) :
Acts v. 12 ; xii. 20). The decree is not the C.I.G. 2486. Astypalaea, B.C. 105. manifesto of a cabal or a faction, but a de2737a.
cree of the entire Church convened together. 3197. Smyrna, temp. Hadrian. 2. That rà aútá must mean the same as 2905. Priene, B.c. 135.
the contents of the decree following' is made Mommsen's Marmor Ancyranun, iv. 17, absolutely certain by a comparison of a comtemp. Augusti.
mon formula in Greek decrees : let me cite Hicks, Manual, 200, Miletus, B.c. 135. an example from a recently published decreo C.I.A. ji. 424, Attica, 2nd cent. B.C. of Prienė in acknowledgment of a decree Δογματίζειν is also found :
brought by an envoy from Alexandria Troas : Tà doypatiobevra of Senatus consulta, Asty- επελθών δε και Νικασαγόρας επί τε την βουλήν palaea, B.C. 105, C.I. 2485.
και την εκκλησίαν άκουλούθως διελέγη τοις εν τω doyuaritu to decree (honours), of a Greek ψηφίσματι κατακεχωρισμένους. Or this from a decree of Cyme, temp. Augusti, C.I.G. 3524. letter of Lysimachus to Prient: [οι παρ' υμών
δογματίζω in a decree of a θίασος (Naples, προς ημάς πρεσβευται 'Αντισθένης και οι συν late) C.I.G. 5785.
αυτω. τ]ό τε ψήφισμα [άπεδόσαν] ημίν Side by side with this political use of δόγμα, και αυτοί .... διελέγησαν παραπλησίως τους Ocyparito was their philosophical use for εν τω [ψηφίσματι γεγραμμένοις, εμφανίζοντες the plucita philosophorum, which needs no k.r.2.1 Instances of this kind I night mulillustration from me.
any extent. The words are used literally by St. Luke, ü. 1, Acts xvii. 7, of the decrees of the Em
Διαλέγεσθαι. . peror; and in Acts xvi. 4, of the decrees of Let me add that there is a large group of the Council at Jerusalem. St. Paul used the words employed in the New Testament which words in a figurative sense, Eph. ii. 15 ; Col. though not confined in secular Greek to the ii. 14. And he invents a new and startling language of politics, yet were so frequently meaning for δογματίζω, δογματίζεσθε – “decree- and systematically employed in public docuridden,' Col. ii. 20. The general idea conveyed ments, that probably their precise shade of by the word was a positive ordinance, eman- meaning can better be determined from ating from a distant and unquestionable inscriptions than from any other source. authority.
Such a word is διαλέγεσθαι, διαλεγήναι, Let me add a word or two concerning the dialexoîval, which occurs in the last two document issued by the Council at Jerusalem. quotations. In these instances, and many It is interesting to note how it conforms in more of the same type, dialéyouai has not the various particulars to the usual type of Greek sense of arguing or of conversing, but means public documents. It is a letter, introducing primarily to addressanassembly,ora king. In to the notice of the readers a formal decree; the New Testament, with the exception of though the decree is not appended to the let- St. Mark ix. 34, it always is used of addresster as was usually the case (cp. e.g. No. 200 of ing, preaching, lecturing, and these instances my Manual), but is worked into the latter por- are all from the Acts. tion of the Epistle itself. I observe the following points of resemblance to regular
υιοθεσία, υοθεσία. Greek documents:1. The salutation faipelv etc., only found I
may note that in Greece, before the besides in the New Testament in St. Luke's Roman Conquest, the custom of adoption had preface, in Lysias's letter, and the opening of become frequent. In public documents, St. James's Epistle.
phrases like the following are of common 2. The closing farewell : éppwobe (in Acts occurrence (I quote from a Rhodian decree xxiii. 30 omitted).
of the 2nd century B.C.): Eipaviokos Kal3. The preamble commencing with λιξείνου καθ' υοθ[ε]σιαν δε Νικασιδάμου.? When Επειδή.
St. Paul employs the word viobeoia in his 4. The formal word Soče, bis, vv. 25, 28.
* Greck Inscriptions in the British Museum, part iii.
section 1, Nos. 419, 402. 5. The sending of envoys to deliver the ? Ibid. No. 403, line 2.