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the e'iting of the Corpus Inscr. Lat., and the described in chapter i. Italy received for present volume is the first-fruits for general the first time a definite boundary, being proreaders of that laborious but fruitful task. tected from barbarian tribes and separated Without it no such clear and definite account from the great military commands by a of the provinces could have been produced, girdle of small procuratorial provinces reachand even with its help there is probably doing from the Maritime Alps to Noricum. one else who unites sufficient detailed know- Through these provinces ran the great ledge of the provinces with a mastery of the military roads which connected Italy both imperial history as a whole, to have guided with Gaul and the armies of the Rhine, but us through evidence so intricate into so clear they were not themselves garrisoned with a view of the subject. A chronological legionary troops till the time of Marcus history of the Provincial governments indeed Aurelius. Towards the Danube the vaguelywe must not look for here, nor do the avail- bounded and loosely-administered Illyricum able authorities suffice for such a work. The was replaced by three military provinces, historians of the Empire rarely rose above Pannonia, Dalmatia, and Moesia, and thie the level of court-chroniclers; above all they great river, from Carnuntum to its morith, never realised how the living development became the political, though not at once the of the Empire was shifting from the centre military, boundary of the Empire. On the to the circumference. Their allusions there- Rhine the policy of Angustus was less bold, fore to the provinces are scattered and frag- perhaps, as Dr. Mommsen inclines to think, mentary, and even such writers as Strabo or le-s really prudent. At least, it was inthe elder Pliny do not as a rule give us fluenced more by internal and financial exactly the information that we most want. considerations than by military and imperial Still some sort of picture, though vague and interests. For years the country up to the blurred at the best, may be drawn of the Elbe had practically been occupied by Roman Empire from the collective testimony of the legions, and even Roman law and adminisclassical writers. Weget from them animpres- tration were being introduced, when the sion, if no more, that the provinces during whole policy of the Empire, superintended as the first two centuries were on the whole it had been for nearly twenty years by flourishing, some of them indeed as they have members of the imperial family, was altered never been either before or since, that their apparently in consequence of a single military administration was efficient and continuousdisaster. In a sense no doubt this step was and their Romanisation in many cases com- • it turning point in the fate of nations, but plete But it is only by collecting scattered its effects were hardly felt for the first two notices and allusions, as well from the · Texts' centuries. Indeed the forward policy was to as from the often more valuable evidence of a certain extent renewed in Upper Germany inscriptions, coins, and archaeology, that we by Domitian and Trajan, a proceeding on are enabled, and that incompletely, to fill up which further light may be thrown when this picture, to verify this impression, and some German · Bruce' makes the Germin to trace the steps and stages of the develop- limes tell its tale. The chapter on the ment of the Empire. This then is Dr. Danubian provinces is perhaps the most Mommsen's aim. The work of the first three interesting in the book. This was the centuries was the ingathering of foreign critical point of the Empire, and as the elements into the Graeco-Roman civilisation. German armies after the first century were The necessary condition for this was the 'pax diminished, so those of the Danube were Romana,' which again was dependent on the continually being increased. It was here frontier defences of the Empire. The volume that the Augustan policy was for the first therefore naturally falls into two main divi- time modified by Trajan's annexation of sions. Chapters i., iv., V., vi. and ix. give a Dacia, here too that Marcus Aurelius, had chronological account of the frontier policy he lived, would have supported this outlying along the great barriers of the Rhine, Danube, province by Marcomannia, in place of the and Euphrates, and the relations with bar- shattered regnum lannianum, and Sarmatia barian tribes which shaped or resulted from in the valley of the Theiss. Whether this that policy. The other chapters deal rather policy would have saved the Empire from the with the inner development in civilisation, Gothic wars is perhaps a vain speculation : commerce, administration, and literature, at least, when the Illyrian emperors replaced which was going on meanwhile behind the anarchy by order, was proved that the iron barriers of the legionary camps.
* Roman state could still only be broken by The foundation of the frontier policy in itself.' the West as laid down by Augustus is On the eastern frontier Rome, since the
time of Pompey, was face to face with a of the provinces. Gaul, 'the land of learning great power, and here, more than on the and teaching,' is the producer of panegyric, other frontiers, the policy of buffer-states vers de société, and at last of pious hymos. was pursued. Of these the most important Asia Minor is the home of the Sophists sent was Great Armenia, and Dr. Mommsen out over all the Empire like lamps all of one points out more clearly than has erer been pattern. Syria produces epigrams, feuilledone before how the relations of Rome with tons and
Africa, once the Parthia hinged on Armenian affairs. There nutricula causidicorum,' at last becomes were three possible courses to adopt, to the seat of Church literature, while Spain annex it to the Empire, to relinquish it to alone entered thoroughly into the developParthia, or to make it a client state. ment of Italian literature. Curious too is Augustus, too cautious for the first, too the literary activity of Berytus, 'the Latin mindful of Roman prestige for the second, island in the sea of Oriental Hellenism,' adopted the middle course. The result was while the little towns in Galatia were continual friction, and more than once actual attracted to philosophy as the needle to the war with Parthia. Nero's government, con- magnet, and Bithynia in the second century sidering perhaps that prestige was sutficiently produced some of the best literary work of saved by Corbulo's campaigns, adopted the the Empire. On the commercial policy of second, insisting only on a nominal suzerainty Augustus and his successors the chapter on for Rome. Trajan characteristically took Eyypt gives us fresh and valuable informathe bolder course, and not only annexed tion. The expedition of Aelius Gallus was Armenia, but by extending the frontier to caused by the Arabian competition in the the Tigris, brought it completely within the Oriental trade. The abortive mission of Empire. This, in spite of Hadrian's with- C. Caesar to the East was partly to have drawal and occasional disaster, remained the repeated the same attempt, while Nero's Roman policy henceforward, and on the Oriental schemes and Trajan's Arabian whole was justified by its results.
policy looked also partly towards commercial Of the more complex contents of the other ends. The relations of Rome with the chapters it is possible in a short notice to Homeritae of Arabia Felix and the Axomitae glance at one or two points only. Of special of Abyssinia are a comparatively unknown, interest is the treatment of the various but not unimportant, chapter in its comforms assumed by the municipal constitu- mercial history, on which Dr. Mommsen tions established in the various parts of the throws considerable light. It is to be reEmpire. Gaul with its large tribal com- gretted that both in this chapter and more munities still existing, but centering round or less throughout the volume, the references their principal town or civitas, Spain with a to authorities, whether texts,' inscriptions, separate town-constitution for each small or coins, are so comparatively rare. The canton, Africa with its towns of Punic value of the book to students would have constitution, Asia and Syria with their been immensely increased if they had been Macedonian creations, retaining still their enabled to verify and test many of Dr. Hellenic government, Greece with its nu- Mommsen's statements for themselves. merous gradations of civic autonomy, helpless before a stroke of the proconsul's pen, and
E. G. HARDY. lastly, the coloniae and municipia gradually scattered over the whole Empire-all form a Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der striking example of unity of administration Indogermanischen Sprachen. kurzgefassle amid diversity of detail. The various native Darstellung der Geschichte des Altindischen, languages again received as a rule similar Altira ischen (Avestischen u. Altpersischen) treatment from the government, though Altarmenischen, Altgriechischen, Lateinilocal circumstances gave them different schen, Umbrisch-Samnitischen, Altirischen, histories. Thus, while all were restricted Gotischen, Althochdeutschen, Litauischen u. to private intercourse, the Thracian dis- Altkirchenslawischen. Von KARL BRUGMANN, appeared, the Celtic, Iberian and Illyrian ord. Professor der vergl. Sprachwissenretreated to mountainous corners, the Berber schaft in Freiburg-i.-B.
Erster Band. and Egyptian remained in general use out- Einleitung u. Lantlehre. Strassburg side the towns, while to the Aramaic even a Trübner. 1886. 14 M. literary importance was attached, as being the vehicle of Christian propaganda.
At last we have the first instalment of a Very happy and suggestive are Dr. complete official staterneut of the new IndoMommsen's remarks on the literary activity European grammar. The main principles of the neo-grammarians (junggrammatiker) fast theories, and when the facts will not may be taken as proved, and the time has agree with them, to add new developments come for an authoritative manual. To those and riders till the facts are taken in. If who still remain unconvinced that phonetic the Ptolem uïc astronomy had been content laws bave no exceptions, that reconstruction with a genial latitude of statement, it would by analogy is many times more common than have remained Ptolemaïc to the end of time. direct transmission, that Indo-European But it insisted on a fresh epicycle for every vowels were very much like Greek vowels irregularity, and its reward was the Coperand very little like Sanskrit vowels,—to such nican system. The saine thing is true of sceptics this book has no proofs to offer; the every science. People begin with rough proofs have come in the previous writings statements, from these they go on to precise which Dr. Brugmann enumerates in his long statements, and then make great translist of • literature.' But the book is itself a forming discoveries. Of course it is easier proof, to those who have any feeling for the to be wrong in precise statements than in analogia fidei. I cannot understand how rough statements; where you only profess any unbeliever can read it and fail to come to know one fact there is only room for one out an adherent. A coherent and detailed mistake, but where you profess to know ten system, following up all the facts and pro- facts there is room for ten mistakes. And viding for them within its own limits, must even when we are right, it is harder to carry be true so far as it goes. It may be re- conviction in comparative philology than in interpreted, enlarged, subsumed, even in- other sciences, because the matter is so verted; but it can never be abolished. delicate and so feeting.
It is well to emphasize that the new This first volume is an account of the grammar is not a contradiction but a de- 'phonetic laws' only. That is, it gives a velopment of the old comparative grammar.' list of the Indo-European sounds as far as When Georg Curtius talked about 'sporadic we know them, and an account of the form variations,' he did not really mean that they which they have taken, under all circımwere uncaused; he only meant that the stances for which laws have been ascertained, causes were undiscoverable. And when we in the oldest language (or pair of languages) talk about 'phonetic laws with no excep- of each group. It is this, and nothing else. tions,' we do not mean that we have dis- Schleicher used to strike the English reader covered all the phonetic laws and all the as wanting in general information,' but cases where their products have disappeared, there is much less in Dr. Brugmann. His but only that we have faith that they would introduction of nineteen pages is chiefly be discovered in an ideal system. It is one taken up with the definition of the languages thing to say that 'original gh appears in in question ; he just refers to the • Asia or Latin sometimes as h, sometimes as g,' and Europe' controversy, without expressing an another to say that 'original gh appears in opinion. He does, however, commit himself Latin as h between two vowels (veho) and g in favour of the agglutinative theory of after a nasal (fingo).' If after that we are inflexions, with no mention of any other confronted with fiyura, we call it not view (p. 14). "What we put together under exception, but a reconstruction for an the heads of word-formation and flexion earlier *fihura, on the analogy of finjo.' arose by composition, that is, by the followAnd if we cannot similarly unravel the ing process : a group of words which formed history of the 'velar' gh, or goh (why does a syntactical complex was fused into a unity, ngh appear as ngu in ninguit, but as v in in which the whole was in some way isolated levis ?), we have faith that something has as against its elements. This word-fusion happened below the surface; either the from the beginning onwards completed itself phonetic law is more subtle than we know, in the same way, as afterwards, in the age or an analogical product has extruded the
of separate languages (partly even in hisstrictly phonetic word. The scoffer might torical times) the final members of compounds say that this is only a difference of termin- became suffixes.' And then he gives the ology; and in one sense it is; but it is the instances of Indo-European ge, Latin mente, difference between the terminology which German heit, Irish mūr, becoming mere acquiesces in ignorance and the terminology suffixes in Gothic mik, French fièrement, which strives after knowledge. This is the German Schönheit, Irish buadhmhar. But justification of the 'pedantry' and un- he gives up the attempt to discover the practical doctrinairism' of the new method. origin of the Indo-European suffixes, only It is found in practice that the way to get allowing that some verb-inflexions may new knowledge is to have precise, hard-and
Quite rightly, Dr. Brugmann avoids the 4 7-series 0, ə, ū (da-d-más, sá-vos, siattempt to convert historical grammar into dw-ue) phonetic physiology. There are two pages 5 a-series 0, a (o ?), ā, 7 (j-mán-, ay-w, on the distinctions between 'voiced and voiceless,'
otpat-ay-ós) sonorous and noised' (Sonorlaute und Geräuschlaute), ‘sonant and con
60-series 0, 0, 7 (0 doubtful, odun, sonant'; and a line or two at the head of cřádns) ; each class of sounds, and a few remarks in where a is a neutral vowel' inferred the section on accents, and that is all. The from a Sanskrit i, corresponding to a Greek object of comparative grammar is historical, €, 0, or a, and 0 is the stage in which not physiological ; given certain languages, the vowel vanishes altogether. Then he which are interesting on literary and his- goes on (pp. 248, 249): We distinguish six torical grounds, to reconstruct their past gridation-series (Abla'itsreihen). . . . Athistory and common origin, for the sake of tempts have been made by many .. to adding to our knowledge of the peoples who systematise these series morphologically, spoke them.
All that physiology can do that is, to put together those phases out of for us is to picture to us the facts which we the different series which correspond to a establish from our documents; but physio- giren morphological category, e.g. to the logy can never give us our linguistic facts; root-syllable in the participle formed with and conversely, when we have our linguistic -to-, or in the indicative formed with the facts, we can state them without physiology. so-called thematic vowel. ... The investiIf we could not trace the physiological pro- gations instituted in this direction have not cess by which ns became the Umbrian f, the yet gone far enough to let us give a system fact would be just as certain, and the result
of gradation-series completely worked out on ing etymologies would be just as valid. this principle. And it is questionable Where physiology comes in, is in recalling whether we have a right to aim at the us to real life. In dealing with dead lan- attainment of such a system at all, in the guages, we are all in danger of becoming sense in which it is usual to do so. Several paper etymologists; and if we do not check strata of formations, distinct in their time our processes by actual phonetic reproduc- of origin, seem to overlie each other. In tion, we shall come back to the vowels tbat those which arose earlier, much may have counted for nothing and the consonants been obliterated by transference of forms that couuted for very little.' Even the before the new cause of gradation came into Indo-Europeans were human beings, and activity; and the later phonetic law which they must have talked like buman beings. called new distinctions into being did not But this physiological groundwork is not act in the same way as the older law or part of the matter of our comparative laws. In this case it is from the outset grammar; it is one of the natural causes by inpossible to expect that parallels can be which our matter is conditioned. There is found everywhere.' (Italics are the spaced every reason to study the physiology of type of the original.) speech, but no reason to put it into a book This is reasonable. But, in practice, about any given set of languages.
Dr. Brugmann commits himself (pp. 257, Of course, we have not yet attained finality 259) to Dr. Hübschmann's view that a is or unanimity. There are many poiuts on a 'weak-stage' vowel in bhames and si-stawhich it is possible to disagree with Dr.
first-high-stage' vowel in ago Brugmann. In particular, his general theory and aidho, so that bhū-mi bhames is like of vowel-gradation is a little inconsistent. ei mi i-mes, and aidho idhros show an He professes, very wisely, to enumerate the exactly parallel gradation. This may be different kinds of vowel-gradation which so, but in a professedly non-committed are actually found, and to take a quite treatise it is decidedly taking a side to omit agnostic line about their morphological all mention of M. de Saussure's vew that parallelism with each other. He gives gradation is always epsilon-gradation (subthem as
stituting e and o for his a, and az). M. de 1 e-series 0, 0, 0, 7, 7 (ta-tpòs, ma-tép-a, stitution) that idh and aidh are phonetic
Saussure would say (with the above subφρά-τορα, πατήρ, φρά-τωρ)
variations of the same weak stage, and that 2 e-series o, e, e, o (da-dh-más, hi-tás, the two high stages are eaidh and oaidh, τίθημι, θω-μός)
just as the high stages of bha are bhea and 3 ā-series 0, 0, ā, o (ta-sth-úsi, sthi-tás, όλοα (φαμεν, φάμι, φωνή). This is at least stā-men, fwrn)
possible. As to jmán- and its compounds,
mes, but a
which are adduced to prove that g: ag ::8:es,
that it would not be better to reverse the the demoralized vowel-system of Sanskrit order. The order of discovery has certainly can never prove that a vowel was left out in been grammar first, and phonetics after; Indo-European. But I am not here defend- all the brilliant discoveries which are eming the universal epsilon; I only insist that bodied in this book were made in turning Dr. Brugmann should have mentioned it. over grammatical formations. And in the On two other vowel-groups Dr. Brugmann order of exposition, whichever end you has taken the view which appears to me to begin at, you must bring in something from be against all the evidence. I cannot the other. Would it be any more illogical understand how he can give up the precise to say the accusative ended in m; the testimony of Greek and Latin to the root- Greek a and v represent Indo-European m vowels of ríbenev and åpetós, didouev and after a consonant and a vowel respectively,' TOTÓv, in favour of the colourless residuuni than to say, as the current method does, of Sanskrit. I should explain dadhmás and 'Indo-European m — after a consonant it hitás and their like, on the simple principle was a vowel, and is represented in Greek by that the Indians found a constantly dis- -a, e.g. accusatives in -a-after a vowel it appearing in places where it represented e, was a consonant, and is represented in Greek and so they got into a habit of leaving out by v, e.g. accusatives in -v'? The practical a wherever it came ; but in some of these advantage of the reversed order would be cases they re-inserted i as a connecting that phonetic laws coming incidentally in Fowel. This must be the history of pitā, be- grammar can be stated more concisely and cause no European language shews any trace remembered more easily, and have more of any vowel but a in the first syllable; in self-proving power, than grammatical formaétós—satus and dorós—datus, we have before tions coming incidentally in phonetics. But our eyes Indo-European vowels intermediate of course this is an objection to established in pronunciation between e and a, o and a, custom, not to Dr. Brugmann. which should be added, as M. de Saussure • Can this book be used by schoolmasters ?' has added them, to the Indo-European the practical Englisbman asks. It not only alphabet. Dr. Brugmann's a is a very good can, but it must. In conjunction with the vowel in its place, where it comes between a author's Greek and Dr. Stolz's Latin gram root and a suffix (uevetós, genitus); but it mars in Iwan-Müller's Handbuch der Klassishould be kept to its place.
schen Alterthumswissenschaft, it forms a Many parts of the book cannot be judged compendious and complete guide to until it is finished. On the treatment of į present knowledge of Greek and Latin (the i-consonant which English books call grammar. The two or three points on y or ;), for instance, Dr. Brugmann's state- which I have indicated a possible divergence ments have no claim to completeness until of opinion are only a drop in the bucket; he has accounted for the 8 and & which he no great harm will be done if a teacher will not accept as phonetic successors of į. takes Dr. Brugmann as infallible on all of On p. 202 (note) he suggests that the ad- them. If schoolboys are to be taught any stems may be t-stems in disguise, but only as comparative grammar at all, they must be an obiter dictum. The cd-stems remain, and taught it on rigorous principles. Everywhere the duo-stems, and the verbs in -[w. In the else in education we take pains to tie the next volume he must give an account of youthful mind down to precise, measured, their formation independent of ļ. Till then, verifiable statements; in comparative philo the ‘parasitic dental' must hold its ground, logy alone we are content with hollow as a possible explanation, for which future spaces planked over with the wordy ignoknowledge may supply the distinctive pho- rance which we call knowledge.' It is not, netic conditions. In the same way, all that perhaps, possible as yet to teach our more is said (pp. 256, 463) about the shortening minute and complicated formulae to schoolof the first element of the original vi, ču, boys; the immediate necessity is to get rid and similar groups, before a consonant, may of the old indiscriminate formulae. It is be true, but it depends on the treatment of better to say nothing about vowels than to formations like έψευσα, τοις, νηύς, φέρωσι, call them · Indo-European a,' better to leave about which Dr. Brugmann incidentally Bábos-Bévbos unexplained than to talk about expresses opinions that will require dis- nasal insertion.' It is to be hoped that, cussion in the next volume. It is a time- for the present, colleges will cease to tempt honoured custom, and it seems scientific, to schoolboys with questions on comparative begin with phonetic laws, and go on to pbilology in their scholarship papers; but suffixes and terminations, but I am not sure let me assure teachers that a candidate
NOS. JI. & III. VOL. I.